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Historical Society 


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hereby appointed to receive collections and transmit them to 
the superintendents at the several missionary stations, 
within the bounds of the Synod." 

Oct. 8. I have been informed quite lately that the wife 
of Pollard, one of our principal chiefs, has been much dis- 
tressed under pungent convictions of her lost and ruined 
state by nature. I was a little the more surprised at this 
from the fact that till within a few months past, her attend- 
ance on the Sabbath has been quite irregular. I have there- 
fore taken the first opportunity for a serious conversation 
with them both by going to their house with an interpreter. 
J expected to see [her] bowed down with grief and shame 
and in her own view ready to perish ; but the Lord had 
verified his declaration in her case, to a very remarkable 
degree, "whosoever humbleth himself shall be exalted." 
She certainly appeared to speak as a soul would speak, who 
is new-born of God. She stated, that after the missionary 
had been stated here, she was for some time brought to a 
stand, in regard either to the propriety or benefits of the 
object. She at length, from various considerations, came to 
the conclusion that the object must be good. She then went 
to meeting and heard the word of God. She thought it 
must be true and she pronounced it good. Her heart, how- 
ever, remained unmoved, until her nephew George Fox 
went to the Cornwall school. The object of his going there, 
and the way in which it was all brought about, all seemed 
to induce the belief that God was at the bottom of it. Still 
her hard heart remained in a great degree insensible, until 
George wrote them a letter, stating his safe arrival, that he 
was pleased with his prospects ; that he had not yet met with 
the new birth as he supposed, but that he hoped in God's 
own time he should experience it. This last sentence seemed 
to impress her mind in a peculiar manner. She thought 
much what it could mean ; but from what she knew of the 
Gospel she supposed it must mean that she must leave off 
sinning against God and live in a godly manner. It imme- 
diately occurred to her with great force, "if this be necessary 
for him it must be necessary for me, who am so much older 
and so much more accustomed to sin against that God who 


has given me my being and has supported me all my life 
long, notwithstanding I have so often rebelled against 
him." To use her own expressions, "the thought brought 
her to the ground, and she had no rest until she found it in 
Jesus ; and she knew he did comfort her heart, so that [her] 
eyes filled with tears of gratitude, whenever she reflect-, 
what a poor lost and ruined sinner she has been." 

Her statement affected me much, and although it is our 
duty to judge cautiously, it is nevertheless impressed on my 
mind, that it is the hand of God. 

Monday, Oct. 6. After the exercises of this interesting 
evening were over, we suggested to the chiefs present the 
propriety of their receiving Christian names ; inasmuch as 
frequently in our communications to our friends we are un- 
der the necessity of calling them by terms which had been 
given by some persons no doubt with a view to nickname 
rhem, and which were disrespectful ; and that if they chose 
to adopt the plan of receiving Christian names, I would fur- 
nish myself with a list and at some convenient opportunity 
would make an appropriation. The thing seemed to gratify 
them very much and they gave us their sincere thanks for 
this kindness and attention, and stated that they had always 
been sensible of the meanness of the manner in which they 
were commonly addressed by white people. They therefore 
concurred with me in opinion that a change of names would 
be highly advisable. They would choose first, however, to 
consult the rest of their chiefs, and return me an answer on 
Wednesday following. 

Wednesday, Oct. 8. The chiefs according to promise 
stated after our conference this evening that they were 
unanimous in their adoption of Christian names, and again 
expressed their high approbation of this attention of their 
missionaries. This evening received an invitation to visit 
the Alleganies this winter. 

Oct. io. For the first time since our location among this 
people Red Jacket has this day paid us a visit and given us 
the privilege of a short interview. He appears rather 
friendly than otherwise, but we are quite suspicious never- 
theless that his heart is secretlv at work in endeavors to 


execute his dark designs of mischief and opposition. The 
occasion of this visit was to meet the chiefs of the Christian 
party, on business of the nation, in which they wished some 
assistance from me. After the business of the council was 
finished, I had a good opportunity, which I had long de- 
sired, of a private conversation with young Jimeson, who 
officiated as interpreter on this occasion, in regard to some 
symptoms of indiscretion and unfriendliness towards the 
mission, which we thought we had discovered at several 
times since his return from school. He at once acknowl- 
edged my frankness and his belief in my good intentions, 
and w r as fully disposed to give an explanation of the cir- 
cumstances, which I had thought it my duty to name to him 
for his consideration. The explanation was satisfactory, so 
far as to induce a belief that the unfavorable circumstances 
alluded to were the result rather of inconsideration than of 
any particular evil intention. He supposes (I think incor- 
rectly) that some members of the family are not disposed 
to show him proper attention, and says his feelings have 
been considerably alienated in consequence of it. But more 
especially were his feelings injured in the treatment he re- 
ceived from the commissioners. "He had never/' he said, 
intruded himself upon their notice ; it was a matter which 
had entirely originated with the chiefs themselves ; but 
after their minds had been made up in regard to their pro- 
posal of him as teacher, he felt it his duty to give his assent ; 
but how were his feelings wounded when he found "that 
in the reply to the proposal, all the objection was that such 
a thing had never entered into the mind of the Missionary 
Society at Xew York, 'but that if hereafter any of their 
young men should distinguish themselves under their su- 
perintendence, they would have no objection.' In what 
other way, pray, do they get their teachers but by the certi- 
ficates which they produce? They never asked me for my 
certificate or enquired into the progress I had made, or 
asked where I had pursued studies." 

In vindication of what I consider to be a correct proce- 
dure of the commissioners I stated, the objection was valid. 
First, because he was an entire stranger to them in every 


sense of the word; they had no knowledge of his standing 
as a man or of his qualifications ; and considering the short- 
ness of time allowed them for their business, it was impos- 
sible for them to know anything definite in regard to his 
abilities. Second, that as far as they did know anything in 
regard to him they knew him not as a religions character, 
which of itself was a sufficient objection even had he pos- 
sessed unequivocal evidence of other necessary qualifications. 
I stated further that it was not the object of the Society 
merely to have the children taught the principles of common 
learning; there was a higher and infinitely more important 
consideration in view; which was, to have them well in- 
structed in the holy principles of the religion of Jesus Christ 
and of the Bible. How, therefore, could he suppose that 
they would be willing to trust such important concerns to 
the immediate instruction of one of whom fears were en- 
tertained whether he were not yet "in the gall of bitterness 
and bonds of iniquity." The argument seemed, I thought, 
to be well received by the young man, and led to the candid 
confession that if this were the more prominent design of 
the establishment he had been ignorant of it until now. The 
conversation was begun and carried on with considerable 
tenderness of feeling on my part, and was concluded with 
mutual expressions of good will and respect for each other. 
My heart's desire and prayer to God is, that these oppor- 
tunities afforded to a weak and insufficient instrument of 
appealing to the heart and consciences of individuals, may 
be blessed of God. eventually to the furtherance of the Gos- 
pel, and to the salvation of the persons themselves. 

Monday, Oct. 13. In conversation with our dear brother 
Seneca White (no name) today I have found that our sus- 
picions in regard to Jacket's apparent friendliness were 
abundantly confirmed. It seems that on last week he pro- 
posed to some of our young chiefs the following plan : 
That as they (the Christian party) had received the Gospel 
among them and were determined to adopt the religion of 
the Christian white people and fully to desert the religion 
of their ancestors ; and that in consequence they had ex- 
posed themselves to the delusions and treachery of the 


whites which would one day end in the overthrow of the 
whole nation ; and whereas, this reception of ministers and 
teachers of another color and another blood among them 
had divided the council fire, which had always burned 
among them with so many indications of kindness and peace 
from the Great Spirit, and that they had become divided 
by parties and torn with wrangling and dissension ; now, to 
rectify all these disorders, to restore peace and amity, and 
to rekindle the council fire of the nation, he had the follow- 
ing plan to propose, which, if they were men endowed by 
the Great Spirit with any degree of wisdom, they must see 
would effectually promote all these ends. 

The plan was this: They had sent one of. their young 
men some time ago abroad to school among the whites. He 
had been gone a number of years, and has now returned 
and in the opinion of the Christian chiefs themselves was 
fully adequate to teach their children all that was necessary 
for them to know. "Dismiss, then/' said he, "your present 
teachers. We need them not. Let them go about their 
business. We are able to manage our own concerns and 
need not their assistance. We have an annuity of $500 per 
year, which is for the benefit of the chiefs alone. This is 
commonly squandered and we are none the better for it at 
the last. We will give this to the young man (J. J[emison] ) 
for his salary. We will carry on the establishment in the 
same place where it is now, and on the same plan. We 
shall be at no expense of building. You have only to turn 
your present teachers neck and heels out of doors, and you 
have all the buildings ready to your hand. We have abund- 
ance of provision also for the children and we shall be able 
to have a respectable school without the interference of 
these malicious Black Coats, whose only aim is to entrap 
us with their pretended displays of friendship, that they 
may the more successfully practice their frauds and impo- 
sitions and eventually lay us waste forever." 

The young chiefs said but little ; promising to lay the 
subject before the older men ; not without previously pity- 
ing the ignorance and short-sightedness of the celebrated 
jacket in supposing that they could be at the expense of an 


establishment which in every point of view, must cost hun- 
dreds per year; and at the same time despising the craft 
of the man, for an attempt to pursuade them to dismiss their 
teachers ; and then give a fatal blow to all those praise- 
worthy institutions which have been so triumphantly car- 
ried on among them. We have yet to learn what the older 
chiefs have to say in regard to this offer. 

Dec. 25. This being the anniversary of our Lord's in- 
carnation, the people assembled at the mission house for the 
purpose of paying us a friendly visit. We had the unex- 
pected pleasure of introducing to the people our dear 
brother Air. Hanover Bradley, who had arrived but two 
days before.* They appeared much gratified with this re- 
inforcement and hoped he would find encouragement in his 
work. The children were examined on some parts of their 
studies and received some premiums from their instructress, 
Sister Bishop. This examination appeared very gratifying 
to the parents. After the whole assembly had partaken of 
some refreshment, an address was delivered them explana- 
tory of the occasion which had brought us together. 

Sabbath, Dec. 28. After meeting the chiefs gave us to 
understand that the following agreement had been entered 
into among themselves in relation to their children. They 
remarked that in future it was the wish of the chiefs and 
parents that the children should remain at the mission house 
one month at a time, without having the privilege of visiting 
their homes. It was also understood that the children should 
be admitted to the privileges of the school at end of every 
quarter only. We sincerely believe that with the blessing 
of our Heavenly Father this arrangement will prove highly 
advantageous to the children. We now have in family 31 
children, who are placed by the consent of their parents un- 
der our immediate control. This is an event for which we 
would thank God, under the impression that we shall be 
enabled more effectually by the grace of God to inculcate 
those principles which are essential to the redemption of this 
people from degradation and ruin. 

Jan. 23, 1824. Today the children leave us for two days, 
to visit their parents. The more constantly associated we 


arc with these dear children the more earnestly does cur 
heart yearn over them, and we trust the more ardent are 
our prayers for their salvation. Oh that He who once said, 
"Suffer little children to come unto me and forbid them not" 
may lift upon them the light of his countenance and guard 
them from the influence of temptation and the commission 
of sin. They have indeed, during the past month, merited 
cur approbation and have really secured our affection. 

We are much pleased to see the principal chiefs taking an 
increased interest in the school. Young King has proposed 
that some one of the chiefs call on us and lecture the children 
on the subject of obedience and fidelity to our commands, 
and we rejoice to think that they now faithfully do their 
duty in this respect. 

Lord's Day, Jan. 25. Our religious exercises more than 
usually interesting. Discourse from Luke, 24 125 : "O fools 
and slow of heart to believe all that the prophets have 
spoken." These words were appropriately addressed to 
some of our congregation who have lately manifested a dis- 
position, if not to join with at least to connive at the wor- 
ship of the Pagans. At the close of the service one of the 
members of the church was requested to pray. During 
prayer he became very much affected and burst into tears. 
As far as he could be understood he seemed to mourn his 
sins and the sins of his people before the Lord and to say, 
"Lord, forgive them, for they know not what they do." 
Solemnity and the most profound silence pervaded the as- 
sembly, and a number tried in vain to hide their tears. 

Monday, Jan. 26. The most of our interesting charges 
returned on Saturday evening according to orders ; a few 
have been quite unwell and their parents came and apolo- 
gized, requesting permission for them to tarry a day 
or two until they should so far recover as to enter upon 
the duties of the school. Today they have all returned but 
one, making in all a number of 32. They appear cheerful 
and contented, and their progress in their studies for the last 
two months has given us the most pleasing encouragement. 

Monday, Feb. 16. We have witnessed with no ordinary 
emotions for some days past, an increasing seriousness 


among our children. We think we have discovered at times 
a tenderness among these dear children for whose salvation 
we labor and suffer; but have never seen them so much 
awed by divine things as at present. On Saturday I wit- 
nessed an occurrence of so pleasing a nature that I shall be 
probably justified in giving a narration of it. 

As I walked out at eventide in the field to meditate, a 
short distance from our dwelling I met one of our largest 
boys retiring, just after the school had closed, into an ad- 
joining thicket. I asked him, whither he was going. He 
pointed his finger and said in English that he was going 
yonder to pray. As I stood conversing after a few minutes 
another came up and said he would go on the same errand. 
I turned away much affected with the circumstances, and 
walked below the hill in the rear of the mission house, to 
seek a place where I might give vent to my feelings, and 
beg of God to meet these dear children there, and fasten 
conviction on their tender hearts. The evening was marked 
by that soft and placid stillness which insensibly leads the 
pious mind to survey the works of nature and to look 
"through Nature up to Nature's God." I could distinctly 
hear the voice of prayer on several sides of me. As I ap- 
proached the house I saw a group of smaller boys on the 
brow of the hill, in perfect silence, while one was heard in 
an audible manner to address the throne of Him who said, 
"Suffer little children to come unto me and forbid them not." 
They were never more interesting in our sight than at pres- 
ent. May it please our covenant God to regard them with 
infinite tenderness. 

Monday, Feb. 23. On my return from visiting one or 
two serious enquirers, with one of whom I had a very satis- 
factory interview I was much astonished at the reception of 
the following note from the District Attorney residing in 
Buffalo : 

Dear Sir: A very pressing complaint has been made to 
me under the law which you have no doubt seen against 
your remaining on the Reservation. I don't see but that I 
must proceed to remove you but I advised a postponement 


till I could write you, but after a reasonable time to hear 
from you I shall be obliged to proceed. 
Yours respectfully, 

H. B. Potter. 
Rev. Mr. Harris. 

The time then has arrived when we must in all probability 
abandon our interesting school of thirty promising and 
lovely children, our beloved family must be scattered, and 
the buildings of our establishment left to the mercy of an 
enraged enemy. And for what is all this? Why it is that 
some of our judges may clear their consciences in not suf- 
fering every jot and tittle of the law to fail — a law framed 
by an Hon. member of our Legislature in 182 1 with the ex- 
press purpose of gratifying Red Jacket, a pagan and prof- 
ligate chief, whose bitterness against all exertions to reclaim 
his nation from vice and entire extinction is too well known 
throughout the country to need a repetition. 

I have seen the Attorney General, who says that he has 
determined not to molest us, himself ; but thinks it very 
probable that the judge will, on complaint being submitted 
to him. 

Wednesday, Feb. 25. Chiefs went to council at Buffalo. 

Thursday, P'eb. 26. Have heard from a friend in Buf- 
falo that all the necessary affidavits are finished and the com- 
plaint closed, for the inspection of the judge when he re- 
turns to the village, which will be in a few davs. He states 
that as far as he can learn there is no chance of remaining 
on the ground much longer. Oh that we may be strength- 
ened to endure this disappointment of our hopes, as Chris- 

Wednesday, April 28. Set out this morning with the in- 
terpreter to visit a young man of the tribe whose earthly 
career will no doubt soon be terminated. This youth has 
been lingering with a consumption for about two years, but 
has endeared himself to every member of the mission family 
by many little attentions which he has often paid us ; but 
more especially by his manly virtues and affectionate dis- 
position. He was the intimate (bosom) friend of young 


Cusick. during- his residence in the Seneca mission family. 
Few days passed but they were seen together, sharing largely 
to appearance in each other's affection. They were often 
known by the family to be deeply engaged in religious con- 
versation, especially when they met on the Sabbath ; and we 
may hope that the orderly walk and conversation of that 
pious youth before his death were blessed to the spiritual 
benefit of his now lingering- friends. Indeed he has told me 
that he should never forget to thank God for the many 
counsels and pious instructions of young Cusick. 

On entering his apartments I scarcely recognized his 
countenance, "it was so marred." He fastened his eyes upon 
me for a moment and without speaking a word, turned away 
his head and wept. He appeared rational, and comfortable. 
He conversed but little, but on asking him the state of his 
mind on the near approach of death, replied in nearly the 
following words : "I am comfortable, I thank God ; I have 
no fear of death. I think I have given myself into the hands 
of Jesus the Son of God ; he will not leave me. He has 
said he will receive all who come to God through him, even 
the chief of sinners. I am a great sinner, but my hope is in 
the mercy of God alone." During this conversation he wept 
again. He thanked me for so much pains, etc. 

Sabbath, [ ? May] 16. The Indians have called upon me 
to acquaint me with the death of young Jonas (the person 
already alluded to) and wish him buried tomorrow morning 
at an early hour at the burying-ground near the Seneca mis- 
sion house. "Alas, my brother!" 

Monday, i8th. I have been greatly gratified in witness- 
ing an instance of the attachment of this people to the in- 
terests of the mission and to those engaged in it. A few- 
days since I overtook one of the leading chiefs on the road, 
who said he thought it was too much for us to be under the 
necessity of losing all the improvements which we had made 
at the mission house. He had it in mind, he said, to pur- 
stiade his people to turn out and break up all the ground 
which we had enclosed on their land by us, put in the seed 
and give us the entire proceeds of the crop. To this ar- 
rangement the nation had acceded ; a considerable number 


turned out, and have now broken up and seeded of them- 
selves between four and five acres of new ground for the 
exclusive benefit of the mission. They seem to feel gratified 
in having it in their power to add their mite in the good 
cause; and as this is the first attempt of the kind by this 
people to assist us on a definite plan, I trust the Board and 
every well-wisher of Indian civilization will pray God, etc. 

Friday, Nov. 18, 1825. Have just returned from the 
ordination of a brother clergyman in one of the settlements 
bordering on this reservation. When I look around me and 
see the immense "moral wastes" that lie around on every 
side, it affords some relief to know that God in his provi- 
dence is sending forth into this wilderness one and another 
of his ministering servants, to sound the Gospel trumpet, 
and call upon sinners to repent and live. When shall the 
happy time come that shall find the untutored Indian and the 
more privileged white man embracing each other as breth- 
ren in Christ, and bowing together in humble worship of the 
adorable Jehovah! 

Sabbath, Xov. 20. Have been prevented by the sickness 
of Mrs. Harris and of the teacher, Bro. Clark, from per- 
forming my accustomed labors among the Cattaraugus peo- 
ple. It appears very evident that God is drawing near to us 
in the way of judgment as well as of mercy. We have been 
greatly prospered in many things since we have been per- 
mitted to resume our accustomed work among the Senecas. 
These foolish hearts have not sufficiently recognized the 
finger of God in all the goodness in which he passed before 
us. And now that he has laid affliction upon us. shall we 
complain? "Shall we receive good at the hand of the Lord 
and not evil?" Indeed, Sister Harris has been sick nigh 
unto death, but the Lord has had mercy. Bro. Clark has 
been confined for some days, and several children of the 
school have been compelled to retire to their homes, all af- 
fected with the same disease, the typhus fever. 

Sabbath, Xov. 27. Spent with the congregation at Buf- 

Monday, Xov. 28. Had an interesting meeting at the 
house of Col. Pollard, with a number of natives, men and 


women, who were yesterday requested to convene for so- 
cial worship and private conversation on the subject of re- 
ligion. It is after all one of the most interesting if not the 
most effectual means of preaching the Gospel to this poor 
people, provided my own soul is blessed with that sacred 
unction which is so essential to enable a servant of Christ to 
preach the Gospel either from house to house or in the "more 
publick places of concourse." 

Sabbath, Dec. 4. It was my turn in course to have spent 
this day in visiting the Tuscaroras. I yesterday set out for 
this purpose, but having previously acquired a heavy cold, in 
attendance on the sick, and on my arrival at Buffalo finding 
some indications of fever, after consideration of all the cir- 
cumstances, have felt it duty to postpone the visit. 

Tuesday, Dec. 13. Set out on Saturday last for Cat- 
taraugus with one of our largest and most promising mem- 
bers of the mission school, as interpreter, designing to spend 
a day or two, after the labors of the Sabbath, in visiting from 
house to house and in attempting to bring the truths of our 
holy religion home to some, at their own firesides. Our Sab- 
bath congregation, usually small at this station, was much 
diminished on this occasion, as I suppose by the depth of 
snow which fell on Saturday, rendering the cold very severe ; 
and as their place of worship is destitute at present of any 
convenience for fire, many no doubt were deterred from at- 
tending. The stated interpreter for some cause not ap- 
pearing, we could do little else than commend ourselves into 
the hands of him who is able to cause these "dry bones to 
live." An apparently solemn address was however deliv- 
ered by the youth who accompanied me, who seems to take 
great pleasure in religious duties. 

Went home with a number of the tribe to tarry for the 
night. Had a very interesting conversation with my host's 
family on the subject of the "one thing needful." Find that 
his wife and son-in-law are quite serious and enquiring. It 
was truly delightful to hold up a crucified Jesus to souls 
groping their way in ignorance and error. 

Sabbath, Dec. 18. Arrived last evening at Hawley's set- 
tlement, within three miles of the Tuscarora Reservation. 


near enough to enable me to meet with the Tuscaroras in 
season for public worship, after giving a lecture in the morn- 
ing to the people who are in the habit of assembling here 
for prayer and praise. The settlement appears very grate- 
ful for labors of this kind, which is a sufficient inducement 
of itself "not to be weary in well-doing," hoping that the 
seed sown by the blessing of God may fall on some other 
than the "hard and stony ground." They have also re- 
solved to make some contribution, as they shall be able, to 
the Society's funds. 

Found the Tuscaroras assembled for worship, about 'he 
ordinary number. Was enabled to speak with some degree 
of feeling, from Rev. 22:17: "The spirit and the bride say 
come ; and let him that heareth say come, and let him that 
is athirst come, and whosoever will let him take the water of 
life freely." As usual, they appeared to listen with con- 
siderable attention ; but whether they "be hearers only and 
not doers of the word" is best known to him who will judge 
every man "according to the fruit of his doings." 

It is a fact not to be concealed, that whatever this people 
have been in days that are gone by, and however much they 
may have benefitted by missionary labors, the prospects of 
moral cultivation among them are at present dark and por- 
tentous. So true it is that nothing but the overpowering 
grace of God can rescue fallen degraded man from despair 
and death. 

Thursday, Dec. 22. Today the children of the school 
leave us for a few days to visit their parents, having com- 
pleted the term of three months without calling to see their 
homes except on errands. Their deportment and progress 
have in many respects been highly satisfactory. \ isitors 
who have sometimes called upon [us] have expressed their 
agreeable surprise in finding them so tractable, and evincing 
so much accuracy in the rudiments of learning. 

Sabbath, Dec. 25. Have spent another Sabbath among 
the dear Seneca worshippers. The house was well filled, and 
the audience as usual was attentive and solemn. ( But oh, 
this stubborn, this relentless heart, it shakes not at the 
wrath and terrors of a God!) Jt does seem as if these wor- 


shippers were needing- nothing to make them happy but the 
genial influences of the Holy Spirit. I am satisfied, that 
human instruction and reasoning are of little consequence, 
unattended by the teachings of the Divine Spirit. Oh when 
shall the time come that shall find our souls earnestly en- 
gaged in pleading for the salvation of dying men. When 
shall we see these "hearts of stone" melting, under the sweet 
sound of the Gospel as by the breath of the Almighty ! 

Monday, Dec. 26. The children have all returned today, 
with their parents, who have been invited to receive a small 
Christmas present. The natives appear to think very much 
of attentions of this kind, and it always affords us pleasure 
to gratify them, when by so doing we are enabled to secure 
their confidence and place them in a situation favorable to 
the reception of the Gospel message. Several applications 
were made for the entrance of more children, but were re- 
fused on the ground that Brother Clark's hands are full, in 
attending upon the present number. 

Wednesday, Dec. 28. At a meeting in the evening of 
the young people for singing' and prayer, the interpreter was 
so affected in communicating the observations dropped at 
the time that [he] was unable to speak. A number ap- 
peared to weep freely. Oh that it may be the beginning of 
a refreshing day of grace. 

Thursday, Dec. 29. Attended the funeral of a girl who 
has been for some time member of the school. We all loved 
her much. We feel that God in this has come peculiarly 
near to us. He has in mercy spared the older members of 
the family who have been nigh unto death ; but has seen 
proper to call away this tender youth from our side. We 
hope this affliction will be sanctified to us all, in leading us 
to contemplate the solemnities of that day when ourselves 
and these dear youth committed to our charge, shall stand 
disembodied spirits in the presence of God. 

Fridav, Dec. 30. Attended a social meeting at the house 
of Brother Seneca White, with five or six individuals ; en- 
deavored to be faithful in commending to their consciences 
the excellencies of the Gospel of Christ. 

Jan. 2, 1826. Have just returned from my regular tour 


to the Cattaraugus Reservation, during- a severe storm of 
snow. Our congregation on Sabbath was larger than on 
any of the preceding. It was New Year's day. Preached 
from Ps. xc:i2: "So teach us to number our days that we 
may apply our hearts unto wisdom." Felt it was pleasant 
to instruct these poor ignorant people in the right improve- 
ment of time, but was humbled in thinking that my heart so 
much resembled the house in which we worship — cold as 
the dead of winter, without experiencing the benefit even of 
"a fire of coals" to relieve the general gloom. 

Monday, Jan. 9. Met with the Tuscarora congregation 
yesterday. Weather very unfavorable; small but attentive 
congregation ; tried to be faithful ; Providence appeared ad- 
verse. The snow melted and left me to draw home my cut- 
ter on bare ground.. An addition to a heavy heart — had the 
mortification to find that my horse had loosed himself from 
his post, and was under the necessity of pacing after him 
in a swamp through mud and water nearly seven miles, and 
then give up the chase. He was taken up by one of the na- 
tives and kindly brought me the next morning. Was hos- 
pitably entertained by a stranger, with whom I was induced 
to put up in the fatiguing search after my faithful but for 
the present obstinate beast. Retired to rest, resigned to the 
dispensations of that God who orders all things well. 

Thursday, Jan. 12. Have this day received the painful 
intelligence that our dear Brother Crane has been called by 
death from the scene of his useful labors on earth. How 
afflictive, yet how just! Surely it is the Lord, let him do as 
seemeth him good. Let us not rashly accuse "heaven's high 
decree." The language of this dispensation to the bereaved 
family as well as to the afflicted church is, "Be still and 
know that I am God/' He will still regard the interests of 
both. Thereby he will watch with paternal care over the 
orphan children, and bless the disconsolate widow. "Leave 
thy fatherless children, I will preserve them alive, and let 
the widows trust in me." The dear people of God will not 
see the righteous forsaken nor their seed begging bread. 
Friends of the Redeemer, sav to each of the little ones, "Thy 


Father lives," and to the broken-hearted mother, "Thy 
Maker is thy husband, the Lord of Hosts is his name." 

Friday, Jan. 13. Met with a number of natives, men and 
women, at the house of one of the members of the Seneca 
church. Found it was truly good to be there. Catechised 
two or three persons present respecting their preparations 
for an eternal state. One present who appeared unusually 
serious, gave me the following statement respecting him- 
self: "Brother," said he, "as you have thought proper to 
lequest of me a statement of my feelings, I will tell you the 
whole truth. I have been thinking for a long time back of 
all these things. I do believe in my heart that there was 
such a person as Jesus Christ on this earth ; and that his 
love to such poor sinners as me, must have been great or he 
never would have died such a cruel death as he did. Lately 
I have thought much on this subject. The way I do, to re- 
member God, is this : I go out every day, a little distance 
from my family and from among my children, and there I 
pray to God to take away my sins ; and there too with many 
tears I cry to Jesus to save my soul, for I am weak and can- 
not do anything of myself. I also pray with my children 
that they serve God. I am willing to give myself up to 
Jesus Christ to do with me just as he shall [see] best for 
me all the days of my life." While saying this he was much 
moved and wept freely. Another said, she thought a great 
deal about Jesus Christ and the cruel death he was willing 
to die for mankind. She tried to put her trust in him, and 
she was anxious that all her relations should do the same. 
For the evident feeling and interest of this meeting among 
all present, I cannot cease to give thanks to our Fleavenly 

Sabbath, Jan. 15. Met with the Seneca church and con- 
gregation for public worship. House well filled, audience 
very respectful. Discourse from Acts 17:26-28: "And 
hath made of one blood all nations of men for to dwell on 
the face of the earth, and hath determined the times before 
appointed and the bounds of their habitation ; that they 
should seek the Lord, if haply they might feel after him and 
find him ; though he be not far from every one of us ; for 


in him we live and move and have our being." After ser- 
mon, one of our pious chiefs arose and addressed his breth- 
ren on the sentiments advanced, and spoke with considerable 
earnestness on the importance of the subject. 

Friday, Jan. 2j. Went to see a very interesting young 
woman of the tribe, who appears to be failing fast with con- 
sumption. A year ago she was considered by us all as the 
most healthy and engaging in appearance of any of her sex 
on this reservation. Her sister, one of the largest and most 
promising members of the mission school, who is abundantly 
capable, interpreted with many tears, the substance of [our] 
observations. The scene was truly affecting. The afflicted 
woman lay reclining upon the foot of her bed, quite emaci- 
ated, yet retaining much of her characteristic sweetness of 
countenance. Her mother and sisters surrounded the bed- 
side, weeping; and after the little girl had communicated 
what I had to say, the poor woman called her to sit down by 
her side, and very indistinctly said, "I am willing to die, but 
I hope to get well because my father prays so much for me 
continually. I know what the minister says is true. I am a 
great sinner but every day I am thinking about the Son of 
God.'' It was truly pleasant to mingle my tears with theirs, 
and commit them by humble prayer into the hands of a just 
and holy but merciful creator. 

Sabbath, Jan. 29. Met with the congregation at Seneca. 
The audience was undiminished. I cannot but think that 
God was in the midst of us for good, enlarging our hearts 
and giving a tender and melting concern for the poor 
heathen. I could say, it was truly good to be there as a 
humble ambassador of the cross, holding forth the Word of 
Life to many who are groping their way in the darkness of 
spiritual death. Preached from the words, ''Strive to enter 
in at the strait gate," etc. 

Sabbath, Feb. 5. Met again with the church and con- 
gregation at Seneca. As the snow was deep and sleighing 
good, we had a crowded house. I may here remark that the 
congregation at this place is decidedly increasing. I dis- 
covered more strangers and others nominally belonging to 
the pagans than at any time previous. Preached from 


Ezekiel xi 119-22: "And I will give them one heart and 
will put a new spirit within you ; and will take the stony 
heart out of their flesh and give them a heart of flesh," etc. 
The observations made from these words were listened to 
with unusual interest. A very considerable feeling ap- 
peared at times to pervade the audience. Indeed my own 
soul, I thought, was stirred up to induce this dying people 
to accept of Christ. I was blessed with freedom to declare 
the counsel of God, with boldness, tenderness and deep feel- 
ing. I felt a confidence that God would accompany his own 
glorious truth with power from on high, and that our work 
will one day be found not in vain in the Lord. 

Wednesday, Feb. 22. The remains of the young woman 
above alluded to were this day committed to the dust. This 
is a dying time with this people. They have been greatly af- 
flicted with the prevailing influenza. Some have died of it, 
others of consumption. We have been called to attend Ave 
or six funerals within ten days. Among the number was 
another of the girls of the mission school, named Catharine 

Monday, Feb. 28. Met with a number of the natives for 
social prayer and conversation on the subject of religion. 
The place of meeting was at the house of Bro. Seneca 
White, one of the leading men in the mission church. The 
circumstances in which we met were altogether comfortable, 
and everything invited to a faithful discharge of my duty as 
a servant of Christ, to about fifteen of these heathen. And I 
cannot now cease to give thanks for the tender, simple, un- 
affected letting out of their minds on this subject. There 
was indeed some melting of soul among some, and I doubt 
not that God has been in mercy pleased to affect their hearts 
by his FToly Spirit. I felt it impressed upon me to state to 
them, that they well knew what my business was among 
them. I felt it to be business of immense importance to 
them and to me, and that we shall all most certainly find it 
so when we come to face each other at God's bar. For this 
reason it was necessary that the whole truth be told — and 
whether for or against ourselves, let it be told. 

One verv interesting young chief who though friendly 


to the family has never shown much attachment to serious 
things,' in answer to the questions asked him replied as fol- 
lows : "Brother, I feel it is a great enjoyment to meet with 
you all here, to talk over this great subject. For my part 
I must say that I have thought much of it for a little time 
back, and I cannot but think what a great sinner I have 
been. I have examined whether I have any prospect of a 
comfortable seat in the next world, and I find I have none. 
And among all my people it seems to me there is not one 
so great sinner as myself. I can do nothing more than pray 
Jesus to alter my heart." 

Another man who has been for some time enquiring on 
this point, on being asked to describe the present state of his 
feelings, said : "I was always in the dark until I heard the 
word of Jesus from time to time, and ever since I have heard 
it I feel that I have been a great sinner. I think however 
his word has given me light, and now it is a great satisfac- 
tion for me to believe that Jesus is my friend. I feel that he 
has had pity on me, and I desire to pray to no other but 
Christ." Although I knew that this man had been much ex- 
ercised in mind, I was not prepared to expect from him so 
full and positive a declaration of his hope, knowing that on 
former occasions he had spoken with so much caution and 
modesty. Yet he boldly and positively affirms "that Jesus is 
his friend." 

Another young man, who has lately been much afflicted 
with the loss of an amiable and interesting wife, said as 
follows: "Although I have not lived long in this world, I 
have lived long enough to be an unworthy sinner. I cannot 
look upon anything that I have done in all my life, that can 
at all be pleasing to God. I have lately thought a great deal 
on this subject, and the more I think of it the more do I find 
that without the strength of Christ, I cannot do anything. I 
wish to fall in his hands, for he is merciful. I wish to trust 
all I have to him ; and you may expect. Brother, that I shall 
not give over seeking his face as long as I live." Surely, 
thought I, "thou art not far from the kingdom of Heaven." 

After an interesting and most affecting statement by 
Brother Seneca White, of feelings which he had for long 


time entertained towards the word of God, the minister, and 
all the means which God had devised for converting and en- 
lightening his own soul and the souls of his people, the 
conversation closed with the old White Chief — or as we 
usually call him, Father White. This man is above 80 years 
of age, is a white man, was taken captive by the Indians in 
their wars ; has lived with them ever since, grew up to be a 
mighty hunter and great warrior, and is yet a sensible, af- 
fectionate and friendly old man, and has long been a chief of 
much influence. On being asked to declare his feelings on 
the subject he said : 

"I feel thankful to you, that you have thought proper to 
know the feelings of your old father, as it has given me an 
opportunity of expressing my mind on a subject that I have 
long desired. It is indeed a fact that I have lived a long 
time. I have long been acquainted with this part of the 
country and traveled over it a great deal. And God has 
blessed me with the good luck of letting me hear the only 
way of salvation for my poor soul in my last days. I can 
now look back and see what a wretched wanderer from my 
God I have been. How foolish and wicked have been all 
my tricks, in which I have spent so much of my life. I al- 
ways thought that there was something that I must hare to 
make my soul happy ; but what it was, or how to get it, I 
did not know. But now God makes it plain in the Gospel. 
I have there learned how the Son of God did, out of his 
great mercy, pity us poor sinners ; though he was once such 
a great being, yet he was willing to die the cruel death to 
save us ; and now I have heard how he tells us, if any poor 
sinner finds that he has a great load on his back, to come 
to him and he will make it light and easy. I find there is 
no other way for me. I am helpless, I know, if God leaves 
rne all alone, by myself I shall surely fail. But I do try to 
go to him for happiness. My wicked heart is very wicked, 
but God knows how to make it better, and I intend, by the 
help of God, to cast all my sins behind me, and I desire to 
give myself into the hands of Jesus to do with me just as he 
shall see best, for he knows what my poor soul needs. And 
even if in my last dying day he should even see fit to keep 


back this great blessing- which my heart loves, still my last 
look shall be towards him." 

Often during this conversation I was under the necessity 
of giving vent to my feelings, by the tears gushing from my 
eyes. Indeed, all were more or less affected during most 
of the time. What seemed to give most interest and pleas- 
ure to this meeting was, the undisguised opening of the 
heart with so much solemnity and feeling. 

Monday, Aug. 7. Have just returned with Airs. Harris 
from a pastoral visit to the Tuscarora nation. In accordance 
with the wishes of the chiefs before expressed I had de- 
termined to administer the Lord's Supper to the church in 
this place ; and on this account we left home last week 
much earlier than I had hitherto done. It had also been 
signified to me by the chiefs that as it had been so long since 
the communion was attended to by this church, nearly two 
years, there had disorders of a very serious kind crept 
into the church, which they hoped would be in my power 
to rectify before the communion. Common fame had ac- 
cused some of their brethren of very serious sins, for which 
they sincerely hoped they might be brought to an account. 
A meeting was appointed for Saturday for all the church 
and a notice in particular sent to the offending brethren. At 
the appointed hour the church assembled. The offending 
persons were all charged by their brethren with being fre- 
quently overcome by ardent spirits, which even led them 
into other gross transgressions, and further they stated that 
deputations from the church had again and again waited 
upon them to endeavor to soften and reclaim them, for 
which they were generally repaid by abuse. Being con- 
victed upon testimony of the charge laid against them, to 
vhich they generally plead guilty, it was resolved by the 
church to cut off three of them from their communion, viz.. 
the Chief George and his wife, and Elizabeth Basket. The 
ether offending brother, by name William Chew, manifest- 
ing before the church much of a spirit of penitence, and 
promising by the help of God to get the better of his sins. 
the church resolved only to suspend for a year, hoping that 
God might enable him to overcome all temptations that he 


might again be restored if he should prove himself a worthy 

Everything being previously arranged the Sabbath morn- 
ing dawned pleasantly and the mission church at the hour of 
public service presented an interesting scene. The pious 
few in the contiguous settlements, which are generally des- 
titute of stated preaching, understanding from the natives 
that they were expecting a feast of the Lord in their village 
today, pretty generally attended, and sat down with them 
as brethren in the Lord though known by different names, 
to our common Masters table. To me it was a privilege 
and a duty truly delightful to hold out to the scattered of 
Christ's flock in this thirsty hill of Zion, the symbols of a 
Saviour's death, and to witness with what tears of joy and 
thankfulness many came forward and received the tokens 
of his love. May it be but the foretaste of that joy which 
the pious shall enjoy when they shall come to join the 
general assembly and church of the first born whose names 
are written in Heaven and to an innumerable company of 

Sabbath, Aug. 14. Met with the church and congrega- 
tion at the Seneca station. In addition to the usual number 
of worshipers I perceived present a number of the pagans 
and others from different reservations who had arrived for 
the semi-annual council which is approaching. The house 
was full and crowded, and a more listening audience I do 
not remember ever to have addressed. My interpreter was 
a member of our mission school and a professor of religion. 
The solemnity which prevailed contributed not a little to 
increase my own tenderness of feeling, and I was enabled 
to plead with tears, that my poor auditors might repent and 
believe the Gospel. Some wept ; and some of the poor 
pagans seemed by their countenances to say, "What do these 
things mean, — thou bringest certain strange things to our 
ears." May their eyes be opened to see their necessity of 
salvation by Christ. 

Saturday, Aug. 21. Met with the Indians on the Cat- 
taraugus settlement. We had a thin congregation, most of 
them beincr in attendance in the council at Buffalo. Found 


Mr. Thayer reduced very greatly by a severe bilious at- 
tack. The Lord in mercy has we hope rebuked the disease 
and our brother though feeble appears mending. The school 
had appeared very prosperous recently, but must now be 
suspended for a while at least. 

Sabbath, Aug. 29. Went to the Tuscarora village on 
Friday. Met with the church and congregation at the usual 
hour on Sabbath. The congregation though small appeared 
devout. There has been at this station for a few months 
past a more than usual seriousness among some of the young 
people. Six or seven persons have appeared for some time 
to be anxiously enquiring the way to heaven. It has been 
my desire for some time to have the enquirers present at 
some meeting where I might converse with them personally 
and together concerning the all-importance of their salva- 
tion. I accordingly appointed a meeting for the church on 
Monday, inviting the seriously disposed to attend ; and at 
this meeting I was deeply affected with the indications of 
God's presence with us. Such appeared to be the tenderness 
of conscience, the deep and powerful conviction of the hate- 
fulness of sin in the sight of God ; the earnest desires which 
were expressed that it might be mortified, and their souls 
delivered from its power, that I could not for a moment 
doubt but that God had been among them by his spirit, and 
in the case of two or three "worked in them mightily." 
Some of these persons were so affected that they could not 
refrain from weeping aloud for some time. They say that 
when they converse on this subject they have such an awful 
sense of their past iniquity they cannot help crying out. 

The thought was deeply impressed upon my mind that 
the seed which had been so long sown and watered by our 
much-lamented Plrother Crane, would yet bring forth fruit 
to the praise of the Redeemer's grace. 

Sept. 25. It seems that our mission school is considered 
by the host of strangers who visit these regions in the trav- 
eling season, as a great curiosity, and with many we hope a 
matter of special and delightful interest. The proximity 
of our station to the village of Buffalo affords great facility 
of gratifying those who are capable of being wrought upon 


by the novelty of an Indian school. Scarce a day passes 
but several carriages stand at our yard fence loaded with 
visitors. Today the school has exhibited before about thirty 
persons, among whom we had the pleasure of counting the 
Hon. the Secretary of the Navy of United States* and suite, 
who expressed themselves highly gratified with the intelli- 
gent countenances and the agreeable and surprising pro- 
ficiency of the children. A young gentleman, a native of 
England, appeared so much interested as to stay the greater 
part of the day and left with the mission on his departure a 
donation of $10. 

Sabbath, Sept. 24. Met with the church and congrega- 
tion at the Seneca station. The people appeared to listen 
with much reverence to the word preached. After finishing 
my address to the people a young chief, a member of the 
mission church, arose and addressed his brethren in a speech 
of nearly half an hour's length. During this discourse he 
was affected to weeping. It was truly affecting to see the 
big tear roll from his manly cheek. He spoke as if he felt 
what he uttered, and it seemed that what he said had the 
effect to make others feel, for I perceived many around me 
wiping their moistened faces. This evening one of the 
larger boys of our school came into my room, desiring to 
pray with me ; he appeared in much distress because of his 
soul, said "he knew that he could never be happy till God 
changed his heart." The appearance of this youth has for 
some time, encouraged us to hope that God was striving 
with him by his spirit. 

Sabbath, Feb. 25, 1827. The exercises of this day have 
deepened the impression that God has come near to this 
people in a peculiar manner. There has been to say the 
least an unusual degree of attention and of feeling for sev- 
eral weeks past, and what the great Head of the Church in- 
tends for us Time will determine. We feel that present in- 
dications of God's special presence among this people and 
mission school are such as to constitute a loud call upon the 
members of this mission family, and all of us who profess to 
love God and the souls of men, to rise and trim our lamps 

* Samuel Lewis Southard. 



and to go out to meet the Bridegroom. Our Sabbath meet- 
ings for some time have been unusually crowded, so that the 
chiefs have ordered several additional seats to be furnished 
for the accommodation of the audience. The appearance 
of this people is extremely solemn. The text selected for 
this day's discourse was John xiv:i : "Let not your heart 
be troubled," chosen with primary application to the church 
in reference to some difficulties which had appeared ; and 
secondly, applied by way of contrast to the impenitent sin- 
ners who had no Saviour or Holy Spirit of God to comfort 
their souls ; none but an angry God saying to them, "Cleanse 
your hands ye sinners and purify your hearts ye double- 
minded ; be afflicted ; be afflicted and mourn and weep, let 
your laughter be turned to mourning and your joy to heavi- 

After a second address by the teacher one of the mem- 
bers of the church arose and appeared to speak feelingly 
to his people on the subject of their soul's salvation. I did 
feel to pray with weeping, that God would appear to build 
up his Zion, in the midst of this heathen population. 

Tuesday, Feb. 27. God is drawing nigh to this people 
in judgments as well as mercy. Today two of their children 
were brought to the mission house to be interred, suddenly 
cut down by the stroke of death. One of these was a youth 
of about 20 years of age, the oldest son of one of the prin- 
cipal chiefs of the nation. He was in many respects an in- 
teresting young man, but died without giving any satisfac- 
tory evidence, to us, of meeting with a saving change. He 
was greatly beloved by his parents, who mourn his loss in- 
tensely. The father, when the corpse was exhibited for the 
last time, went to the coffin and spreading his hands over his 
face, poured a flood of tears over the face of his deceased 
son, and then retired, weeping as he went, and seeming to 
me to say with David, "Oh Absolom, my son, would God I 
had died for thee, Oh Absolom, my son, my son." 

The other was an infant child of about a year old, be- 
longing to a young man in the tribe, who has indeed been 
sufficiently wicked and profligate in his life, although of a 
good understanding and of considerable education. This 


been called in a short time. God seems to have spoken to 
his soul in this dispensation loudly. After a pointed address 
from both minister and teacher, the father of this child arose 
and said : that he believed that every word wnich the min- 
ister and teacher had said was true, that he was an awful 
sinner against God and must icpent, and that God was 
justly punishing him for his iniquity. This address, ac- 
companied with weeping, instantly produced a gush of tears 
from almost every eye in the room. It was truly a melting 
season. He was followed by the chief who had lost his 
first-born, in an address of some minutes, whose utterance 
was often choked by the deep sorrows which appeared to 
overwhelm his soul. I doubt not but God's spirit was there. 
The funeral was uncommonly large, still and solemn as the 
grave itself. The father of the infant voluntarily knelt down 
at the mouth of the grave and spreading his hands over the 
coffin, prayed audibly in the presence of all the company, 
that God would watch over this infant's dust, and prepare 
him and his to meet him in judgment. Never did I attend 
an Indian funeral with such deep excitement as on this day. 
Wednesday, Feb. 28. We had again this afternoon a 
goodly number met together for prayer. It was our weekly 
prayer-meeting and conference. Several friends of missions 
were providentially present with us, amongst whom was the 
Presbyterian minister from Buffalo, with some friends whc 
encouraged the people, by telling them that he rejoiced 
greatly in seeing so many of them seeking the salvation of 
their souls ; that some sinners of the whites in his village 
were similarly engaged at this time, and hoped they would 
seek Christ together. My own soul I thought was drawn out 
with some meltings in prayer for this poor people, and I 
had reason to believe that every Christian present did feel 
that God was in the midst of us. I could discover some of 
our vicious young men, formerly addicted to drunkenness 
and lust, manifestly moved, having their handkerchiefs to 
their faces. We long to see God come down by his infinite 
spirit to lay hold of the hearts of sinners and convict their 
souls. We have some faith to believe he will. 


Sabbath, March 4. To us a most interesting- Sabbath. 
The minister being absent on a visit to the Tuscarora breth- 
ren, the exercises of the day were opened by the teacher in 
reading, the Sunday School singing and an address to a very 
crowded house, so full as that numbers could not be seated. 
He was followed by six others, who desired an opportunity 
of expressing their feelings. Some were the native mem- 
bers of the church who talked and wept as they talked. One 
was a pagan chief, and considered as one of Red Jacket's 
principal props. He professes to give up his paganism. 
Another was a youth of our school, about 15 years of age, 
who appears to have found Christ within a short time. He 
was one of the first members of the school that was awak- 
ened. Although it was the first time he ever spoke to such 
an assembly he rose up deliberately and made a short ad- 
dress, and then in a feeling manner prayed. Some of the 
other speakers were some of our young men, who on 
Wednesday were discovered as indicating much agitation 
and occasionally wiping their eyes with their kerchiefs. Oh 
this has been a day which has gladdened the hearts of God's 
people and we doubt not has produced joy in Heaven. 

March 5. Monthly concert of prayer. It was judged 
expedient on account of the numbers to adjourn from the 
school-room to the council-house, the place of our Sabbath 
exercises. One of the members of the church in Buffalo 
was present and made an address to the people. Several 
addresses were made and very considerable feeling was 
manifested. A request was finally made that if any were 
present who wished Christians to pray for them, that they 
should rise. Among others several women arose and ad- 
dressed a few words to this meeting which created much 
interest. Among the rest was the wife of the celebrated 
pagan chief Red Jacket, who says she feels she must repent ; 
that she is an old and wicked sinner, and wishes to be re- 
membered in the prayers of Christians. There is something 
peculiar in the case of this woman. She has for a long time 
had great struggles of conscience in conforming to heathen- 
ish customs, but she states she has done it out of regard 
to the feelings of her husband, by whom she was over- 


awed. She has recently conversed with him on her de- 
sires to become a Christian. He has told her plumply that 
the moment she publicly professes such an intention that 
moment will terminate forever their connection as man and 
wife. She has deliberately made up her mind to seek the 
salvation of her soul, and if he leaves her for it, he must go. 
She hopes to gain more than he has to give her. The sal- 
vation of her soul she views of far more importance than all 
that. The Lord Jesus she must seek and hazard all con- 
sequences. I understand that her husband has really ful- 
filled his threat ; and we humbly trust that he who said "He 
that loveth father or mother, son or daughter or husband or 
wife more than me, is not worthy of me," will strengthen 
her to take up her cross and bear it. She is about 50 vears 

Wednesday, March 7. The exercises of this afternoon 
were not without interest. Several members of the church 
addressed the meeting. Towards the close of the meeting a 
woman arose and expressed a desire of making known her 
feelings. She is on a visit from the Genesee River to her 
son's family who reside in this place and who is himself a 
member of the mission church. She stated that she had 
lived a pagan all her days until very lately. She had heard 
something of the Gospel, but knew not what it meant, neither 
did she believe in it. It was not till she came here to see 
her son that her mind became impressed with a sense of the 
danger of her soul. The first thing which had the effect of 
opening her eyes was the sight of an emblematical cut, ex- 
hibiting the heart of a sinner under control of the Devil 
and influenced by the evil feelings which he produced in 
this heart. After the representations in this plate were ex- 
plained to her by another, she felt at that moment and ever 
since, that she was the very person. She went the next 
Sabbath to meeting with a heart sorrowful indeed on ac- 
count of the load of her sins ; and there for the first time in 
her life she heard of a merciful Saviour of men who had 
come into this world to save just [such] a poor old sinner 
as she was. She entreated her relations to remember her 
in their prayers that God might please to have mercy en 


her poor soul. She thought with God's help she should fol- 
low on to know the Lord. 

Sabbath, March u. The council house was this day 
crowded again with men, women and children, listening with 
solemn stillness to the words of eternal life. Preached from 
Hosea, 13: 9: "Oh Israel, thou hast destroyed thyself, 
but in me is thine help." After the usual exercises of sing- 
ing, prayers and speaking, an opportunity was offered to 
all and every person who had a desire to express their feel- 
ings, to let them be known. Among those who spoke were 
some of the church, whose solemn appearance and lively 
Christian feelings were creditable to their profession. 
Among the speakers also was the young man who felt so 
deeply at the burial of his child. He had not spoken pub- 
licly since. He has been a vicious youth, but is now evi- 
dently stricken of God's spirit. Every look and intonation 
of voice seemed to show that God's hand was upon him. 
He spoke with great solemnity and deep feeling. 

The now repudiated wife of Red Jacket again arose and 
spoke a few words which were not distinctly understood, 
but what she said was accompanied with sobs and tears. 

It was again requested that those who were desirous of 
being remembered by Christians in their prayers, should 
rise; when 17 arose from their seats, among whom were 
several of our old chiefs, some of whom have long been 
addicted to habits of intemperance. With how much of 
sincerity they made this request is known only to God. 
Blessed be the name of the Lord of Hosts, for the assur- 
ance that "with God, all things are possible." 

Thursday, May 3. The native members of the mission 
church at this station were this evening called together for 
two reasons. The first was to endeavor to impress their 
minds with the importance of a suitable preparation of heart 
for the solemn renewal of their covenant with God, at the 
sacramental board on the Sabbath approaching. They were 
affectionately and earnestly admonished in regard to those 
feelings and views which they ought to cherish on such an 
occasion, both as it respected God and each other. The 
other was to consult with them on the propriety of inviting 


several persons to participate with us in the solemnities of 
that day, who have for some time appeared to give evi- 
dence of genuine Christian character. This interview was 
truly interesting and appeared calculated to draw out their 
affection to each other, and to promote each other's eternal 
welfare. They did not retire until a late hour, apparently 
under deeply solemn feelings. 

Friday, May 4. At the preparatory lecture this after- 
noon there was a very full attendance, increased probably by 
the expectation of hearing the examination of the persons 
above referred to, as candidates for the approaching com- 
munion. It was moving to hear the relations of some of 
these persons and to witness the humility and tenderness 
which appeared in their whole deportment. I cannot but 
hope that that God who searches the heart and tries the reins 
of the children of men will graciously regard this surrender 
of themselves to his service, and if made in faith and con- 
trition of soul, the desire of their souls will be granted. The 
number received from this Reservation was six, one male 
and five females, together with two who had arrived from 
the Allegany and whom the church had voted to receive to 
their communion during our visit thither last winter and 
who were baptised on that occasion. 

Sabbath, May 6. The mission church, consisting of 20 
native members together with the mission family have again 
been privileged in the good providence of God of surround- 
ing the sacramental board and commemorating the love of 
our infinitely exalted Lord and Saviour. Although the 
weather was cold and stormy the house was well filled with 
decently-dressed native men and women at an early hour. 
A number of men and women had come down from Cat- 
taraugus on purpose to witness the solemnities of this com- 
munion season. YYe do feel that it has been truly a refresh- 
ing season to us all. There were a number of the spectators 
who appeared deeply affected during the exercises. The 
countenances of many (though always grave) had acquired 
additional solemnity. The trickling tear was seen to glisten 
on the face of some, and the involuntary sigh seemed to in- 
dicate thev felt the need of that which these emblems but 


feebly shadowed forth. Long- may the impressions continue 
which the exercises of this day were calculated to produce. 

Wednesday, May 9. This afternoon the people met for 
the monthly concert of prayer. The interest of feeling on 
the subject of their soul's salvation remains unimpaired. 
Indeed the opportunity afforded at the close of this meeting 
of expressing their feelings, drew forth some affecting 
statements from a number, principally from Cattaraugus. 
The relation of their feelings was accompanied with weep- 
ing. Our souls feel strengthened to trust in God, to carry 
on his own work, which we trust the malice of wicked men 
or devils will not be able to frustrate. 

Sabbath, May 20. We have been much gratified in wit- 
nessing the eagerness with which the adults in the tribe at- 
tend upon the Sabbath school which by the brothers of the 
mission has been recently commenced for their benefit. Its 
exercises are attended to on Sabbath morning at the place 
of meeting. On entering the house you might discover 
persons of both sexes and of all ages with their books, striv- 
ing to learn to read, some taught by their children and 
grandchildren belonging to the school, others by the teach- 
ers. The school at present consists of 70 or 80, and is in- 
creasing. It is our intention if the Lord will, and pro- 
vided they pursue the subject until they are able to read, to 
attempt a translation of certain parts of the Scriptures into 
their language. This is an object towards which a number 
look with great interest. 

Sabbath, June 17. We are still encouraged to believe 
that God is carrying on his work amongst this poor people. 
I visited the Cattaraugus station last Sabbath with a number 
of the native brethren and sisters from Seneca. They had 
heard that a number of their brethren at Cattaraugus had set 
out in the good ways of the Lord, and felt anxious to en- 
courage and pray with them. We found that God was in 
the midst of them. The solemnity and attention to the great 
concerns of the soul are evidently greatly increased within 
a few weeks at this station. One young man, a pagan, came 
forward before the congregation on the Sabbath, and stated 
that he had in days past been addicted to lying, stealing, 


adultery and drunkenness, and everything that was bad, 
and that he could get no peace in his soul, until he had made 
this confession. He was directed to the Saviour of sinners. 
Eight or ten are indulging hope of God's mercy. 

Tuesday, June 19. We were this evening visited by 
about 20 persons, chiefly females, attended by the interpre- 
ter. They came to be instructed, they said, in the com- 
mands of the Saviour. A few seemed to be rejoicing in 
hope, others were but partially convinced of their danger- 
ous condition as rebels against God, and others were deeply 
sensible of their lost and ruined state by nature and practice. 
The deep concern and tenderness with which some spoke of 
the Saviour of lost men, truly affected and melted down our 
hearts. Oh that we had faith as a grain of mustard seed ; 
surely we should see the work of God go on triumphantly 
among this people. 

Monday, July 9. Have just returned from the Cattar- 
augus station, whither I had gone in company with a party 
of Christian Indians from this village to form a church and 
administer the communion. We enjoyed a very interesting 
and to me truly solemn season yesterday. A church was or- 
ganized of 13 members, including Mr. and. Mrs. Thayer. 
The statements of these persons in regard to their religious 
views and experiences were on the whole very satisfactory. 
The little chapel on Sabbath was well filled. A number of 
pagans of both sexes were present, to witness the exercises. 
All conducted themselves with the utmost propriety. Sol- 
emnity appeared to pervade the assembly throughout all the 
. exercises ; and much tenderness was visible among the mem- 
bers. The Lord grant that this vine may be one of his own 
right hand's planting. 

When I reflect upon what God has done for us since last 
January, at the stations of Seneca and Cattaraugus I cannot 
but adore that almighty grace which so far succeeded our 
unworthy labors. The hopeful conversion of 15 or 20 
heathen must under any circumstances gladden the hearts 
of God's people ; but here we trust the Spirit of God has 
blessed his truth before we have acquired the language of 
the [natives] delivered through an interpreter destitute of 


learning, and though seriously disposed is not pious. The 
seriousness at Cattaraugus commenced after the return of 
the Cattaraugus people from witnessing the exercises of our 
communion at Seneca in April. It was evident that God did 
make the solemnities of that occasion a means of extending 
his own work among the poor Senecas. Several were so af- 
fected with a sense of their condition that at the monthly 
concert next day they stated unasked their feelings with 
sobs and tears. From this time forward the seriousness at 
Cattaraugus spread rapidly. Cases of conviction for sin 
were multiplied daily, and strong indications of the opera- 
tions of the Holy Spirit were manifested in every meeting, 
and we hope that the good work has not yet ceased. A num- 
ber profess to have found peace in Christ, besides those ad- 
mitted to communion, but it is necessary that the greatest 
caution be used in dealing with these ignorant people. It 
has ever been our uniform practice to give them an oppor- 
tunity of proving themselves whether they be in the faith. 
Some of those admitted we had looked upon as pious for 
more than a year. The experience of the others appeared 
so clear and satisfactory that we judged it might conduce 
to their spiritual improvement and strengthen them in their 
resolutions to be for God by entering into a solemn cove- 
nant to be his forever. 

In a conversation had by one of these young converts 
with a Quaker, the latter stated to him his view of the work 
of the Spirit, under the similitude of a cord let down from 
Heaven, and attached to every man's heart ; and that when 
this cord was touched by the finger of God. the motion was 
invariably felt at the lower extremity. "It may be so," said 
the man, "but I still have my doubts whether that is just so. 
I have been a good deal accustomed to fishing. I have fre- 
quently cast in my hook, well baited. I have sometimes felt 
very certain after it has sunk from my sight that I felt the 
bite of a fish. On examination I found I had no fish, and 
the bait was undiminished. Now it might possibly have 
been a fish that thus deceived me or it might have been the 
Devil. So, friend, I am afraid the Devil has more to do 
with this cord you speak of than you think for." 


Another person, an old pagan, who is still an inquirer, 
stated that his first serious impressions were made by going 
to hear the minister preach on one occasion out of curiosity. 
The text was, "Come unto me, all ye that are weary and 
heavy laden," etc. After stating who made the promise and 
to whom it was made, he felt much surprised. He had 
thought always that the Bible was sent to the white people ; 
but now for the first time in his life he heard that this 
promise was made to poor sinners of every tribe and nation 
and to the very wickedest and the chief of sinners, if they 
would but repent and turn to God. And further the min- 
ister held up the book in his hand and said that this was not 
the only promise that was made to such poor sinners ; but 
that the Bible was full of just such promises to the penitent. 
"Then I felt," said the man, "that it was not possible for 
man to contrive to make such words as I heard that day 
from the Bible, for nobody but God could do it ; and fully 
believe that this is the Word of God and the true religion, 
and I am determined to seek the salvation of my soul till I 

August i. Again visited Cattaraugus. The religious 
excitement which has prevailed at this station for some time 
appears to nave abated in a considerable degree. The state 
of feeling on the subject of religion is however, still in- 
teresting. On Sabbath a meeting was appointed for Mon- 
day afternoon in a very remote corner of the Reservation 
where two or three families reside, at the distance of eight 
miles from the house of worship. There were about 2^ 
souls present, as a number had come from the settlement 
below. A woman at this place appears to be rejoicing in 
hope, who has a child perfectly blind of about seven years 
of age. While the mother was about answering a question 
which was addressed to her, her little blind boy requested 
leave to speak a few words to me. Leave being granted, he 
turned and said that he wished me to understand that he 
"lately thought much about his God and Saviour, and he 
was constantly praying that God might prepare him to die 
and go to Heaven," and then turning up his sightless balls. 
lay down in his place. The manner in which the child spoke 


these words produced instant weeping by all present. A 
number spoke their feelings after this, and the meeting be- 
came truly interesting. After spending about two hours in 
religious conversation and prayer the meeting was closed. 
On rising to return home the man of the house remarked 
that it was too far to go without some refreshment, and 
stated that the women had prepared something for us. The 
table was then spread with a very wholesome meal, of which 
we all heartily partook. It may here be remarked that this 
man has for years been addicted to drinking, but for months 
[MS. incomplete]. 

Sept. 12. Visited again the Allegany Reservation in 
company with Mr. Cowles, our assistant teacher and a small 
company of native Christians from Seneca and Cattaraugus, 
some of whom had resided there several years ago. They 
embraced the opportunity of accompanying us to pay a visit 
and attend upon the religious meetings which were expected 
to be held among their brethren. Word had been previously 
sent to the Alleganies that we were expected ; and prepara- 
tions were made for our reception (as their circumstances 
admit), among which we were all not a little pleased to find 
that a fat ox had the day previous been slaughtered, to en- 
sure a plentiful supply for our table. 

We did not reach the Reservation the first day, but were 
all kindly invited to spend the night. The people all seemed 
greatly pleased to see us. Our meetings were frequent while 
we tarried and at times quite solemn and encouraging. We 
were enabled to visit a number of families and have become 
better [acquainted]. On one occasion several men and 
women expressed their feelings on the subject and appeared 
truly affected with their condition as sinners, expressed their 
determination in the strength of the Saviour to repent and 
obey the voice of God in the Gospel of his Son ; which once 
in a great while they were permitted to hear, when the min- 
ister from Seneca took upon him to come and see them once 
or twice a year, or when some passing messenger of God 
felt disposed to convene them for such a purpose, which 
however very rarely occurred. On the whole I am satisfied 
that God is extending the knowledge of his truth among this 


branch of the Seneca family; and although now destitute of 
the stated exertions of any devoted missionary of Christ, 
there are individuals who appear to have truly set out to 
seek the Saviour of lost men. There is a missionary estab- 
lishment at this village by the Society of Friends, who in- 
struct a small school ; but they hold no meetings with them 
on the Sabbath or at other times. The natives of the Chris- 
tian party meet regularly on the Sabbath, sing and pray to- 
gether by themselves, and are usually addressed by one of 
the three brethren who belong to the church at Seneca. The 
Lord grant that some faithful, etc. 

Oct. 7. Yesterday our little church was once more priv- 
ileged to commemorate the dying love of Christ, at this 
place. There were some circumstances of peculiar interest 
connected with this celebration of the supper. Ten indi- 
viduals were baptised in the name of the Holy Trinity, and 
for the first time sealed their covenant engagements to be 
the. Lord's. The most of these persons we look upon as the 
fruits of the revival with which God was pleased to visit 
this mission the last season. These together with six ad- 
mitted last spring has increased our little church to the num- 
ber of 30. To suppose that all these are the redeemed chil- 
dren of God, regenerated by his spirit and sanctified by 
grace, is probably more than can be supposed of an equal 
number of Christians educated in the bosom of the Christian 
church, and living under the more enlarged dispensations of 
his goodness. But their deportment, their attention to the 
means of grace, their apparent affection towards the chil- 
dren of God and the Saviour of men, have in the main led us 
to hope that the most if not all are essentially acquainted 
with the truth as it is in Jesus. Much solemnity and un- 
affected devotion of spirit this day appeared among the na- 
tive members of the church, for which we desire to bless our 
covenant God, Oh that men would praise the Lord for his 
goodness and for his wonderful works to the children of 
men ! 

Oct. 25, 1828. Went to the Tuscarora village on Thurs- 
day by invitation from Mr. Elliot, together with two mem- 
bers of the mission family for the purpose of dedicating the 


mission chapel, which has just been finished, to the service 
of God. This chapel was commenced several years ago un- 
der the superintendence of our lamented Brother Crane ; 
but owing to the fluctuating state of the mission for some 
time since Mr. C's departure, it has not been completed till 
now. It was commenced by the Indians themselves but they 
were not able to finish it without foreign aid. This has been 
afforded chiefly by a gentleman in Rochester, N. Y. 

The day was uncommonly line for the season, and the 
seats were all filled at an early hour with red men and white, 
many having come from a number of miles distant. Rev. 

Mr. Parsons the elder from L and Mr. Parsons the 

younger from the Falls were present and took part in the 
exercises of the day. Preached from Genesis 28: 17: "How 
dreadful is this place," etc. After the sermon the com- 
munion of the Lord's body was administered to a large com- 
pany of Christians of different denominations who had 
flocked to attend this omen of good to the Tuscaroras. 

Thursday, Nov. 13. Plave just returned from the Cat- 
taraugus station, whither I had gone to attend a joint coun- 
cil of the church at Seneca and Cattaraugus, convened for 
the purpose of administering church discipline in the case 
of a man and wife, members of the church at Cattaraugus. 
As this is the first instance at either of the stations in which 
it has become necessary to inflict the censures of the church, 
the case, as might naturally be expected, excited among the 
Indians a great deal of interest. It was the request of the 
chiefs at Cattaraugus that some of the old chiefs at Seneca 
should come down to settle some difficulties which had 
grown out of this affair. The principal circumstances at- 
tending this case of discipline were as follows : A young 
man and his wife, both members of the church at Cattarau- 
gus, had of late so disagreed as in their opinion to be unable 
to live together. When this was announced, the church took 
up the subject and succeeded as was supposed in settling the 
matter between the parties, as to induce them to lay aside 
their animosities and return to their duties as Christians. 
They did so return for awhile : but ere long the flame broke 
out still more violentlv than before and attended too with 


very suspicious circumstances on the part of the woman. The 
reports which were in circulation made it necessary for the 
council to investigate the whole business from the beginning. 
After spending the greater part of three days and two nights 
in the trial, the council believed the individuals equally guilty 
of the offences which each alleged against the other and sus- 
pended both from the privileges of the church. As there 
were some circumstances of peculiar delicacy that were sub- 
jected to the council J could not but admire the caution, self- 
command and candid judgment exhibited by the members 
of the court. 

[The journal ends abruptly at this point, no continuation 
of it being knozvn.] 

Note. In 1831 there was published by the Massachusetts Sabbath School 
Union, Boston, a little book entitled "Letters and Conversations on the Indian 
Missions at Seneca, Tuscarora, Cattaraugus, in the State of New York, and 
Maumee in the State of Ohio." (24mo, pp. 112.) Though written for chil- 
dren in the old-time "juvenile" style which no child ever can have enjoyed, 
its many facts relating to these missions give it historical value. It appears to 
be based on letters written from the reservations, especially that on Buffalo 
Creek, by some one connected with the mission during Mr. Harris's service 
there. The work sets forth that Mr. Harris, with his wife, went to the Buf- 
falo Creek reservation in October, 1821, under the auspices of the New York 
Missionary Society, which that year united with the United Foreign Missionary 
Society. The mission boarding school was opened in the spring of 1822, with 
fifteen pupils. The mission church is stated to have been organized in April, 
1823; the church register gives the date as August 10th. Numerous inci- 
dents are related not mentioned in the Harris journal. One of them is the 

"In May, 1S23, after Mr. Harris had labored at Seneca about two years he 
attended the anniversary of the society under whose patronage he labored, in 
the city of New York, and took with him two little Indian girls. At one of 
the lar'fre meetings, Mr. Harris made a very animating speech, in the midst 
of which these children were introduced to the audience. It was unexpected, 
and the sight of them, hanging on each other's necks in all their native art- 
lessness and simplicity, raised such a tide of sympathy, affection and compas- 
sion for their whole tribe, that many tears flowed, and large sums were con- 
tributed for the support of that mission and school." 

When the law of 1821, prohibiting white men to live on the reservation, 
was enforced, Mr. Harris sent his scholars and their teachers to the Cattarau- 
gus station, came to Buffalo with his wife and took lodgings, visiting the 
Seneca mission often and preaching there on Sundays, so continuing until the 
law was modified, when he resumed his residence. In 1S26 occurred the "re- 
vival of religion" among the Senecas, when Red Jacket's wife joined the 
church. That chief continued hostile to Mr. Harris, but, when about to die, 
asked to see him. "His wife sent for him, but he did not arrive until an 
hour or two after the chief had expired." He died "like a true heathen; he 
charged his wife to put a phial of water in his hand, just before he ceased 



breathing, to prevent the zvickcd one from carrying off his soul." Red Jacket 
died Jan. 20, 1830. For the true account of the funeral, written by Mr. Harris, 
see The Missionary Herald, vol. xxvi. An erroneous account of Red Jacket's 
relations with Mr. Harris, given in McKenney's "Indian Biography," is re- 
futed in Stone's "Life" of Red Jacket, q. v. It was soon after Red Jacket's 
death that the Senecas became disaffected with Mr. Harris and he left the 
mission, June 28, 1830. His subsequent career is not known to the editor of 
the present volume. 

The enforcement of the removal law in 1821 occasioned much acrimonious 
discussion, especially in religious journals. In the Western Recorder, printed 
at Utica, an article, said to be written by Rev. M. P. Squier of Buffalo, 
charged the removal of the Seneca mission to the Universalists of Buffalo. 
This was sharply refuted in long letters in the Gospel Advocate, April 2 and 
9, 1824. The Advocate was Buffalo's first religious paper, or rather maga- 
zine. It was edited by Thomas Gross and printed by H. A. Salisbury. (Vol. I, 
January 17, 1823, to January 9, 1824; Vol. II, "Published by Simon Burton," 
January 16, 1824, to January 7, 1825, misprinted 1824.) Only one set of these 
volumes — that in the Buffalo Historical Society library — is known. 



Note — This list appears to have been made in 1879, and was found with 
other papers at the Mission Station on the Cattaraugus Reservation, 1903. It 
seems to contain some repetitions. 

Rev. T. S. Harris, 
Mrs. T. S. Harris, 
James Young, 
Mrs. James Young, 
Miss Phebe Selden, 
Miss Asenath Bishop, 
Seneca White, 
John Seneca, 
Tames Stephenson, 
Tall Peter. 

Col. John Pollard (chief), 
Henry Twoguns, died Jany. 17, 

John Snow, 
George Smith, 
Mrs. John Pollard. 

White Seneca (chief), 
Father White (chief), 
Samuel Wilson, 
T. S. Harris, Jr. (Indian), 
Mrs. Lydia Young King. 

W'illiam King. 
Mrs. George Jimeson, 

Mrs. Tall Peter, 

Mrs. George Smith, 

Mrs. Samuel Wilson (sister of 

John Seneca), 
Mrs. William King, 
John Snow, 
"Mother Seneca, mother of Sen 

eca White, John Seneca, and 

White Seneca. 
Mrs. Jenette Wilson (alive in 

Tacob Shongo, 
Wife of Tall Peter, 
Mrs. Robert Pierce, 
Mrs. George Smith. 
Mother Jimeson (grandmother 

of Wm. Jimeson), 
Lewis Twoguns (brother of 

Daniel Twoguns), 
Daniel Twoguns, 
Mrs. Red Jacket (grandmother 

of John Jacket), 
Mrs. Wm. Jones (mother of 

Wm. Jones). 
Mrs. John Snow, 
Mrs. "Seneca White, 
Mother White (same as No. 28), 
Mrs. James Stevenson (mother 

of Moses Stevenson). 
Big Jacob (Alleghany Res.). 



(wife of 


(father of 



44. Joseph Isaac, 

45. Mrs. Sally Twoguns 


46. Miss Hannah White 

of White Seneca), 

47. Miss Susan White (daughter of 

White Seneca), 

48. Mrs. Eliza Twenty Canoes, 

49. Mrs. Henry Twoguns, 

50. Mrs. Polly Johnson, 

51. George Silverheels 

Henry S.), 

52. Miss Lydia Moore. 


53. Young King (father of Jabez 


54. Jacob Bennet, 

55. Destroy Town, 

56. Capt. 'Billy, 

57. Reuben James, 

58. Miss Laura Black Squirrel, 

59. Mrs. Destroy Town, 

60. Mrs. Jacob Bennet, 

61. Miss Ruth Judd (Mrs. Jabea 


62. Mrs. White Seneca, 

63. Mrs. George Fox, 

64. Mrs. Logan (mother of Saul), 

65. Mrs. Polly Johnson (2nd), 

66. Robert Silverheels (brother 

Henry S.), 

67. Mrs. Sally Lock-wood (white), 

68. Mrs. Joseph Silverheels, 

69. Miss Rachel Grouse, 

70. George Grouse, 

y\. Mrs. George Grouse, 
■72. Mrs. Isaac Pierce, 

73. Chas. Fisher Pierce, 

74. Isaac Jamieson, 

75. Mrs. fames Shongo, 

76. Tohn Jacob, 

77. Miss Helen Robertson (daugh 

ter of James), 

78. Da-an-di Jamieson, 

79. Mrs. Jacob Blacksnake, 

80. Aleck Doxfater, 

81. Mrs. Aleck Doxtater, 

82. James Young, 

83. Mrs. James Young, 

84. Miss Mary King, 
8;. Miss Olive Peter. 

86. Miss Catharine V. King. 


87. Polly Dennison. 


88. Wilson's mother, 
80. Mrs. Capt. Billy. 

90. Wm. Jones (interpreter 

father of Wm. Jones'), 

91. Tosiah Armstrong, 

92. Mrs. Chas. (Ruth) Seneca 

03. Henry Sheldon (white) 

94. Mrs. Philinda Stiles. 

95. Miss Tirza Ann TToyt ( 

96. Mrs. Nancy (Levi) Wil 


97. Wm. Krouse. 







1 12. 






1 3 5 • 


Mrs. Lucy (Wm.) Krouse, 
Widow Wm. Armstrong, 
Mrs. Hannah Howard (white), 
Mrs. Nancy (Deacon) Isaac. 

Sylvester Cowles Lay, 
Lydia Giddings Krouse. 
Mrs. Nancy Sundown, 
Phebe Seneca (Mrs. Jabez Jones). 

Deacon Jacob Johnson, 
George Turkey, 
John Turkey (father of George 

Joseph Turkey (interpreter in 

M. E. Ch. son of 107), 
Mrs. John Turkey, 
Mrs. George Turkev, 
William Scott, 
Mrs. Harriet W. Jones (sister of 

Z. Jimeson), 
Mrs. Aurelia W. Bennet (sister 

of Z. Jimeson), 
Thomas Crow, 
James Turkey, 
Mrs. James Turkey, 
Aaron Turkey (cousin of 107), 
Miss Laura Turkey (sister of 

Aaron T.), 
Charles Greybeard, 
Mrs. Chas. Greybeard, 
Miss Martha Dennis. 

Miss Julia Pierce, 
Miss Mary M. Howe. 
Franklin Crow (son of T15L 
Mrs. Esther Baltimore (wife of 

Henrv Baltimore, 
Miss Abagail Silverheels (daugh- 
ter of George S.), 
Mrs. Lucv King, 
Miss Rhode Bates. 

John Thomas (colored), 
Mrs. John Bennet, 
Mrs. Wm. Scott, 
Jonathan Johnson, 
Mrs. George Jimerson, 
Mrs. Samuel Gordon, 
Miss Nancy Wilson (daughter 

of Samuel), 
Miss Belsey \V. Turkey. 
Mrs. Tames Spring. 
Miss Nancy Tallchief, 
Samuel Gordon, 
Tohn Jacket, 

Miss Martha E. Hoyt Cwhite\ 
Miss Mary Jacket (Mrs. Wm. 

Tones, 'daughter of John 

Mrs. John Jacket. 


Mrs. Saul Logan. 



Miss Lucy Tallchief. 




S. W. McLane, 

1 4 S. 

Mrs. S. W. McLane 










The following narrative of the life and adventures of Horatio 
Jones was written by George H. Harris of Rochester.- Having in 
view its publication as a volume by itself, he amplified the somewhat 
scanty personal data, by sketching the general history of the Six 
Nations Indians, among whom his hero spent the active years of his 
life. Could Mr. Harris have completed his work, on his original 
plan, this amplification would have been a welcome and appropriate 
feature ; but Death stepped in, and the researches which had cm- 
ployed such time as Mr. Harris could gain from his daily duties, 
through a period of some fifteen years, were but partly recorded by 
his pen. He had written out the life of Horatio Jones, down to 
June, 1 79-1. About a year ago the Buffalo Historical Society pur- 
chased the unfinished manuscript, and received with it the notes, 
correspondence and other papers which Mr. Harris had evidently 
designed to utilize in completing his history. From that material, 
and other sources, the editor of the present volume has endeavored to 
complete the story. 

The narrative, for the most part, is printed as Mr. Harris wrote 
it; but it has been found advisable to rearrange it, and to omit cer- 
tain discursive chapters which, although they would have been proper 
in the volume that Mr. Harris hoped to make, would be out of place 
in a series of Publications like the present, the purpose of which is 
to present new historical material. A genealogical chapter is also 
emitted, the data being presented more compactly, at the end of the 
narrative. One other chapter, which dealt witli the captivity of 
Sarah Whitmore, has been condensed, the facts oi that captivity be- 
ing more fully given in a separate paper written by a descendant of 
the fair captive of the Mohawks, who became wife to Horatio Jones. 




For most readers of this volume it is probably superfluous to 
state that Horatio Jones was a strikingly picturesque figure in the 
history of Western New York during the Revolution and the pioneer 
years that followed. As soldier-boy he was taken prisoner by the 
Senecas, and compelled to run the gauntlet. He was adopted by 
them, and took an Indian wife. He was made a chief, and shared 
in the councils of the tribe. No white man ever more closely allied 
himself with the Senecas. He lived among them for many years, 
serving as interpreter on many occasions of great importance in 
their councils and negotiations with the United States Government 
and with representatives of land companies. In 1798, in grateful 
recognition of his services, the Senecas induced the State to cede to 
him a square mile of land, now embraced within the limits of Buf- 
falo. With his fellow-prisoner, Jasper Parrish, who also received a 
square mile, his name has been coupled for a century, and the his- 
tory of land titles and deeds in the northwest part of Buffalo has 
many allusions to the *'Jom"S and Parrish tracts." Even more than 
to the Niagara region, the story of Horatio Jones belongs to the 
Genesee valley, in which he was a pioneer settler and where his dust 
now reposes. His career was one of great usefulness ; yet, important 
as he was in the history of so large a region, throughout many years, 
one may search in vain for any adequate records of the man's 
career. Mr. Harris appreciated this lack in the history of Western 
New York, and undertook, with a considerable degree of success, to 
supply what was needed. He appreciated too the dramatic and pic- 
turesque quality of the subject; and while he followed his hero's 
course with conscientious fidelity to facts, for which he searched 
indefatigably, he did not fail to bring out to the full the wealth of 
adventure and local color which more often appertain to romance 
than to matter-of-fact chronicles of history. 

George H. Harris was a corresponding member of the Buffalo 
Historical Society, and at one time a resident of Buffalo. Shortly 
after his death, in Rochester, October 5, 1S93, Mr. J. G. D'Olier pre- 
pared a memorial sketch, for the Rochester Academy of Science. 
From that paper the following data are drawn : 

In the year 1816, there moved to Rochester from Otsego County, 
N. Y., a Mr. Daniel Harris. This gentleman purchased a farm 
which included what is now Mount Hope Cemetery, and built a log 
cabin in front of where Mr. Ellwanger's residence now stands. With 
other children he brought with him Daniel Ely Harris, a boy of three 
years. Young Daniel's boyhood was spent on the farm, sharing the 
hardships and pleasure of pioneer life. 

In 1836, Daniel Harris married Miss Strickland, a relative of 
Agnes Strickland, author of "The Lives of the Queens of England," 
and a sister of General Silas A. Strickland. Of this marriage was 


born George Henry Harris, the subject of our sketch, in West 
Greece, Monroe County, on the 29th of December, 1843. 

During George Harris's early years his father was a contractor, 
which probably accounts for the fact that while yet a lad he had lived 
in Charlotte, Rochester, Hinsdale and Buffalo. His grandfather was 
also interested in public works and almost ruined himself on a con- 
tract to deepen a section of the Erie Canal, having to blast an im- 
mense quantity of rock not counted on. When George was a lad of 
twelve years his father moved with the family to Green Bay, Wis- 
consin, where he engaged in the lumbering business. As the boy was 
in delicate health the physician advised his father to take him out 
of school and let him run wild in the woods for a year. That year 
instilled in the boy a love of nature, canoe, camp and rifle that never 
waned while life lasted. It was always a pleasure to him to live 
over in memory those days, telling of the many adventures that he 
had with a young companion. Having regained his health he was 
apprenticed, at the age of fifteen, to a watchmaker. This man was a 
student of history, and without doubt it was largely due to his influ- 
ence that the boy's taste turned to historical subjects. Three years 
later he came back to Rochester and entered Pierce's Military Acad- 
emy. . . . As in everything he undertook he soon mastered the de- 
tails of military tactics, and in 1863 he joined Company K. 54th 
Regiment, in which he held the rank of orderly sergeant. When his 
regiment was disbanded he returned to Rochester, and his health 
again failing, he engaged in farming for a time, after which he went 
to Oil City, and in the spring of 1868 to Omaha. Here, after trying 
farming and storekeeping, he was appointed on the night force of 
the postoffice. In this duty he came near ending his career in a 
bloody adventure with a burglar. Later he was appointed first mail 
clerk between Omaha and St. Joseph. 

Trusting a friend to get out papers for a claim which he had 
taken up near Omaha, and upon which he had spent all his spare 
cash, he found like many another that the friend had played him 
false and had taken out the papers in his own name. Returning to 
Rochester he studied surveying and landscape gardening under Mr. 
Stillson at Mount Hope. 

In 1872 he married Miss Julia E. Hughes, and moved to Peter- 
borough, Canada, where he laid out and beautified the Little Lake 
Cemetery, which stands today a monument to his skill as a landscape 
gardener, being one of the most beautiful in the Dominion. Having 
finished his work in Peterborough he moved to Detroit, Mich., where 
he took charge of Elmwood Cemetery, but once more his delicate 
health stood in his way and he was forced to give it up. He then 
returned to Rochester. This was about 1877. ... He took up the 
study of history, reading everything he could get relating in any way 
to the early settlement of the Genesee country, as well as all works 
bearing on the Seneca Indians. He also took long tramps following 
up the old Indian trails and locating their villages, looking up old 
settlers and gleaning from them all they could remember of pioneers 
and pioneer life. It was most interesting to listen to him catechise 
some old resident, awakening memories by some incident of long ago. 
Mr. Harris made friends wherever he went. His gentle nature, 
coupled with a rare faculty of thinking about the little things of life 
endeared him to his friends and companions. A striking character- 
istic was his capacity for details. 


All his life Mr. Harris was a frequent contributor to the news- 
papers, and on all sorts of subjects. His best known work, that has 
made his name familiar to all students of our early Indian History, 
is "The Aboriginal Occupation of the Lower Genesee Country." The 
value of this work cannot be too highly estimated, containing as it 
docs facts gathered from old residents, with whom would have per- 
ished much that is of great interest, had it not been for the untiring 
labors of Mr. Harris. 

In Mr. Harris's terminology of the Genesee country he has left 
us a most valuable collection of Indian names. In tracing the Indian 
paths or trails that once crossed and re-crossed the Genesee valley 
like a network, he had a field of labor distinctively his own and that 
he excelled in it is witnessed by the following letter from the Honor- 
able George S. Conover : 

The Seneca Indians have long been aware of the great interest that 
George II. Harris of Rochester, N. Y., has manifested in resurrecting Indian 
history, and the energy_ he has exhibited in locating the sites of their former 
villages. On account of the remarkable success he has had in tracing out and 
locating the Indian paths or trails that once laced the Genesee valley, they 
have recognized and called him the Pathfinder. A letter lately received from 
Chester C. Lay. the United States interpreter for the Senecas on the Cat- 
taraugus Reservation, says that in recognition of so eminent an Indianologist 
as Mr. Harris has become, it has been decided to show their appreciation by 
adopting him into the tribe and bestowing upon him the name of Ho-tar- 
shan-nyooh, meaning "he has found the path," or "the Pathfinder." As Mr. 
Lay is of the Wolf Clan, it necessarily follows that Mr. Harris among his 
Indian brethren will be recognized as a member of the Wolf Clan, the same 
clan to which Red Jacket belonged. This is a well-merited tribute and 
worthily bestowed, as Mr. Harris has been for many years a diligent and 
painstaking investigator of early local history, and has won for himself an 
enviable reputation, being an acknowledged authority on Indian antiquities of 
the region around Rochester and the Genesee valley. 

(Signed) Hy-we-saus. 

Geneva, X. Y., February, 1889. 

In making researches Mr. Harris was struck' by the prominent 
part played in the early history of Western New York by Horatio 
Jones, his name recurring again and again. He was a man of good 
family, whose early training, coupled with a fine physique and won- 
derful powers of endurance, eminently fitted him for the remarkable 
sequence of adventures through which he passed. Running away 
from home when a boy, to fight the Indians, he was captured, made 
to run the gauntlet and finally adopted by a Seneca family. Becom- 
ing master of the language and customs, he obtained the entire con- 
fidence and esteem of the Indians and figured prominently in many 
important treaties as interpreter. Indeed Mr. Harris found this man 
to be so woven into the early history of the country that he became 
impressed with the idea of making him the grand figure around 
which to group the many startling scenes of early times. . . . Be- 
fore he laid down his pen forever he had brought his hero down to 
a point where everything of historical value had been recorded, and 
it only required a few closing scenes to have the work ready for pub- 
lication. Mr. Harris left many other manuscripts which, when com- 
piled, will undoubtedly be of much public interest. . . . 

Mr. Harris was an honorary member oi the Buffalo, Waterloo, 
and Livingston County Historical Societies, and an active member of 
the Rochester Academy of Science, the Rochester Historical Society, 
and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. 


I. The Capture. 

In Western New York have occurred some of the most 
thrilling episodes of American history. The home of the 
fiercest of the Iroquois, it was early visited by the Jesuit and 
courciir de bois, the French explorer and invader, the scout 
and ranger. Among its pioneer population were men whose 
reckless daring furnished themes for song and story. Of 
the number Horatio Jones stood preeminent. His captivity, 
his conspicuous and picturesque career in the pioneer days 
of the Genesee Valley, and the region west to Lake Erie 
and the Niagara, his valuable services as interpreter and 
agent for the United States Government during its nego- 
tiations with the native owners of the soil, made him an im- 
portant factor of the history of Western New York during 
the troublous times in which he lived. He was of Welsh 
ancestry, a descendant of the Rev. Malachi Jones who im- 
migrated to America and settled at Abington, 14 miles north 
of Philadelphia, about 17 14.* Horatio, the subject of this 
sketch, was the first child of William and Elizabeth (Hun- 
ter) Jones, and was born at Downington, Pa., Nov., 1763. 
William Jones, by trade a gunsmith, was a believer in the 
value of physical training; consequently, Ploratio received 
the personal instructions of his father and early led his com- 
rades in wrestling, riding, quoits, casting the sledge and 

* Further genealogical data will be found in a subsequent chapter, at the 
close of the narrative. 



other sports of the period. He was especially fleet in run- 
ning'. Unlike his brothers and sisters, Horatio had no great 
love for books and acquired only the rudiments of English. 
The influences of a refined home and intellectual associa- 
tions left marks upon his manner and speech that were not 
obliterated in the years passed with rude, unlettered men. 
During his long life his language was correct and in his in- 
tercourse with those about him his bearing was indicative 
of gentle breeding. 

In the workshop Horatio grew proficient in the use of 
tools, became an excellent mechanic, and though a mere 
youth, was assigned the difficult task of sighting the guns 
brought to his father for repairs. He thus became more 
skillful in the handling of arms than most men of the dis- 
trict. This mechanical and physical training and experi- 
ence in woodcraft proved of great value to him in later 
days, while among the savages. From the soldiers and 
scouts who frequented his father's shop he gleaned facts 
regarding the nature and customs of the Indians that aided 
him greatlv when he became associated with them in daily 

Bedford County, Pennsylvania, was erected from Cum- 
berland in 1770 and included all the northwestern part of 
the State. At the opening of the Revolution John Piper 
of Yellow Creek was appointed commandant of the county 
with the rank of lieutenant colonel. In 1777 he raised a 
regiment of minute men for home service. When the first 
Indian forays were made in P>edford County the inhabitants 
adopted means of defence. In place of Fort Bedford, which 
had been demolished several years previously, a stout stock- 
ade called Fetler's fort was erected at Frankstown on the 
Juniata, and smaller forts were erected in various localities. 
Fetler's fort was occupied by troops and termed the Franks- 
town garrison. In the spring of 17S1, in consequence of the 
frequent depredations of the Indians, a body of Cumberland 
County militia, variously estimated at thirty-five to seventy- 
five, under command of Colonel Albright and Capt. Brown, 
were sent to Frankstown. Instead of scouring the country 
to discover the encmv the soldiers remained in garrison. In- 


dian outrages continued and County Lieutenant Albright ad- 
vised the settlers to organize a scouting party, promising to 
assist them with the Bedford Rangers. 

The quasi-military life in which Horatio Jones passed 
his boyhood fostered a natural love for adventure and he 
looked forward impatiently to the time when he could bear 
arms as a profession. In 1777 he joined one of Col. Piper's 
companies of minute men as fifer and served one winter in 
camp. In his sixteenth year he enlisted in the Bedford 
Rangers, performing some service as a scout. When off 
duty he worked in his father's shop. 

About the last of May, 1781, Capt. Boyd, then command- 
ing the rangers, ordered a company to assemble for the pur- 
pose of joining the Frankstown scouts. Indian signs were 
being discovered and it was thought the scouts would have 
to do some fighting before they returned. 

To Horatio's surprise his father objected to his accom- 
panying the rangers on this occasion. The father thought 
him too young and that he would furnish one more scalp for 
the Indians. Horatio was greatly mortified at the unex- 
pected edict, as he thought himself the equal save in age of 
several men in this company. He considered the refusal of 
his father based upon a regard for his personal safety. To 
the hot-headed youth it seemed cowardly to remain behind, 
when others were going into peril for the protection of his 
home. He thought it improbable that his father would re- 
call him if he were fairly started. When the battle was 
over and he returned, public sentiment would approve his 
act. He decided to join the outgoing company and face 
parental displeasure. 

A word now as to existing conditions in Western Xew 
York, with which our hero is soon to be concerned. 

The "door of the long-house," or most western town of 
the Senecas prior to the Revolution, was located upon the 
present (1893) farm of Alonzo A. Arnold, in the town of 
Caneadea, on the east bank of the Genesee, some thirty 
miles above Little Beard's Town. The locative title of the 
place was Gah-ne-ya-de-o, "where the heavens rest or lean 
upon the earth," since corrupted to Caneadea. The heredit- 


ary military sachem of the Iroquois league, Do-ne-ho-ga- 
weh, or "open door," had his residence there. The person 
bearing this title at the beginning of the Revolution was an 
aged man, who had in his early manhood taken the name of 
a white friend, Hutson, commonly called Hudson. It was 
a habit among the whites when they could not easily 
pronounce the Indian name of a chief to call him John ; 
hence John Hudson, John Blacksmith, John Luke, John 
Abeel, Johnny John and a score of others. They in time 
lost their native designations. After this Seneca sachem 
became known as a military leader he was called Capt. 
Hudson. It is said he knew every hill and valley and stream 
of the section of Xew York and Pennsylvania lying be- 
tween the Senecas on the Genesee and Alleghany, and the 
settlements of the whites on the Susquehanna in the same 
states. About 1770 Hudson's eldest son sickened and died 
and the second son of the sachem became the eldest of the 
family. He was known as Hah-yen-de-seh, "Dragging 
Wood," or "Hemlock Carrier." In the first campaigns of 
the Revolution he won rank as a chieftain of note. It is 
now impossible to distinguish the deeds of the old sachem 
from those of his son in the early years of the war. 

The second chief at Caneadea in 1779 was Gah-nee- 
scngo, "Man fond of berries." He and Hah-yen-de-seh had 
been friends from childhood, inseparable companions in peace 
and war, won their honors together and now ranked equally 
as chiefs. Gah-ne-songo was a dignified man of powerful 
frame and great strength. The British officers with whom 
he often associated, abbreviated his name to Shongo and 
after the Revolution he was termed Col. Shongo.* 

Among the British adherents at Fort Niagara was a 
Capt. Nelles. In the same company with him was Lieut. 
Robert Nelles, his son. Early in the spring of 1781 Col. 
Butler ordered Nelles with his company to the Genesee. 
Marching to Gah-an-o-deo he procured a log house, took 
an Indian wife and set up housekeeping in primitive style. 

Not caring for the fatigue and discomforts of a forest march. 

* His descendants now reside on the Cattaraugus Reservation, and in Buf- 


at that season of the year, Capt. Nelles placed a platoon of 
men under the command of his son and rallied the Indians 
under the lieutenant in an expedition to Pennsylvania to cut 
off bodies of continental troops passing between the Sus- 
quehanna and Ohio rivers. Hey-en-de-seh had changed his 
residence to a town afterwards known as Ah-wes-coy, on the 
west side of the Genesee, about seven miles below Caneadea. 
The latter name was also applied to the valley lying between 
the two villages. In later days Shongo told a Mr. Baker 
that John Hudson and himself were the leaders of the ex- 
pedition. As it was organized at the lower town the one to 
whom Shongo referred was probably Hah-yen-de-seh, 
though old Captain Hudson accompanied and guided the 

While preparations for the expedition were in progress 
one family of Senecas residing at Ah-wes-coy viewed them 
with sorrow. In a previous foray upon a settlement of 
whites the members of this family had lost a son and 
brother, a promising young brave named To-an-do-qua. 
The season of mourning had nearly passed, yet the mother 
refused to be reconciled. The stir and confusion in the 
town reminded her of that other time when her brave son 
marched proudly away into the forest never to return. She 
reflected upon the probable results of the contemplated ex- 
pedition and became inspired with the idea of averting, in 
a degree, the horrors of warfare by securing the capture, 
instead of the killing, of some innocent youth. With this 
thought in mind the woman approached a chief named 
Do-eh-saw* who resided at Deonundagao. Though in out- 
ward appearance an Indian, the chief was really a half-breed 
son of a white trader, and was generally known as Jack 
Berry. He was a powerful man, though not above medium 
height, swift on foot, brave and in the forefront of any con- 
flict in which he engaged; .yet he was kind-hearted and the 
Seneca mother knew he had been a good friend to her boy. 
To this man the woman made a request, that, from the sol- 

* The word signifies one who propels, pushes, himself or makes either pro- 
gress or resistance like a sturdy or obstinate animal; the idea being strength 
and courape as manifested in a beast of burden, like a mule. 


diers the Indians were going to attack, he would bring her 
the youngest captive they might take, to replace the lost 
To-an-do-qua. As a sign of her commission to him and of 
her right to the prisoner, she gave Do-eh-sa\v a belt of 
wampum bearing her clan totem and family mark. The 
chief accepted the belt and promised to consider her re- 

When the British-Indian expedition left the Genesee, it 
consisted of Lieut. Nelles commanding, his platoon of 
rangers, nearly a hundred warriors and some squaws. They 
crossed the Genesee early in May, took the Niagara trail 
southward through Chautauqua valley, crossed over to the 
Canisteo, down that stream to the Tioga, thence by Pine 
Creek (Ti-a-dagh-ton) to the west branch of the Susque- 
hanna (Ot-zin-ach-son), marched through forest trails, and 
established their camp about a two days' journey from Bed- 
ford. It was a custom of the Indians to form such a camp 
as a base of operations, where they left the women and 
baggage, the warriors going and coming as they pleased. 

From the reserved camp the warriors advanced to the 
Juniata intending to attack some of the forts, or to cut off 
troops on the march. It appears that Shongo led a band 
some distance down the Juniata, but learning of the num- 
ber of soldiers at Frankstown fort, he proceeded up the 
river and joined Hudson, who had formed a temporary 
camp at a place called Hart's Log. Thence they sent out 
runners to watch the garrison. These spies saw white 
scouts in the vicinity and notified the chiefs, who hastily 
called a council. They decided to form an ambuscade at a 
favorable place on the river, so the war-party retreated into 
the forest to await the coming night. 

The white scouts discovered the camp, found it recently 
abandoned and hurried to Frankstown to give the alarm. 
The Indians permitted their safe return, hoping, by so do- 
ing, to secure a larger number of victims at a later hour. 
The place selected for ambush was near a ford of the river 
not far from the fort. The location seemed to afford little 
opportunity for the concealment of a body of men, but the 


Iroquois were adepts in forest stratagem and laid their 
plans with skill. 

June 2d the scouting- party assembled at Holliday 's fort, 
a mile or so below Fetler's. This fort had been built for a 
stable but was a strong building and had been loop-holed 
for a garrison or to serve as a place of refuge. Instead of a 
full company of rangers there were Capt. Boyd, Lieutenant 
Woods, and eight men ; the volunteers numbering twenty- 
three or four men, including several of the most experi- 
enced woodsmen and Indian fighters of the Alleghany fron- 
tier. The personnel of the company was about as follows : 
Capt. John Boyd, the eldest of three brothers — William fell 
at the battle of the Brandywine and Thomas was horribly 
tortured and killed at the Genesee Castle in 1779; Lieuten- 
ant Harry Woods, a son of the George Woods of Bedford, 
released from Fort Du Qu'esne in 1756 through Chief Hud- 
son ; Capt. Moore, one of the famous Moore family of 
Scotch Valley ; he with Lieutenant Smith had recruited 
nearly all the volunteers ; Capt. Dunlap, a militia officer 
then off regular duty ; Lieut. John Cook, a relative of the 
Col. Wm. Cook of Northumberland County, under whom 
Moses Van Campen first served. 

These men were versed in Indian warfare, of tried cour- 
age and patriotism. Among the men in the ranks were Wil- 
liam and Adam Holliday ; James Summerville, son-in-law 
of Adam Holliday ; Thomas and Michael Coleman ; a 
George Jones and brother; Michael Wallack; Edward 
Milligan : William and John McDonald ; Ross ; Ricketts : 
Beatty ; Gray ; Johnson, and Horatio Jones. Whether the 
Jones brothers were relatives of Horatio or not is not 

The Americans wore the dress of the frontiersmen of that 
time: A cap, hunting-shirt or frock, breeches or leggins, 
and moccasins. The frock was gathered at the waist by a 
belt tied in the back. Bullet-pouch, wadding and other small 
articles were carried in the frock above the belt, from which 
were suspended a tomahawk and hunting-knife. The moc- 
casins were of dressed deer skins made with flaps reaching 
to the shin, and secured bv long strings bound around the 


ankles and legs. Each man was also armed with a rifle and 
its equipments. 

These men set out for Fetler's where they planned to 
spend the following day, Sunday, thence to march through 
the Kitanning Gap to a road that led to Pittsburg, and home 
by way of Bedford. While completing their arrangements 
to leave Fetler's the two scouts came in and reported the 
discovery of the Indian camp at Hart's Log, saying the 
savages probably numbered twenty-five or thirty, the fires 
were still burning and the enemy doubtless near at hand. 
A fight was probable and the scouts were eager for the fray. 
The officers felt sure the savages would not venture into the 
settlement until the following day and thought best to march 
out and meet the invaders near the mouth of the gap. They 
tendered the command to Colonel Albright and asked him 
to permit some of his men, who were anxious to go, to ac- 
company them. The Colonel refused both requests, not al- 
lowing his men to leave the fort. 

Just before daylight Sunday morning they ate breakfast, 
took five days' provisions, loaded their rifles and started for 
the mountains. A narrow path ran close along the river ; 
the men marched in single file, with Capt. Boyd at their 
head, in command. A thick fog rendered even near objects 
invisible. The scouts deemed this condition a favorable one 
as it would conceal them from observation. The obscurity 
covered all traces of the ambuscade as well. When the 
company reached the flat within thirty rods of Sugar Run, 
the British and Indians poured a murderous volley into the 
single line of scouts and, springing up with tomahawks in 
hand, awoke the echoes of the wilderness with appalling 
yells. The surprise was complete. A number fell, several 
fled without discharging their guns, but Capt. Boyd, Lieut. 
Cook and a few other veteran fighters bravely held their 
ground, raised a yell and- returned fire, killing some of the 

Seeing they were greatly outnumbered, Boyd ordered 
his gallant men to save themselves. They at once scattered. 
As Boyd turned to run the Indians pursued. They struck 
him several times with their tomahawks before he surren- 


dered. Lieut. Cook was a powerful man and swift runner, 
but the four warriors who pursued him threw their weapons 
and knocked him down, when he was promptly secured. 

Capt. Dunlap, Ross and the two McDonalds who were in 
Boyd's company, were seized upon the battle ground. Lieut. 
Woods discharged his rifle and with Wallack and Summer- 
ville crossed the river, running up what was later known 
as O'Friel's Ridge, pursued by Hay-en-de-seh, who cal- 
culated either to kill or capture the three men. Summer- 
ville's moccasin became loose and as he stooped to fix it the 
chief approached with uplifted tomahawk. Woods aimed 
his empty rifle at the Indian who sheltered himself behind 
a tree, but quickly recognizing the officer shouted out, "No 
hurt you Woods ! Xo hurt you W r oods !" exposing himself 
to view. Woods, seeing that he was the son of the Seneca 
chief who had saved his father from torture in 1756, and 
had often visited at the senior Woods' in Bedford, dropped 
his gun. Hudson made no further demonstration of hos- 
tility and allowed the other two rangers to escape over the 
ridge. One of the Jones brothers was the first to reach the 
fort with news of the disaster. Capt. Young started out 
with help to bring in the wounded. The other Jones 
brother had been killed and scalped. Five wounded men 
were found as well as the mutilated bodies of nearly half 
the company. 

When the first volley was fired Horatio was marching 
proudly along in line. Deafened by the firing and half 
blinded by the smoke, he was caught in the sudden rush of 
those who fled and carried to the middle of the river. The 
rattle of musketry, the yells of the savages, the shrieks of 
the wounded filled the air. Forgetting his visions of 
bravery he sprang up the bank and ran straight away from 
the scene of action. Suddenly two Indians appeared before 
him with leveled guns ; in presence of more immediate dan- 
ger his scattered senses began to return, and while he 
changed his direction he wondered if this were indeed his 
last moment. He glanced over his shoulder and saw the 
Indians in hot pursuit. Seeing that he had gained upon 
them and encouraged by a hope of escape he turned about. 


raised his rifle to his shoulder, took aim at the foremost 
pursuer and pulled the trigger. It missed fire and to his 
dismay he discovered that the priming had been wet in the 
river and that the weapon was useless ; but when he raised 
his rifle the Indians had dropped to the ground to discon- 
cert his aim and thus had not discovered the condition of 
his gun. 

Comprehending that his escape now depended upon his 
fleetness alone, Horatio closed the rifle pan, renewed his 
flight, crossed the valley and began to ascend the hill. Just 
then, the long string of one of his moccasins becoming loose, 
it began snapping about his legs, impeding his progress. 
The fog was clearing up ; he thought he heard some one 
call him. Looking back again he saw the foremost warrior 
raise his hand and heard him shout in plain English, "Stop 
boy, stop !" At that instant the vexatious moccasin string 
caught in a shrub throwing him heavily to the ground. 
Though stunned by the shock he retained his senses and 
hastily attempted to rise. Finding his foot fastened he 
made a violent effort to free himself, rolled over and sat up. 
As the pursuers came up, gun in hand, it was evident to him 
that any further effort to escape would result in being shot. 
He decided to sit still. As the Indians approached, Horatio 
looked steadily at them to discover some intimation of their 
intentions, and if necessary, make a desperate effort at de- 
fence. The mild manner of the leading warrior dissipated 
Ills fears and he made no show of resistance. The Indian 
halted within a few feet of him, dropped the butt of his 
rifle to the ground, leaned upon the muzzle, looked smilingly 
down at the young ranger and addressed him pleasantly : 

"No be scart, me no hurt you ; you berry nice boy ; you 
run like deer ; you make fine Indian boy ; me good friend ; 
me help you.'' Stooping over he released the strings, fas- 
tened the moccasin, placed his hand on Horatio's shoulder 
and said quietly but authoritatively "Dis-dot" ("get up"). 
Notwithstanding the smiling face, the sharp eyes watched 
every motion of the captive with keen interest, and as the 
latter stood up submissively the warrior took from his own 
person a belt of wampum and placed it around Horatio's 


neck. Picking up the rifle he removed the flint, threw out 
the wet powder, handed the weapon to the boy and, still 
smiling, extended his hand saying, "Go with me." Re- 
assured, Horatio suffered his captors to lead him back to a 
spot near the point from which he first started to escape. 
Then the two Indians took away his weapons, bound a 
blanket about his legs so that he could move only at a slow 
walk, and left him in the company of some of his late com- 
rades, who were huddled together under the care of five 
or six young warriors. 

II. The March. 

Horatio now had the opportunity to look about ; he care- 
fully noted every particular of his surroundings. The con- 
flict was over and singly and in groups the Indians were 
returning from the pursuit of the fleeing Americans, bring- 
ing in two or three more captives. Xear by lay the bodies 
of several rangers and warriors. As the boy stood staring 
at the inanimate forms, trying to realize what had happened, 
the savages set to work scalping the dead soldiers. The 
mutilated bodies of the whites were stripped and left upon 
the ground, while the greatest efforts were made to conceal 
the remains of the warriors. The arms and other effects of 
the dead men were gathered and placed in heaps ; the most 
important trophies of the fight were nine scalps exultantly 
flaunted before the shrinking captives. During this time 
the British and Indians scrutinized the prisoners to see if 
any of them could be identified. The general interest soon 
centered upon Horatio Jones, at whom the savages stared 
with undisguised curiosity. He was a perfect specimen of 
vigorous, healthful youth, with light complexion, ruddy 
cheeks, grey eyes and hair tending to auburn, a color greatly 
admired by the black-haired savages. "Hoc-sa-ah hoc-sa- 
go-wah" ("the boy is very handsome"), they said; but the 
object of their admiration did not understand their re- 
marks, and his fears were excited by these attentions which 


ceased only when the warriors gathered in a group to talk 
over the situation. 

The prisoners now exchanged a few words of condolence 
and expressed to each other the belief that their comrades 
who had escaped would soon return with a large party to 
rescue them. Their hopes were not to be realized. That 
the soldiers had marched out to attack them convinced the 
leaders of the war party that Fort Fetler was strongly gar- 
risoned, and that a larger party of troops would speedily be 
sent out to avenge the defeat of the rangers. A number 
had been killed and they were now encumbered with pris- 
oners and plunder. They decided to retreat. The plunder 
was tied in large packages and fastened on the shoulders of 
the captives, who were placed in the middle of the party, 
and the band immediately took the back trail into the wil- 

The prisoners included Capts. Boyd and Dunlap, Lieu- 
tenant Cook, the two McDonalds, Ross, Johnson and Hora- 
tio Jones, the last being the youngest of the party, though 
others were quite young. Each captive had a blanket bound 
about his legs to prevent an attempt to escape ; the grass 
was still wet with dew, the blankets became saturated and 
obstructed the movements of the men to such a degree that 
they were removed. 

After marching at a rapid rate for several hours, Capt. 
Dunlap, who was severely wounded, showed signs of ex- 
haustion. Blows failed to keep him in pace with the war- 
riors ; at last he was so weak that he staggered under his 
load. Without the slightest warning a painted savage 
stepped behind the wounded man, buried a tomahawk deep 
in his neck and jerked him over backwards. As the officer 
fell, the wretch stripped off his scalp and left him quivering 
in the agonies of death. Dunlap's fate was a frightful 
warning to his companions of what they themselves might 
expect. They dare not exhibit the slightest resentment of 
the deed, and the stern commands of their masters, together 
with blows from the tomahawk handles, hastened them on- 
ward. In the afternoon a runner was sent ahead to notifv 


the reserve camp of the return party and to hasten their 
preparations for a speedy departure. 

They reached the camp in the evening. They knew that 
the white scouts could trace their party to camp, and fear- 
ing a large force would attack them, they halted only long 
enough to allow the squaws to finish packing, when the 
entire band moved on. Years later Horatio Jones would 
recall the horrors of that night's march. Some of the cap- 
tives had had no sleep the previous night, and all had 
marched at a rapid rate many hours without food. Borne 
down by heavy burdens, urged along by cruel savages, faint, 
fearful that each moment might be their last, they stumbled 
forward in the darkness. After many hours' travel in the 
dense gloom, the leaders called a halt. Warriors and cap- 
tives alike threw themselves upon the ground too weary to 
think of aught but rest ; they sank into uneasy slumber. 

At daylight they rose from the damp earth and resumed 
their journey. Although they had then reached a point be- 
yond the probable danger of being overtaken by a pur- 
suing force, they were still within range of scouting parties 
sent out from stations along the West Branch and liable 
any moment to an attack ; hence they preserved strictest 
silence and moved with caution. All that day the party 
hastened through the shadows of the forest, spending an- 
other miserable night on the ground without shelter, fire or 
food. The third day even the Indians were visibly suffer- 
ing'. No hunting was allowed, not a gun having been dis- 
charged since the battle. The third afternoon a bear was 
discovered and to prevent starvation a warrior fired at and 
killed it. The band halted and gathered about the carcass, 
which was soon cut in pieces and distributed. The pris- 
oners received as their portion the entrails and a small quan- 
tity of flesh, which was devoured raw ; the long fast had 
destroyed all sense of taste. 

Not long after this the company crossed the Susque- 
hanna and camped for the night in a secluded spot near 
the Sinnemahoning Creek. Scouts sent out to scour the 
neighborhood returned with a fair supply of meat and the 
information that no sign of the enemv could be discovered. 


The food and a prospect of a night's rest would have made 
the prisoners comparatively happy but for the uncertainty 
regarding their future. Knowing Indian customs, they 
had reason to believe that they were driven alive through the 
wilderness only to suffer torture at the stake. Their fears 
were but too speedily realized. * Capt. Boyd, faint from the 
loss of blood, was tied to an oak sapling and compelled to 
be a spectator of the torture of Ross. It was his turn next 
and he quietly resigned himself to his fate. While these 
fiends were making preparations to torture him, he sang a 
pathetic Free-Masons' song with a plaintive voice that at- 
tracted their attention ; they listened to it very closely till 
he was through. 

At this critical moment an elderly squaw came up and 
claimed him for her son. The Indians did not interfere. 
She dressed his wounds and attended him carefully through 
the remainder of the journey. "Lieutenant Cook's captors 
amused themselves by burning his legs with fire brands and 
as he was exhausted from the loss of blood from his wounds 
he was scarcely able to walk."f 

On leaving Sinnemahoning Creek the Indians thought 
themselves so safe that they began to relax in vigilance, 
were not so careful about making a noise, and permitted 
their prisoners greater liberty of action ; they also sent out 
hunting parties, without however much success, for the 
frequent passage of war parties had driven most of the 
larger game away from the trails. In the afternoon the 
hunters joined the main body on the march. They had 
succeeded in killing a deer and as the place where they met 
was a convenient one in which to camp, there being plenty 
of water and wood, they were soon busy with their prepara- 
tions for supper and the night. The captives were all so 
bound that thev could not travel faster than a walk nor use 

* "Ross was very badly wounded," says J. F. Meginness in his history of 
the West Branch of the Susquehanna called "Otzinachson," "and being unable 
to travel, his captors determined to massacre him in a cruel manner. lie was 
fastened to a stake, his body stuck full of pitch pine splinters and fire applied. 
They danced around him making the woods resound with their hideous yells. 
His tortures were terrible but at length death put an end to his sufferings." 

t Meginness. 


their hands to relieve themselves of their burdens. Their 
assistance being needed in making camp, their bonds were 
loosened and their packs taken off. Some of the young In- 
dians were ordered to prepare the deer and bring in the 
venison and Jones was told to go with them. Cheered by a 
measure of freedom and with the prospect of a supper and 
willing to show his good will in the matter, he pushed to 
the front where he found himself by the side of a savage, 
who, by general assent seemed to be the leader of the party. 
This warrior was small and lean with short bowed legs. 
His profile reminded Horatio of a reaping-hook sharpened 
on the outer edge, but he was wiry and as he moved along 
there was evidence of muscular power that suggested un- 
usual strength. In fact, in spite of his appearance, he was 
the fleetest runner among the Senecas, and had been em- 
ployed as messenger by the officers at Fort Niagara, who 
jestingly said he ran so swiftly his shins cut the air. He 
thus became known to the whites as Sharp Shins.* 

Up to this time Sharp Shins had never been beaten on 
foot and the Indians had no fear that the captive could es- 
cape while the famous runner bore him company ; but 
Horatio had no knowledge of the powers of his companion 
and no other thought than a desire to obtain a supper of 
meat as speedily as possible. The party set oft at a smart 
run and the white boy quickly took the lead ; becoming 
aware that the captive was in advance Sharp Shins gave a 
shrill yell drawing the attention of the entire party, and 
darted forward. Horatio had taken a dislike to the runner 
and determined not to let him have the satisfaction of win- 
ning in the race. Putting forth all his energies he increased 
the distance between himself and the Indians and reached 
the carcass of the deer several feet in advance of Sharp 
Shins. When the attention of the warriors was called to 
the race by the yell of the' runner they shouted their ap- 
proval, but as the captive gained in the lead it occurred to 
them that he was attempting to escape and nearly the en- 
tire band joined in pursuit. As soon as Horatio halted be- 
side the deer he was surrounded by the excited warriors 

* His Seneca name was Ha-ah-ta-o, "He climbs." 


who whirled their tomahawks about his head to the con- 
sternation of his fellow-prisoners who expected to see him 
butchered on the spot. Appreciating the gravity of the 
situation he folded his arms and stood like a statue in the 
center of a circle of whooping savages. Some one called 
out in the Indian tongue that the boy was not trying to 
escape and that he should be praised and not hurt as he 
had beaten their swiftest runner in a fair race. Satisfied 
that this was the case the mood of the warriors instantly 
changed and their demonstrations of delight were unre- 
strained. Yelling with glee they cut ridiculous capers and 
cried out, "Hoc-sa-go-wah ha-yah-no-weh ; sa-qart-neh-ga- 
ha" ; ("The handsome boy is a fast runner; he runs like 
the wind"). Then as if by a common impulse they desired 
to attest his victory over their comrade they repeated the 
phrase "Ha-yah-no-weh, ha-yah-no-weh"; ("He is a fast 
runner; he is a fast runner"). Sharp Shins, amazed at his 
defeat stood sullenly aside. When his fellow warriors con- 
tinued to taunt him his rage was beyond control and draw- 
ing his tomahawk he rushed furiously at Horatio and at- 
tempted to strike him clown. The others promptly inter- 
posed and Do-eh-saw claiming the captive lad as his personal 
property, dared the defeated runner to injure him at his 

The speed which had been exhibited by Horatio on two 
occasions convinced them he could distance their fastest 
runners in a fair race, and they determined to disable 
him from making a third display of his prowess. They 
seized him, dragged him roughly back to camp, laid 
him upon his back, stretched out his legs and arms, tied 
each with thongs to a separate tree, pinned the thongs 
closely to the earth with crotched sticks, then drove stakes 
crosswise over his arms, legs and body. Satisfied that the 
boy could not move the Indians turned their attention to 
the carcass of the deer, which was hastily skinned. As be- 
fore, they gave the intestines to the prisoners, but on divid- 
ing the meat a fair portion was allotted each captive except 
Horatio. At sunset rain set in and fell steadily through 
the night upon the motionless form of the young ranger, 


chilling him through. If an occasional thought of the com- 
fortable home and loving family he had left obtruded itself 
it was quickly crowded out of his mind by the pains of in- 
tense hunger. He could smell the burning flesh as great 
pieces were thrown upon the hot coals to roast, but the sav- 
ages did not give him a mouthful. The savory scent tan- 
talized his senses during the long hours of that miserable 
night. Our frontier boy knew that his existence and fu- 
ture comfort depended entirely upon his fortitude and en- 
durance. He lay without complaint until the dawn of day 
aroused the camp and the expedition was ready to resume 
the march. His apparent indifference to his physical suf- 
ferings and his manifest good humor when released had 
their effect upon the warriors. They seemed to think they 
had been too severe with him and in some measure to atone 
for their unnecessary cruelty they gave him a substantial 
breakfast of venison and permitted him to dry his clothes 
and warm himself by the fire. Upon resuming the march 
they permitted him to walk unbound, and by and by relieved 
him of his pack. Horatio was satisfied he owed these in- 
dulgences to his captor Do-eh-saw and determined to show 
his gratitude in every way he could. During the day he 
kept close to him and sought to win his confidence. 

In order to secure captives at night the Indians usually 
made a rude sort of stocks by cutting down a tree and hack- 
ing notches a few inches in depth along the fallen trunk. 
Prisoners were then compelled to place their ankles in the 
notches. A pole was put on the tree trunk above them and 
fastened down tight with cross stakes driven into the 
ground. A second and heavier pole was laid in the V 
formed by the cross sticks. In addition a cord was passed 
over the bodies of the victims and under several Indians at 
each end. Horatio was left unbound that night when the 
other prisoners were secured. 

He crept closely to Do-eh-saw and encouraged by a 
fiiendly smile lay quietly down by him. Thereafter he slept 
always by that warrior's side. He began to look upon Do- 
eh-saw as a trusty friend and protector. He soon became 
convinced that as long as he kept up with the rest in the 


march and made no effort to escape he had little reason to 
fear immediate danger from the party. From the hour he 
was relieved of his own pack he helped Johnson, who was 
over sixty years of age, with his, and frequently availed 
himself of his own freedom of action to assist other com- 
rades less able than himself to endure fatigue. 

From the Sinnemahoning Creek the war-party crossed 
the country to the Tioga River and followed that stream to 
the mouth of the Cohocton, on their homeward journey. 
Here they decided to halt for a few days' rest. The camping 
place was known as Da-ne-ne-ta-quen-deh, "wTiere two val- 
leys come together." * Here several principal Indian trails 
crossed and it was frequented by Indians journeying east, 
west, north and south. Several wigwams were located near 
the river and there were many cultivated fields about. A 
huge post painted in a fantastic manner to represent an 
enemy stood in the open. When war parties halted at the 
camp they usually held brag dances about the post. Any 
one could brag and dance after making a small present to 
the "master of ceremonies/' usually the head warrior. The 
proceeds were a benefit for the whole party. 

After their arrival the Genesee warriors proposed to hold 
a dance on the second evening. Large fires were started, to 
give light, and Indians, British and prisoners, gathered in a 
great circle about the post. Most of the audience sat or lav 
on the ground smoking pipes, some Indians on one side 
beating a small drum and shaking rattles, occasionally ac- 
companying the instruments with monotonous vocal exer- 
cises which were anything but inspiring to the white pris- 
oners. The dancer advanced to the post, pranced about it, 
and addressed it as though the thing were a real enemy. 
Recounting in a loud voice the history of his personal 
achievements, the braggart danced or rather mimicked the 
motions of the act described, derided his imaginary foe in 

* This was a descriptive term applied to other similar localities and had no 
local significance with Painted Post. It was also applied to the present location 
of Bath, and Dr. Lewis II. Morgan renders it "Do-na-ta-ta gwen-da," "Opening 
in an opening." Horatio Jones narrated these facts about Painted Post to Or- 
lando Allen. The first white settlers found the post and named the place 
Painted Post, now Erwin, Steuben Co., N. Y. 


unmeasured terms, then striking the post with his toma- 
hawk retired amid loud applause. When the scenes of the 
Juniata Valley were rehearsed by the savage participants 
and the scalps of the murdered rangers were paraded before 
the survivors, all their courage was needed to prevent an 
outbreak of their rage. Prudence forbade any show of feel- 
ing, and hiding their resentment they sat quietly among the 
crowd of Indians and British until the hateful ceremonies 

From the hour of his capture Horatio had worn the belt 
of wampum placed about his neck by his captor, who had 
cautioned him not to lose it nor permit any person to re- 
move it. He perceived that he was treated more leniently 
than his comrades were and could not but think that the belt 
of wampum was in some way connected with the preference. 
Do-eh-saw understood and could speak the English lan- 
guage fairly well but he was taciturn with Jones ; however 
he was good-natured and frankly answered questions. As 
time passed on and the young protege grew in favor the 
Indian became somewhat communicative. While the war- 
party lay at the painted post, Horatio ventured to ask for an 
explanation from the chief. Do-eh-saw told him that an 
Indian mother had sent out the belt to secure for herself 
from among the prisoners taken the youngest to be a son 
to her in place of her own boy, lost in a recent foray, and 
accordingly he was to be given to the woman after they 
reached the Seneca village ; that his interest in Horatio was 
accepted by the warriors and that they all looked upon the 
young captive as one of their own people ; hence he need 
have no fear of being ill-treated upon the journey. But 
Do-eh-saw also told him that it was the custom of the In- 
dians to "caress" all captives brought to their villages ; in 
other words the inhabitants vented their spite by beating 
the prisoners and many times taking their lives. This was a 
rule and no male prisoner was exempt, as it afforded those 
who had been left at home a chance to vent their vindictive- 
ness upon their enemies. Even if his captor adopted him 
he could not save him from the perils of the gauntlet as it 
was considered a test of the victim's courage and endurance. 


When the war-party should reach the home village all the 
captives were alike to he subjected to the trial; if Horatio 
lived through it his future was assured. 

From the "painted post" the band followed up the Canis- 
teo valley, through the Chautauqua valley,* along the main 
Niagara trail to the vicinity of what is now known as Hunt's 
Hollow, Livingston Co., New York. Here, leaving the 
Niagara trail, they turned to the south and descended the 
hillside to the bottom of a deep valley where a swift stream 
flowed over the rocks. "Kish-a-wah," Do-eh-saw answered 
when Horatio asked him the name of the creek. Crossing 
the stream, they camped on the southern bank near the 
ground now known as Hunt's Hollow. A spring of excel- 
lent water flowed from the hillside and there were many in- 
dications that the spot had long been a favorite resort of the 
Indians. The prisoners had now become familiar with their 
captors and while the vigilance of the latter was unrelaxed 
they were friendly enough and shared with their captives 
their scanty provisions. The prisoners collected sticks and 
brush for the camp fires and as the shadows of evening deep- 
ened in the valley many of the men gathered in groups. 
Horatio was seated by Do-eh-saw, who was smoking his 
pipe near a fire, when he noticed that the warrior was more 
than usually grave : he soon found out that he was con- 
cerned about his young protege. He told the boy that on the 
morrow they would reach the Genesee. He described to 
Horatio the manner of the prisoners' reception and charged 
him to keep as close to him as he could and strictly to fol- 
low whatever orders he might give him ; if so, perhaps some 
of the horrors of running the gauntlet might be avoided. So 
saying the kindly Indian stretched himself upon the ground 
to sleep and Horatio lay by his side, thinking of the ap- 
proaching day and what his fate might be. 

When the sun rose on the morning of June 20th upon 
the valley of the Kishawa the camp was aroused by the 
sentries posted by Lieut. Nelles. The soldiers brightened 
their firearms and the warriors adorned their persons in the 
finery they had captured, painted their faces and displayed 

* In the northeastern corner of Allegany county. 


upon their lances the captured scalps. A small body of In- 
dians led the way up the hillside, the rangers marching next. 
Then came the prisoners, followed by the main body of the 
savage party. After passing over comparatively level 
ground, the trail led down a steep slope through a broad 
hollow and struck a small brook, followed down its course, 
sometimes along the edge of the water which it occasionally 
crossed, the passage growing narrower and the pathway 
steeper as they went on. The ravine was densely wooded, 
and gloomy, and the hearts of the captives were oppressed 
by forebodings. Constantly descending, it seemed to them 
an endless path before they came to a break in the foliage, 
emerged from the dense shadows, and stood in the bright 
sunlight upon the bank of the Genesee. The river swept 
around the foot of the hill down which they had come, and 
was in sight for a short distance only, but the captives saw 
stretched before them a great valley enclosed by densely 
wooded slopes. Turning to the left the party followed the 
trail along the foot of the slope forming the east side of the 
valley, and within an hour halted upon the river opposite 
to the home village of these Senecas. 

III. The Gauntlet. 

In an open space several acres in extent a few bark huts, 
ordinary houses, and a large building of hewn logs were 
visible. This last stood by itself upon an elevation a quarter 
of a mile away. It was well made after the style of the bet- 
ter class of frontier buildings ; it had been put up by Eng- 
lish carpenters from Niagara. A white flag was flying from 
a staff on the roof, marking it as the "long house" or coun- 
cil house of the village. 

The warriors gathered in a compact body and uttered a 
series of yells to announce their arrival, the losses the party 
had sustained and the number of captives and scalps they 
had brought home. The echoes had scarcely ceased rever- 
berating along the hills, when men, women and children 
armed with tomahawks, clubs, knives, whips and other 


weapons came running from all directions of the town, 
forming two disorderly lines extending from the council 
house down nearly to the river opposite to the place where 
the war party stood. While these movements were in pro- 
gress the prisoners stood in the midst of their grim captors 
watching the proceedings, and as they saw the extent and 
nature of the preparations for their reception their hopes 
died within them. It seemed impossible that anyone should 
escape death or mortal injuries while attempting to run 
through those formidable lines of savages, who had all lost 
friends in encounters with the whites and many of whom 
had undoubtedly been bereft of near relatives in this very 
expedition and were exasperated to the height of fury.* 
Before giving the order to cross the river Lieut. Nelles ad- 
dressed the prisoners, saying he thought it right to tell them 
that immediately after reaching the opposite side, when the 
word should be given, they were to run for their lives and 
endeavor to reach the house on the hill where the white flag 
was waving. According to Indian usage any person in the 
lines of people they saw had a right to strike, wound or kill 
them and they could expect no mercy before they succeeded 
in getting into it ; once there they would be safe until the 
council decided their fate. 

Crossing the stream, fordable at that point, with the pris- 
oners in the van, the party ascended the bank. On reaching 
the level ground the signal was given. Boyd and William 
McDonald, hoping to gain some slight advantage by a sud- 
den start, instantly bounded forward and were at once fol- 
lowed by all the other captives except Horatio. Their ap- 
pearance was greeted by a chorus of yells and shrieks as 
the mob of young men, women and children rushed forward 
like wild beasts, each one frantically struggling to strike a 
blow at the victims. 

Do-eh-saw had been standing in the front rank of the 
war-party with Horatio by his side. As the other prisoners 
started he moved in front of Horatio, concealing him until 
the attention of the mob was entirely occupied with the 
other captives who had made considerable headway, when 

* Orlando Allen's narrative. 


he suddenly stepped aside, gave Horatio a push and said, 
"Run, boy, run!" Horatio nerved himself for the trial. 
Seeing the advantage of this slight delay and confident of 
his fleetness he put forth his greatest energies. The atten- 
tion of the Indians nearest him was so engrossed by what 
was going on ahead that Jones fled past them unobserved 
until he had nearly overtaken the party in advance, when 
the Indians began to aim their blows at him. These he 
avoided as best he could by dodging from side to side and 
passing some of the captives, when he found himself near 
Boyd, McDonald and Johnson, all of whom had reached the 
"long house'' slightly in advance of himself. The men had 
been roughly handled and were bleeding from many wounds, 
but according to Indian usage were entitled to free entrance 
to the council house and immunity from further abuse. 
Three or four ferocious young Indians were huddled about 
the door with uplifted weapons, and, despite the warning 
cries from the older warriors attacked the three white men. 
The leader, a young savage named the Wolf, was armed 
with a sword. As Johnson came up the savage struck him 
a frightful blow with the sword taking off the top of his 
head. Horatio was so near the victim that brains were 
dashed over his face and breast. The young demon slashed 
and hacked again and again at Johnson's body. Fear for 
himself gave place in Horatio's bosom to rage at the cow- 
ardly murder and he paused to avenge him, but the com- 
rades of the Wolf, beginning to attack the rest of the pris- 
oners who were struggling in the doorway, he turned sud- 
denly to one side and came face to face with Sharp Shins, 
who stood with raised tomahawk ready to cleave his skull. 

From the time of his defeat in the race for the deer 
Sharp Shins had avoided the fleet-footed young ranger, 
biding his time to avenge his defeat. He had been sent in 
advance to announce the home-coming of the party, and had 
stationed himself in line near the council house, not doubt- 
ing that Floratio would succeed in reaching that goal, where 
he could be sure of the chance to tomahawk him. The sud- 
den turn made by his intended victim disconcerted him and 
he hesitated to strike. Before the revengeful savage could 


rally Horatio had dashed through a break in the mob; with 
a howl of rage Sharp Shins hurled his axe at the fleeing 
form. To the dav of his death Horatio Jones never recalled, 
without a shudder, the sound produced by the whirling 
tomahawk as it passed close to his head and buried itself 
in the earth. Whether he was indebted for his escape to 
his own skill in dodging the missile or to the haste of the 
thrower he never knew. 

With the idea prominent in his mind that he must obtain 
entrance to the council house, he instinctively turned towards 
the building and dodged around the corner. The wall of 
the building was unbroken by door or window. A path 
leading into a thicket close at hand opened before him. 
With a bound he was in the bush and out of sight of the 
struggling mob. Pursuing the path with all his speed he 
quickly emerged from the thicket into a clearing where he 
discovered, only a few feet in advance, a rude house, past 
the door of which the path led. 

On arrival of the runner with the news of the returning 
expedition the Seneca mother, who had commissioned Berry 
to bring Uer a son, being unwilling to witness the cruelties 
of the gauntlet, remained in her home with her daughter, 
while the male members of the family joined in the frightful 
ceremonies. From their house in the woods the women 
heard the whoops announcing the arrival of the war-party. 
As the dreadful race began they could distinguish the sounds 
of turmoil and the approach towards the long house. Stand- 
ing at the opening serving as a window to their humble 
home, they listened closely to note the first indication that 
the captives had passed the ordeal. Suddenly the bushes 
growing along the path leading to the long house were 
agitated as by the passage of one in haste, and a boy, dazed 
by fright, dashed into the opening. W r as it Providence 
that warmed the heart of his captor, assisted the lad to es- 
cape the perils of the gauntlet and led his footsteps to the 
only habitation in all that wilderness in which he could es- 
cape death? Was it instinct that directed the attention of 
the Indian woman to the wampum belt on the breast of the 
terrified young runner, or an over-ruling Providence? At 


a glance she recognized the token she had sent forth to the 
settlements of the whites. With a cry to the daughter the 
woman ran out of the doorway as the boy came near. Before 
he could fully realize the occurrence the women caught him 
in their arms, pushed him into the house, secreted him under 
a bench of poles that ran around the side of the house, and 
placed blankets in front which concealed him from view, 
then calmly resumed their station at the window. The 
panting fugitive had scarcely had time to reflect that the 
action of the squaws indicated a desire on their part to be- 
friend him, when he heard footsteps approach and excited 
voices at the door, some reply in the native tongue from the 
elder woman and footsteps receding, apparently in an oppo- 
site direction from that from which they came. Hardly had 
these sounds ceased when the squaw drew the covering aside 
and called the boy forth. He rolled out of his close quarters 
and stood before them ready to obey their commands. The 
women placed themselves in front of him, drew their blank- 
ets around all three in such a manner as to conceal him from 
observation and stepped out of the door. 

Jones was so confounded by the rapidity of events that 
he felt impelled to place confidence in his strange friends, 
and closely followed their hurried lead, he knew not whither. 
He could hear the soft pat of their moccasined feet upon the 
hard ground, the rustle of branches as they passed through 
obstructing brush, the murmur of voices and the tramp of 
men about him ; he could feel the sway of his guides as they 
pushed through a crowd of people, and he fancied the beat- 
ing of his heart would betray him. Then he felt an inclina- 
tion to throw off the sheltering folds that held him in dark- 
ness and face death openly. 

Suddenly the grip upon his arms tightened, he was jerked 
forward, then stopped so sharply that but for the restraining 
hands of the women he would have fallen. The blankets 
dropped to the ground. Horatio perceived he was in a large 
room, filled with Indians who surrounded some of his fel- 
low captives covered with blood from numerous wounds. 
Instinct told him that he was in "the long house" and the 
perils of the gauntlet were ended. 


The women who had rescued him could not speak Eng- 
lish, but their intelligent faces bore expressions of proud 
satisfaction as they resumed their blankets and walked away 
leaving the boy with his white friends. He soon learned 
that the latter were in a pitiable plight, and that of all who 
braved the mob he alone had escaped without serious bruises. 
A guard was soon stationed at the door of the long house, 
which was made to serve as a prison. Food was given the 
prisoners and they were allowed to seek such rest as their 
wretched condition would permit. 

A quantity of liquor having been brought from Niagara, 
it was decided to celebrate the return by a general carousal. 
As night approached great fires were kindled in the open 
space in front of the long house, and here the Indians gath- 
ered in crowds. Liquor was supplied to all, and the men 
giving themselves up to the excitement of the occasion, 
freely indulged their appetites. The more prudent women 
remained sober and as soon as possible removed and se- 
creted all the weapons they could secure. x\s the shades of 
evening deepened to the darkness of night the imprisoned 
whites could hear the sounds of revelry increasing to an up- 
roar that awoke their gravest anxiety and filled their minds 
with dismal forebodings. All too soon their fears were 
realized, for the drunken frenzy of the Indians reached a 
point beyond the control of the sober women and guards, 
and despite their protests the warriors broke down the door 
of the long house and rushed into the building. Among the 
foremost was the Wolf, with Johnson's scalp at his belt. 
Horatio recognized the brute and took solemn oath that if 
the opportunity ever occurred he would avenge the murder 
of his soldier friend. Without molesting others the savages 
seized McDonald and dragged him forth as an object of 
their cruel sport. From insults and cuffs the drunken riot- 
ers proceeded to greater violence. Sharp Shins finally toma- 
hawked the unfortunate soldier, chopped off his head, thrust 
a spear into the skull and stood it up as an object of con- 
tumely. All the ferocity of their natures was now aroused, 
and the savages danced around the gory head shrieking like 
demons. Even the guards became attracted to the demon- 


strations around the fire and followed the mob from the 
door of the prison. In the darkness, near at hand, stood a 
little group of women. As the guards left the door, the 
women glided around the corner into the house that was 
dimly lighted by the fires without. The prisoners were hud- 
dled together, full of forebodings. As the women sud- 
denly entered with fingers placed over their mouths to de- 
note silence, Jones recognized the two who had saved his 
life. Seizing the hands of the captives the squaws led them 
out of the doorway, around the corner of the building into 
the darkness. Without pausing at all they hurried through 
the bushes leading the white men to places of safety. 

After dancing about the head of McDonald and offering 
it every indignity they could invent the crazy warriors again 
rushed to the long house bent on the destruction of the re- 
maining prisoners. Finding them gone they awoke the 
echoes of the hills with howls of disappointment. Frantic, 
and thirsting for more blood, they quarreled among them- 
selves. The liquor they had imbibed in unrestricted quan- 
tities soon overcame them, and one by one the maudlin 
wretches dropped to the earth in drunken stupor. Later the 
fires died away fitfully, and only an occasional yell from 
some half-awakened reveler reached the ears of the con- 
cealed captives. 

On the following day, when the Indians had recovered 
their senses, the women restored the weapons and prisoners. 
They later convened in council, and few would have recog- 
nized the members of the drunken mob in the stately chiefs 
and grave warriors, who assembled calmly to determine the 
fate of the white captives. The prisoners understood little 
of the discussion but its purport was related to Jones at a 
later date. According to their custom the warriors sat upon 
the ground in a circle with the captives in front and men, 
women and children huddled about the outer circle. As 
each warrior took his place he lighted a pipe and continued 
to smoke during the session, save when speaking. 

When all who desired had spoken Hudson arose. He 
said it seemed to be the general sentiment that enough white 
men had been slain to atone for the blood of the Indians 


killed; it now remained for the council to decide upoivthe 
disposition of the survivors. Do-eh-saw, or Jack Berry, as 
he was called, knocked the ashes from his pipe and stood up. 
He said he spoke for the Indian mother who had sent by him 
a belt of wampum. He recounted his connection with the 
battle on the Juniata and the capture by himself and Hah- 
ney-wee* of the young prisoner. Berry narrated the sub- 
sequent events of the homeward march, the race with Sharp 
Shins, the incidents of the gauntlet, his rescue by the woman 
who sent the wampum, his entry into the long house, his 
removal, which prevented further bloodshed, and his return 
to the custody of the warriors. Neither he nor Ha-neh-wee- 
sah made any claim to the boy. The singular circumstances 
that had combined to bring him to the sorrowing mother 
convinced her that Ha-wen-ne-ya, the "Great Spirit," had 
sent the lad to replace her dead son, and she now claimed 
the young captive, whom she intended to adopt. While the 
members of the war-party were acquainted with these facts 
the greater number of Indians knew nothing of the particu- 
lars of the affair. 

The story of the sturdy chief moved their superstitious 
natures, and a profound silence prevailed in the long house. 
At length Shongo stood erect and the audience waited upon 
his words. He said that his ears had been open to receive 
this story. He believed the Great Spirit watched over his 
Indian children and planned wisely for them. No one could 
listen to what had occurred without feeling that Ha-wen-ne- 
ya had sent this handsome boy to the Seneca nation for a 
good purpose. Some misfortune would surely fall upon the 
people if they failed to carry out the design of the Great 
Spirit. The lad should remain and become one of them- 
selves, and the future would reveal why he had been sent to 
the red men of the Genesee. It was so decided, when the 
assemblage clapped their hands and cried, "Ya-ho, Ya-ho l" 
in approval. 

It was decided to take the other prisoners to Niagara and 

* English name, Blue Eyes. lie was cousin of the woman who adopted 
Jones. He later became a chief of distinction and in his old age resided at Red 
House on the Alleghany. 


deliver them to the British fathers. When ready Nelles 
took the men to the fort and turned them over to the com- 
mander. The Oneida woman, who interposed for Boyd at 
the mouth of Sinnemahoning Creek, and who had assisted 
in his rescue from the long house, accompanied him to Ni- 
agara. When Boyd was sent to Quebec with other prison- 
ers, she nursed him on the voyage and did not leave him un- 
til he was placed in a hospital. When convalescent the hos- 
pital authorities turned him into the street without money 
or acquaintances, but as he walked along, he saw a sign- 
board bearing the legend, "Masonic Inn." Boyd entered, 
gave the sign to the landlord, and was received and cared 
for till he was exchanged. The Indian woman, in due time, 
returned to Oneida, where Capt. (afterwards Colonel) 
Boyd often sent her presents and on one occasion visited her 
there in person. Lieut. Cook was also exchanged at Oue- 

IV. The Adoption — Life among the Senecas. 

The founders of the League of the Iroquois adopted a 
scheme of tribal relationship by which the people of each 
nation were separated into divisions or clans. The Mo- 
hawks say that in the beginning there were but three clans, 
wolf, bear and turtle ; that the Oneidas have only those 
three and the same ones exist in each nation. Hale says 
that the Onondagas have in addition the deer, eel, beaver, 
ball and snipe. The Cayugas substitute the hawk and heron 
for the ball and eel; the Tuscaroras divide the wolf clan 
into gray and yellow wolf and the turtle clan into great and 
little turtle. 

According to ancient custom a person adopted into an 
Iroquois family to replace one dead, was supposed to as- 
sume the personality of the deceased and the station and 
property of the predecessor. The rites of adoption severed 
all former ties and the person was thereafter a blood de- 

* Boyd died in Northumberland in 1833. Cook died in 1822, aged 76 years. 
Horatio Jones and his companions ran the gauntlet at what is now Fort Hill farm, 
near Caneadea. 


scendant of the woman who occupied the place of mother, 
and a relative of every Iroquois of that clan. Xo person 
could marry in his or her clan but the children were classed 
with the clan of the mother. 

Horatio's Indian mother was born at Gan-no-wan-gus, 
near present Avon, about 1744. She was a blood sister of 
Guy-an-gwa-ta or Cornplanter, who was the half-breed son 
of a Dutch trader named Abeel. Cornplanter, by his ex- 
ploits and force of character became a war chief and even- 
tually the most influential man of his time in the Seneca na- 
tion. When Horatio fell into Seneca hands Cornplanter's 
fame was in the ascendency and his family one of the most 
prominent on the Genesee River. Although the Indian 
father held no title he was brave and skilled in the capture 
of game. He was called Hah-do-wes-go-wah, or "the 
Great Hunter." He did not object to the adoption, but 
seemed an indifferent spectator. The Iroquois seldom recog- 
nized a white person by his proper name. They gave a new 
captive some descriptive title which was liable to be changed 
from time to time. A change, however, required public an- 
nouncement at some general assembly. In accordance with 
Indian custom the ceremony of adoption included the con- 
ferring of the name by which the person was to be desig- 
nated by' his Indian associates. Horatio had been spoken 
of as "The handsome boy"* from his capture and "Hocsa- 
gowah"t was a term so fitting that it was adopted by the 
clan. When the war song had been sung and his name 
proclaimed, Horatio was in their eyes no longer a white 
person, but a full-blooded Seneca of the hawk clan, like his 

When the strange ceremony ended the Indians pressed 
forward with greetings. Then Horatio's mother and sister 
proudly led him through groups of curious natives along the 
path in the bushes through which he had thrice passed in 
deadly peril, to the house in which he had so unexpectedly 

♦In 1831 Tom Cayuga's wife, Judy, the oldest squaw then at Squawkie Hill, 
told Benj. F. Angel that Jones was the handsomest person, white or red, that 
the Indians had ever seen. 

t Given by John Timeson as "Hocsahdcyoh." 


found shelter and friends. Entering-, the mother led him up 
to a fine-looking Indian, who greeted him with "Soh-ne-ho?" 
("Who is it?") "Hehs-ha-wuk, Hocsagowah," ("Your son, 
Handsome Boy"), she replied and to Horatio she said, "Yuh- 
neh" ("Your father"). He required no introduction to his 
sister, but two bright, sturdy young lads came shyly for- 
ward to greet him. They all made him welcome in a man- 
ner that could not have expressed more affection if the dead 
Toandoqua had returned to assume his natural place in the 
household. Others came and were introduced as relatives. 
Food was set before him and as he satisfied his hunger 
he turned his curious gaze from the members of the house- 
hold to such detail of his surroundings as he could inspect. 
The dwelling stood in a small clearing. It was like most of 
the houses occupied by the Senecas in their permanent 
towns. The sides and ends were of logs, rudely laid up, 
with the crevices stuffed with sticks and clay. It was about 
ten by twelve feet; the door, loosely hung on wooden 
hinges, in one end ; the roof formed of sheets of bark over- 
lapping each other like long shingles and secured by poles 
laid on the outside fastened at each gable end. A square 
opening in one end of the house served as a window in the 
daytime ; it was closed with a sheet of bark at night. The 
interior was as rude as the outside. The floor was the hard- 
packed earth. Two benches or shelves of poles, one about 
two feet above the floor, the other near the eaves, ran along 
the sides of the house, serving as seats in the daytime and 
beds at night. A rough shelf at one end held a small brass 
kettle, a few bark trays and several short square-edge 
wooden spoons. Pegs in the front wall supported a rifle 
and its equipments, a tomahawk and other articles, the prop- 
erty of the husband. In one corner, near the door, stood an 
ax, a hollow block of wood and a pestle for pounding corn, 
the implements of the wife. The fire occupied die center of 
the floor, the smoke supposed to find its way upward and 
out through an opening in the roof. On occasions, as 
Horatio soon learned, it settled in stifling clouds in every 
part of the room. Crotched sticks at each side of the fire- 
place supported a cross pole from which kettles and roasting 


meat were hung. Three or four smooth flat stones, fre- 
quently used in baking, were half hidden in the bed of ashes. 
Had the place been far more forbidding in aspect, the sense 
of security and comfort would have rendered it a welcome 
haven to the weary boy. When he was thoroughly re- 
freshed the mother tried to make him comprehend that as 
one of her children he was entitled to certain rights and 
privileges and the use of certain things. Also that he must 
respect the rights of other members of the family regarding 
their individual places and property in the house. He used 
every endeavor to adapt himself to his altered circumstances. 

Berry continued with the war-party to Niagara and on 
his return to the Genesee went to his home at Little Beard's 
Town, leaving Jones among those who spoke only the na- 
tive dialects. By continual application he rapidly advanced 
in a knowledge of the Seneca tongue- and from the date of 
his adoption experienced little difficulty in communicating 
with his native associates. Closely observing the customs 
of the Senecas he learned that the men provided game, 
traded furs for clothing, arms and such other necessities as 
they could procure for barter with traders or at the fort, 
built canoes, debated in council and followed the pursuit of 
war. The women seldom interfered with the men in their 
particular business and no Seneca woman ever walked be- 
fore her husband — such an offense would have been un- 
pardonable. If a man killed a large animal while hunting he 
usually cut out sufficient for a meal, secured the rest from 
wild beasts, returned home and directed the women of his 
family to bring in the carcass. The women cured the meat, 
dressed the skins, made the clothing, belts, moccasins, bead 
work, collected wood, brought water, planted, hoed and har- 
vested the crops, pounded corn into meal and prepared the 
food. While the care and correction of the children were 
left to the mother, the word of the father was law for all un- 
der his roof. The rule of parents was generally mild, and 
children were usually obedient and respectful, making their 
homes with and subject to their commands until marriage. 

Horatio found the Indian domicile a remarkable contrast 
to the quiet home on the Juniata where the proverbial neat- 


ness of the Quaker sect was exemplified. If his stomach 
sometimes rebelled at the domestic habits of his Indian 
mother, occasional scant fare furnished a keen appetite. To 
his own surprise he soon overcame these scruples regarding 
the untidy habits of those about him and learned to enjoy 
many things that under earlier conditions would have proved 
distasteful. To replace his worn clothing he adopted the 
full Indian dress. There were no underclothes. A stout 
belt was fastened about the body next to the skin. The 
waist-cloth, a strip of cloth or soft deer skin five or six feet 
long and from ten to sixteen inches wide, was passed be- 
tween the legs and drawn under the belt, the ends usually 
highly ornamented and fringed, hanging loose before and 
behind. The legs were covered with leggins reaching the 
upper part of the thighs and secured to the belt by thongs of 
deers' hide. The frock or shirt was gathered about the waist 
by a second belt. The frock and leggins were trimmed with 
fringe ; the feet encased in moccasins and the head covered 
with a cap made of skins or a piece of colored cloth wound 
round in form of a turban. Some of the men in place of a 
frock belted about the waist wore a blanket that was drawn 
up over the head like a hood. This blanket was used as a 
coat in the daytime and for a bed at night. The older In- 
dians oftenest wore the blanket. 

Horatio soon learned there was no law but personal 
might in an Indian community ; he had the discernment to 
understand that by maintaining a fearless demeanor he 
would suffer fewer hardships and gain greater respect than 
by any attempt to conciliate those who chose to override 
his personal rights. He conducted himself consistently, al- 
ways spoke the truth, endured physical discomfort without 
complaint, was foremost where his services were required 
or permitted, and was even-tempered and agreeable to all 
about him ; but under no circumstances would he submit to 
insult from warrior or chief. Possessing a natural gift of 
speech, he soon not only mastered the Seneca tongue, but 
also acquired the accentuation so difficult for beginners, 
upon which the meaning of many Indian words depends. 
He was soon called upon to act as interpreter in examining 


white prisoners brought into town and it became his recog- 
nized duty to question all the captives regarding such things 
as the red men wished to know. If a captive was found to 
have taken the life of an Indian in cold blood or in any 
manner save in battle he was condemned to torture. The 
position of interpreter was thus particularly responsible. 
To so question prisoners that he would retain the confidence 
of the red men and yet conceal from them that which would 
injure those who were questioned, required no little tact and 
courage.* Jones proved equal to such emergencies and 
sought opportunities to aid his fellow captives. He was soon 
referred to by the Indians as "Hi-e-wah-doo-gis-tah," or 
"The Interpreter." 

Entering into Indian games and sports with the zest of 
youth, Horatio won the admiration of the village by his 
personal prowess. He had a passion for fishing and hunt- 
ing, hence won success in the capture of game. His father 
gave him a gun and ammunition. His skill as a marksman 
was marveled at and no one ever affronted him when his 
favorite weapon, the rifle, was at hand. 

It had been the custom of Sir William Johnson to send 
blacksmiths among the Six Nations to repair their firearms, 
but this favor was discontinued at the opening of the war. 
Supt. Guy Johnson attempted to accommodate the Iroquois 
by doing their work at Niagara. This was a serious incon- 
venience to journey eighty miles by trail or rather double 
that distance going and returning to have the work per- 
formed by the British armorer at the fort. Horatio made 
some repairs to his own equipments and this led to work of 
the same nature for others. Delighting in this mechanical 
w r ork he set up a rude forge and from crude materials 
wrought out tools so that he repaired arms of the warriors. 
Then they called him "Hi-u-do-nis/' 'The Gunsmith.' 1 
Whenever they obtained a tool or crude material they took it 
to him. Worn-out axes of iron and horseshoes were worked 
in his fire and on his stone anvil into hoes, spears and knife 
blades; horseshoe nails were transformed into drills, awls, 
primers and wormers. The remains of old brass kettles £ur- 

S. H. Gridley, D. D., Collections, Waterloo Historical Society. 


nished the ingenious captive with material for bands and or- 
naments on tomahawk handles and gun stocks, and then 
they called him "Ha-wes-do-ne," or "Blacksmith." The 
women termed him "Haw-wes-ta-no-she-o-ne," "The Silver- 
smith." Silver coins he converted into rings for fingers and 
ears or hammered them into sheets from which he fashioned 
brooches and buttons. Bits of brass and thin strips of bone 
made an excellent comb. The horns of deer he made into 
knives, whips and awls, fish spears, hair pins and small boxes 
for holding paint. Mouthpieces for pipes were made of the 
same material, while a broken powderhorn, under his deft 
fingers, made a useful spoon. These labors were fully ap- 
preciated and the Indians assured him his services were of 
greater value to them than the combined work of all their 
other captives. Of course these experiences covered several 
months' residence among the Senecas during which time 
Jones had many and varied experiences. 

Hah-do-wes-go-wah made his permanent residence in the 
house in which Horatio first found refuge, but he made fre- 
quent excursions for game or to different places to visit 
friends. The family were proud of their new son and 
brother and the mother took great pleasure in introducing 
him to her acquaintances. 

V. The Meeting with Jasper Parrish. 

As soon as Horatio could make himself understood in 
Seneca the family prepared for a trip down the river. They 
selected such light articles as they needed, leaving every- 
thing else in the house. Hah-do-wes-go-wah had neither 
lock or bolt upon his door. When the family was ready to 
depart a few sheets of bark were laid over the smoke vent 
in the roof, and the wife set a broom outside the door with 
the handle fastened against the board in such a manner as 
not to be easily displaced by wind or storm. This was to 
indicate that the owners were absent ; the hunter left his 
home confident of finding it undisturbed on his return. 

Proceeding down the river trail carrying their simple 


baggage upon their backs, the party halted for a few days' 
visit at Little Beard's Town. Considerable attention was 
given the new Indian boy by his clan relatives residing there, 
and among other matters they related to him events con- 
nected with Sullivan's invasion. Jones knew that Lieutenant 
Thomas Boyd was a brother of his own company com- 
mander, and that incited an interest in the details of his 
capture. Nearly all the male inhabitants of Little Beard's 
Town had participated in the thrilling scenes and several 
of Horatio's new acquaintances had personally engaged in 
the torture of Boyd and Parker. These rehearsed for his 
entertainment the events leading to the death of the two 
prisoners, and escorted Horatio to the old town on the flat, 
and at the junction of two small streams they pointed out the 
exact spot of the execution. They described how Boyd's 
intestines were fastened to a tree and the unfortunate of- 
ficer driven and dragged about its trunk until his entrails 
were drawn from his body. Approaching the tree closely 
Horatio found numerous marks made with tomahawks upon 
the sides of the small oak and discovered clinging to the 
bark particles of dried flesh that the Indians assured him 
had remained there since the death of Boyd. Xot a single 
native would touch the tree as the superstitious creatures 
imagined bad luck would follow any contact with the flesh 
and that the spirits of the dead soldiers would haunt the of- 

Soon after, having been left alone, he was startled by a 
cry of "Hi, you !" in plain English. Turning Jones saw a 
man leaning upon his rifle. The stranger was clothed in 
Indian dress, but it was easy to see that he was a white man. 
There was a quizzical look upon his face and Horatio good- 
naturedly answered him, "Hi, yourself!" 

"Berry told me," said the stranger, "that he had brought 
a handsome boy to the Genesee, and he was tolerably correct, 
judging from your looks." 

"I wish I could say the same of you," Jones replied, 
laughing, "but I don't think your dress adds to your na- 
tural beauty." The two laughed and shook hands cordially. 
The stranger said his name was Joseph Smith, that he was 


captured at Cherry Valley, and was now living with an In- 
dian family at Little Beard's Town. Soon observing that 
they were watched by the Indians, Jones and Smith went 
each his way. Thus began the friendship between these two 
men of which we shall hear more later on. 

In consequence of their improvident habits the Indians 
frequently lacked food. During the absence of the Juniata 
war-party, corn, their principal article of diet, was ex- 
hausted at the upper Genesee village, and many of the In- 
dians were compelled to resort to wild roots and herbage 
to preserve their lives. An appeal for assistance was made 
to the commandant of Fort Niagara, who sent an officer to 
ascertain the condition of affairs in the Seneca towns. Upon 
his recommendation a generous supply of food was for- 
warded to the needy people, just prior to the return of the 
expedition ; hence, when Capt. Boyd and his fellow-prison- 
ers arrived on the Genesee, the Indians were well supplied 
with provisions. It was the custom of the Genesee Indians 
when game was scarce to go to Lake Erie to catch a kind 
of fish which they called skis-tu-wa, now supposed to have 
been mullets. These were opened and dried in smoke, large 
quantities often being carried to the home towns. The Ni- 
agara River was also a noted resort, and parties of Indians 
were almost constantly fishing there, at favorite points. 

Some time during the summer of 17S1, a party from the 
Genesee, including the family to which Horatio belonged, 
went on a fishing excursion to the Niagara. Working their 
way down the stream they encamped near the Devil's Hole, 
a great depression in the east bank of the river, three miles 
below Niagara Falls. Standing on its brink one can look 
down upon the tops of tall forest trees growing in the bot- 
tom of the pit. which covers an area of several acres. Near 
the top the sides are precipitous, but further down huge 
moss-covered rocks are strewn about as though tossed to 
their positions, by a convulsion of nature, presenting so wild 
an appearance that the beholder recognizes the appropriate- 
ness of the name to the place. The Seneca name was Dy-os- 
da-ny-ah-goh ("It has cleft the rocks off").* Horatio was 

* O. II. Marshall's Historical Writings. 


informed of the massacre of 1763 at that point, and showed 
so keen an interest that his Indian friends took pride in 
calling his attention to objects and locations with which the 
memorable events were connected. A chief whose ancestors 
had been dispossessed of the Niagara country by the Iro- 
quois, but who was reckoned a Seneca had been one of the 
leaders of this attack upon the English. In the fitful light 
of their camp-fire, located in view of the Devil's Hole he re- 
hearsed the episode and in the morning went over his battle- 
ground of eighteen years before. Curiosity led some of the 
party into the deep gulf. At the bottom they found bits of 
the wagons, skulls and scattered bones, mementoes of the 
awful tragedy. Climbing up the rocks on the northern side 
they came to an opening in the escarpment in the bottom of 
which a tiny stream of water trickled forth. The guides 
crawled into the aperture and Horatio followed. Once ac- 
customed to the dim light of the interior he beheld a chamber 
large enough to hold several people. He was glad to learn 
of this cavern and carefully noted its location in case he 
should ever need a safe retreat in that locality. 

While the fishing party camped near the Devil's Hole, 
Jones asked permission to go to Fort Niagara and as there 
was little danger of his escaping the vigilance of so many 
people his request was granted. He had arrived within half 
a mile of the fort when he came upon three boys, two of 
whom were dressed in the scarlet uniforms of British drum- 
mers and were evidently out on leave. The other boy 
seemed, from his dress and general appearance, to be an 
Indian twelve or thirteen years old. The two red-coats were 
forcing a quarrel with the smaller boy, who was on the de- 
fensive with a determined air that held his adversaries in 
check; it was apparent however that force of numbers 
would decide the contest if the boys came to blows. Horatio 
believed in fair play and noting the state of affairs stepped 
up to the trio and inquired in Seneca, "Ah-ne-vo-dyah?" 
("What is going on ?") The lads turned to look at the new- 
comer and the Indian replied in Mohawk, "These two boys 
want to whip me.'' 

"Can you whip one?" 



"Then you whip one and I will whip the other/' 

"All right," he cried, and before the astonished drum- 
mers realized the nature of the conversation, the young In- 
dians attacked them with vigor and soon punished them so 
severely that they beat a retreat towards the garrison, leav- 
ing the natives, so to speak, masters of the fields. Horatio 
could not restrain the impulse to shout : 

"Run, you red-coated devils ! Run like the cowards you 
are ; the next time you try to whip a boy get a man to help 

The Indian boy turned and gazed upon his generous 
champion, his eyes sparkling with delight. "You talk Eng- 
lish?'' he inquired. 

"Certainly," replied Horatio promptly. "I am a Penn- 
sylvania prisoner." 

"Why, I believe you are a white boy also," the other ex- 
claimed, viewing his new acquaintance critically. "Yes, I 
am," replied the lad, "and I cannot tell you how glad I am to 
meet a white friend." As the boys went on together to the 
fort they told their circumstances in mutual confidence. 
The lad told Jones that his name was Jasper Parrish. He 
was born in Connecticut in 1767. His father soon after 
went across the head waters of the Delaware and settled in 
New York. On the 5th of July, 1778, he accompanied his 
father and brother Stephen to assist a neighbor who lived in 
an exposed situation to remove nearer the settlement. When 
about six miles from home they were all captured, together 
with a man named James Pemberton, by a party of Munsee 
or Delaware Indians under a war-chief called Capt. Mounsh. 
The prisoners were conducted up the Delaware River to a 
camp called Cook House, near the mouth of Oquago Creek.* 
Two days later Mr. Parrish with others was separated from 
his son. Capt. Mounsh claimed Jasper as his prisoner and 
during the association of the two treated the white boy with 

* Cook House was near Deposit, N. Y. These facts as narrated by Horatio 
Tones and given by descendants of the latter, have been verified by a MS. pre- 
pared by Stephen Parrish, son of Jasper, and loaned by the latter's grand- 
daughter, Mrs. Carrie Cobb Draper, to the late Hon. Orlando Allen, who read 
the account before the Buffalo Historical Society. 


kindness. Jasper remained at Cook House until the 1st of 
October, when Capt. Mounsh and his party, with all his 
prisoners, continued their journey to Chemung. On enter- 
ing the village the Indians there gave a war-cry and ran out 
to meet them. They pulled Jasper off his horse and 
pounded him unmercifully with tomahawk handles and 
whips, until Capt. Mounsh interfered and rescued him. In 
the late fall Mounsh sold Jasper to a Delaware family, living 
near the village, on the south side of Tioga River. He was 
at once taken to his new home. During the winter he suf- 
fered greatly from lack of food and clothing. To harden 
him to cold the Indians compelled him to strip, each day of 
winter, and jump into the river through a hole cut in the 
ice; but in this and other respects he was treated as one of 
themselves by the Delawares. The family hunted and fished 
until the last of August. 1779; when General Sullivan's 
army approached, Jasper fled with the savages to Newtown, 
and was left with the squaws, other prisoners, and baggage, 
in a secure place. After the battle he continued with them 
up the river to Painted Post, where the warriors overtook 
the women the following day. They continued their flight 
by way of what are now Bath, Dansville, Fall Brook, Mos- 
cow and Tonawanda, making but brief stops until they 
reached Niagara, where nearly all the Iroquois were en- 
camped on the plains near the fort. A few days later Jasper 
met James Pemberton, who had been captured with himself. 
Pemberton told Jasper that he and his fellow-prisoners 
were brought to the Niagara River, where his captors 
camped on the flat under the mountain (now Lewiston). 
There the warriors decided to torture Pemberton, whose 
sturdy frame gave promise of great endurance. Joseph 
Brant, who was in command of the party, tried to persuade 
the band to give up their purpose. To this they would not 
consent, and setting up a green stake on the bluff overlook- 
ing the river, set Pemberton to work to collect wood for his 
own funeral pyre. Brant was displeased and secretly ap- 
pealed to the women, telling them if they would effect his 
escape one of them should have this fine-looking man for 
her husband. While Pemberton was gathering brush near 


a little runway the squaws hurried him out of sight. They 
took him to the fort where he was protected by Col. Butler 
who gave him work. Pemberton told Jasper that his father 
and brother had been sent to Montreal to be exchanged, but 
that he himself preferred to remain with the Indians.* 
Jasper said that the Indians became so troublesome at Ni- 
agara, that, to get rid of them, the British authorities of- 
fered a guinea for each Yankee scalp brought in. This re- 
ward led to an adventure that Jasper related to noratio as 
the boys walked slowly towards the fort. 

"The Delaware family I was with stayed here until late 
in the fall (1779) One day the Indians got to drinking 
and I was left with two warriors who were quite drunk. 
Being cold I gathered wood and kept up a good fire. The 
Indians sat on one side of the fire and I on the other. They 
began to talk, saying they would like more rum, and that 
it would be an easy matter to kill the young Yankee and get 
the bounty with which to buy it. I understood their con- 
versation and watched them closely. After a little one of 
them pluckea a long brand out of the fire and hurled it at 
me with all his might. I dodged the stick, sprang up and 
ran into the bushes where the Indians attempted to follow, 
but being drunk and the night dark they could not catch me. 
I kept away from the fire all night, but when they had be- 
come sober the next day I returned to camp. 

"One day my Delaware master took me into the fort and 
tried to sell me to the white people there, but none of them 
would buy. Finally we met a large, fine-looking Mohawk 
named Capt. Daniel Hill, who bought me of the Delaware 
for twenty dollars. Capt. Hill took me to his tent and said 
to me in English : 'This is your home, and you must stay 
here.' I had been very well treated by the Delawares, had 
learned their language and did not like the idea of changing 
masters. However the change has proved a very happy one 
in many respects. 

"In November the Six Nations held a <rreat council in the 

* Pemberton remained at Niagara until released in 1783. He then joined 
the Tuscaroras and married the mother of John Mountpleasant. His numerous 
descendants are among the must respected Tuscarora families of the present day. 


fort. Capt. Hill took me in to the assemblage and I thought 
he was going to sell me to some other nation, but instead 
of that he put a belt of wampum about my neck, and a very 
old chief took me by the hand and made a speech. I did 
not understand what was said as the Mohawk language is 
so very different from the Delaware ; the whole affair was 
conducted in a very solemn manner. After the speech all 
the chiefs came and shook hands with me and Capt. Hill 
told me he had adopted me as his son ; that I must return 
to his tent, which was now my own home. 

"We remained at the fort till the next May when all the 
Mohawks there moved up under the mountain about two 
miles east of the river ; that is now our home. I have been 
treated very kindly by Capt. Hill and his family and the 
other Mohawks. I have hunted and fished with them, been 
with a war-party to the settlements and visited many of the 
Six Nations' towns." 

The boys spent the day together at the fort. A warm 
friendship sprang up between them and their frequent meet- 
ings thereafter were among the most pleasant events of 
their forest lives. 

VI. Flight and Return — An Encounter. 

The white captives in the Genesee towns had little oppoi- 
tunity for intercourse with each other. While apparently 
free to come and go they were each and all under surveil- 
lance and any attempt to pass certain limits was checked in 
a manner unpleasantly suggestive of fatal results in a serious 
attempt to escape. 

Horatio so thoroughly ingratiated himself in the affec- 
tions of the family and so vigorously resented interference 
with his personal rights .that he was permitted many priv- 
ileges denied to captives of less independence of spirit. 
There was much in the life he led in the wilderness that was 
congenial and to all outward appearances he was satisfied 
with the change in his condition; yet under his careless 
manner he, at times, carried a troubled heart. Visions of 


the home on the Juniata, of parents and friends would in- 
trude to disturb his slumbers and he secretly pined for home 
and civilization. He had little confidence in his ability to 
find his way back to Bedford County and he availed himself 
of the first opportunity to enlist in an expedition against 
the frontier settlers, thinking he might find an opportunity, 
when near settlements, to escape. His offer was rejected on 
the plea that his services were greatly needed at home to 
mend the guns and examine prisoners. At length he re- 
solved to escape. Putting his weapons in order and securing 
a supply of ammunition and a little food, early one morning 
he left the camp. His departure was unobserved and his 
absence not noted until some hours later when his assist- 
ance was required in some small matter. As no one could 
tell where he was suspicions were aroused and the Indians 
at once concluded that Hoc-sa-go-wah ''walk bushes" to es- 
cape. An alarm was spread and men scattered in all direc- 
tions to discover traces of the fugitive. Thanks to his skill 
in woodcraft he covered his trail so perfectly that the ex- 
perienced hunters found no sign. They scoured the forest 
paths for miles and sent their fleetest runners upon distant 
trails. Knowing this would be the course Jones sought the 
frontier of Pennsylvania by a route that would avoid In- 
dian paths yet be sufficiently direct to reach his destination 
in the briefest possible time. The extra caution he was 
forced to exercise rendered his progress slow and laborious. 
He had been alone in the wilderness many hours, when he 
discovered a sheltered place in a ravine where he could spend 
the night. Reconnoitering the surroundings and deciding 
the best course of retreat in case of an attack, he carefully 
effaced every trace of his trail and stretched his weary limbs 
for a night's repose upon a bed of soft leaves. He consid- 
ered himself beyond all danger of pursuit and feared only a 
chance encounter with straggling hunters. Musing upon 
his situation the fugitive's thoughts ran to his boyhood's 
home. He wondered if he would find his friends as he left 
them, if his father and mother were still living; what 
changes might have occurred during his absence. Then his 
thoughts turned to himself. He had left home a fair-corn- 


plexioned boy ; now every exposed part of his person was 
bronzed by sun and wind to a shade not very unlike the 
natural color of the Indians, and in outward appearance he 
was an uncouth native of the wilderness. He w r ondered if 
his friends would recognize and welcome him or would re- 
gard him with surprise and indifference. His relatives had 
doubtless given him up as dead, and though he had been 
absent so short a time it would seem like beginning a new 
life to reenter the settlement. Then he thought of the 
wretched captives whom the savages were constantly bring- 
ing to the Genesee, and how he had already been able to 
mitigate the sufferings and preserve the lives of several 
persons. It seemed as though the event of his capture was 
truly providential, and that he had been sent there for some 
special purpose. If he weie to effect his escape would it 
not be like deserting a post of duty? Who would take his 
place as interpreter and befriend prisoners? Would it not 
be better to forego his own desires, return to the Indian town 
and continue in his increasing influence in behalf of cap- 
tives ? All the long hours of that dismal night his mind was 
active with conflicting thoughts ai^d when morning came he 
decided to return to his Indian home. With this resolution 
he realized that to carry it into effect he must risk the danger 
of recapture and the horrors of certain torture, the usual 
fate of deserters. He felt sure if he could, enter the village 
undetected he would not have to suffer severe punishment. 
On his return he used the same skill in forest strategem that 
accomplished his escape. Before his presence in the Indian 
town was known he entered his father's house, quietly laid 
aside his equipments, to all outward appearances uncon- 
scious of anything unusual or strange in his actions. The 
warm welcome that followed his entrance dissipated every 
doubt of the affection of the family and the wisdom of his 
return. No explanation of his absence was required, it be- 
ing tacitly conceded that he had missed his course while 
hunting and was too proud to speak of the mistake. He 
received cautions and instructions for future guidance and 
thereafter the Indians were less vigilant in guarding him ; 
but he never revealed to them his attempt to escape. 


For a distance of sixteen miles below what is now Port- 
age, as the channel runs, the Genesee River occupies the 
bottom of a deep gorge, the rocky walls of which rise in 
places nearly 500 feet above the water. In the town of Mt. 
Morris the stream suddenly breaks through the side of 
the mountain and thereafter winds in great curves through 
vast prairies or flats that extend to the city of Rochester 
nearly forty miles distant in air line. This opening in the 
side of the valley is a striking feature of the landscape; the 
Senecas called the spot "Da-yo-it-ga-o," "Where the river 
issues from the hill."* The west bank is broken by a pla- 
teau, 200 feet perhaps above the stream, from which a fine 
view may be obtained of a long and magnificent stretch of 
landscape. All about the student of aboriginal history dis- 
covers evidences of a pre-historic people who dwelt there 
before the Iroquois conquest; prior to the date of Sulli- 
van's campaign, no Seneca village had been located upon the 

The Squ-agh-kie Indians, who figured as a separate na- 
tion in Colonel Butler's Niagara treaty in 1776, had been 
captured some years previous to that time, by the Iroquois, 
adopted and attached to the Seneca nation. According to 
Iroquois custom when a large body of prisoners was taken, 
the Squ-agh-kies, or Squakies, were established in a sep- 
arate village, a few miles south of the principal town of the 
Senecas. They resided at Gath-se-o-wa-lo-ha-re in 1779, 
which village was destroyed by Sullivan. When Guy John- 
son in the early spring of 1780 dispersed the Iroquois to new 
homes the Squakies were assigned a seat on the west side of 
the Genesee at Da-yo-it-ga-o on the trail between De-o-num- 
da-gao and the up-river towns. The village bore a distinc- 
tive title but was generally termed Squakie Hill. 

On the plateau previously described, overlooking the 
Genesee and Caneseraga valleys, was a level open space of 
about two acres, supposed to have been a clearing made by a 
prehistoric people, where the Iroquois of the Genesee held 
their annual feasts and dances. After the annual crop of 
beans, corn and squashes was harvested, the inhabitants of 

* Squakie Hill. 


the Seneca villages assembled there for a grand harvest fes- 
tival. Hundreds of men, women and children camped in the 
vicinity; on the days of the feasts great fires were made, 
and huge kettles of succotash and squashes were cooked and 
distributed to the multitude. Horatio was much interested 
in the ceremonies on the occasion of his first visit to Squakie 
Hill and heartily enjoyed the novelty as well as the unusual 
supply of nourishing food. 

Since the day of his adoption Horatio had had little in- 
tercourse with Sharp Shins. The famous hunter resided at 
Squakie Hill and on this occasion took part in the festivites. 
Jones soon discovered that an evil influence was at work 
against himself for some of the young braves began petty 
persecutions that he disdained to notice ; so they determined 
to humiliate the handsome boy who seemed so unconscious 
of their efforts to awaken his resentment. One day several 
young persons were seated near a fire engaged in light talk 
as they received liberal portions of succotash which the 
women were dispensing. Presently a clique of young braves 
began to banter Jones who had then pretty thoroughly mas- 
tered the Seneca tongue. He met the raillery with such good- 
humored replies that he turned the laugh upon the assailants. 
Numbers began to gather about the fire listening to the 
badinage, when it became evident that the braves were en- 
deavoring to force a quarrel. Jones felt sure of this when he 
saw Sharp Shins join the circle and heard the shrill laugh of 
the runner at each sally of the aggressive party and he quietly 
determined upon a plan of action. Finding that the white boy 
was too keen in repartee for their dull wit the braves began 
abuse, and one fellow attempted to anger Horatio by an 
open insult. The words hardly escaped the lips of the bully 
when Jones seized the offender by the collar of his deerskin 
frock and with a jerk brought him upon his knees in front 
of the fire. Pushing the fellow's head between his own 
knees Horatio held him as in a vice, tore open the frock at 
the throat and seizing a squash from a boiling kettle thrust 
it down the Indian's back next to the flesh. Loosening his 
hold of the man's head, Jones suddenly forced him over on 
his back, mashing the hot squash to a soft plaster that 


burned the flesh to a blister. The yells and contortions of 
the victim incited the uproarious mirth of all present and 
as Horatio released him he scrambled to his feet, tore off his 
frock, and scraping the mass from his back slunk away 
amid a chorus of jeers. Jones quietly resumed his seat and 
continued his meal without further interruption. 

Disappointed at the failure of his plan to injure the hand- 
some boy through others, Sharp Shins determined to make 
a personal effort to kill him. The wily runner was thor- 
oughly skilled in the use of the tomahawk and could split a 
sapling at a distance that few hunters could strike the tree. 
While some of the young men were exhibiting their skill 
in throwing axes at a tree, the runner joined the party and 
watching his opportunity during the excitement of the game 
managed to throw his tomahawk, apparently by accident, 
directly at Jones. As if by a miracle the weapon of the 
treacherous savage missed the boy but all the passion in 
Horatio's nature was aroused at the act. Catching up the 
keen axe he turned upon his persecutor and hurled the 
weapon back with tremendous force. If the tomahawk had 
been thrown with a skill equal to the strength expended in 
the effort Sharp Shins would never more have traveled the 
forest trails. As it was he received a blow from the flying 
axe that knocked him over, inflicting injuries that confined 
him to his hut for several days. The Indians generally ap- 
proved the action of Hoc-sa-go-wah and he was not again 
molested during the festival season. 

During the early winter of 1781-2 the Indians on the 
Genesee were attacked by smallpox, a disease that often 
raged among the red men until it exhausted its malignant 
force in a lack of victims. The Indians appealed to the 
commandant of Niagara who sent English surgeons to care 
for them. On the arrival of the surgeons, the sick were sep- 
arated from the well, huts were prepared outside the village 
to serve as hospitals, and as soon as symptoms appeared the 
individuals were sent to these rude retreats. Few persons 
on the upper Genesee escaped the contagion. Many died 
and were immediately buried. Only those who had recov- 
ered from the plague could be prevailed upon to care for the 


sick and the reckless indifference of some of these unwilling 
attendants was such that several persons were buried alive 
when it appeared probable they could not recover. It was 
the knowledge of this rather than the fatality of the scourge 
that seriously alarmed Horatio when he was stricken and 
removed to a lonely hut in the woods. "Against such a fate 
Jones zealously guarded. Hence when the disease was at 
its crisis, life was hanging in the balance equally poised and 
he was no longer able to give verbal indications of vitality, 
his irrepressible energy made sufficient sign that he was not 
to be buried so long as he could breathe. His hardy con- 
stitution withstood the shock of the disease, which cleansed 
his system of all impurities, leaving him stronger than be- 
fore."* The scourge on the Genesee ran its course, when 
the survivors resumed their ordinary routine of life. 

Although Sharp Shins avoided all personal contact with 
Jones after his unpleasant encounter at Squakie Hill, his 
evil influence was ever secretly at work to annoy and injure 
"the handsome boy." The latter was, on several occasions, 
placed in positions that required all his tact in order to ex- 
tricate himself with credit to himself and he finally deter- 
mined to bring matters to an issue either with Sharp Shins 
or those whom he influenced to annoy him. 

The winter was severe and the snow so deep at times that 
persons wandering from beaten paths wore snowshoes. The 
labor of procuring the fuel became too great for the 
women who usually performed that duty and the young 
men were sent out to bring in wood. On these occasions 
the fuel hunters usually went in small parties, collected and 
packed the wood in bum lies that they carried on their shoul- 
ders. By pursuing one route they made a narrow but well 
beaten path in the snow nearly on a level with the ground 
but wide enough for only one person. While out for wood 
one day the friends of Sharp Shins determined to have some 
sport at the expense of Jones, by pushing him, one after the 
other, off the trail into the deep snow, leaving him to floun- 
der out unaided. 

* Sketch of Horatio Jones by S. II. Cridley, D. D., in Collections of Water- 
loo Historical Society. 


Horatio had secured some saplings and the sharp, jagged 
roots were closely packed together at the ends. The load 
was heavy and when the first brave threw him into the 
deep snow he joined in the laugh against himself, as he 
with some difficulty regained his footing. The second ef- 
fort aroused his suspicions and the third his anger. As the 
third Indian came up to try his skill the persecuted boy sud- 
denly paused and turning his strength into one desperate 
effort, whirled around on his toes. Jones had calculated his 
distance well and the roots of the saplings struck the of- 
fender square in the face, knocking him headlong into the 
deep snow. Jones recovered his balance and without a 
glance backward quietly continued his course, leaving the 
discomfited bullies to assist their unfortunate comrade who 
was badly injured. 

It was encounters of this nature that taught even the 
bravest of the Senecas to hesitate before unnecessarily pro- 
voking the wrath that recked nothing of consequences in its 
swift punishment of offenders. Yet while they feared his 
anger even his worst enemy, the bow-legged runner, came 
to understand that Horatio was just in his resentment, hon- 
est in judgment and on occasions where others were at fault 
but subject to reason he was forbearing even to mildness. 
These traits of character won him many friends. An inci- 
dent illustrates Jones' rare moral courage. The training of 
the frontiersmen of that day included a knowledge of 
wrestling, an art in which the Indians were quite deficient. 
In many hand to hand fights between white and red men the 
skill of the white wrestlers won the victory. The warriors 
were well aware of this fact and as Jones was proficient in 
all athletic exercises they frequently sought to improve their 
muscular dexterity by friendly wrestling matches with the 
nimble youth, whose skill usually proved more than equal 
to their greater strength. "On one occasion a powerful 
Seneca warrior challenged Horatio to a trial of strength. 
For a time Jones permitted the warrior to throw him so 
easily that many thought the captive had at length met his 
match ; but suddenly the Indian was raised from his feet 
?.nd laid upon his back. Instantly springing up he de- 

VII. Horatio's Trip for the Trader. 

In the early spring- of 1782 an English trader came from 
Fort Niagara to the Genesee with a stock of clothes 
and trinkets. As Hoc-sa-go-wah was generally called 
upon to act as interpreter in transactions between the 
whites and Indians, the trader engaged his services. 
The goods sold rapidly and finding that he could still 
do a good business the trader concluded to replenish his 
stock. During his intercourse with the young interpre- 
ter he had become convinced that the latter was trust- 
worthy, and in fact the only person he knew upon whom 
he could rely ; accordingly he made a proposition to 
Horatio to go to Niagara and bring back a large package of 
goods, offering as a reward for the labor an entire suit of 
clothes, consisting of a blanket, coat, shirt, leggins, and col- 
ored head-dress, with some silver ornaments in addition. 
Jones at that time was permitted to go and come as he 
pleased in the vicinity of Caneadea, and as the offer was too 

* Sketch of Jones by Hon. Norman Seymour of Mt. Morris. 


manded another trial and was again placed carefully upon 
the ground. Greatly astonished the warrior insisted upon a 
third trial in which all his strength was exerted to overcome 
the young wrestler. Jones now brought into play an un- 
expected movement, called the hip-lock, throwing the war- 
rior heavily to the earth. Stung by the shouts of the spec- 
tators and in pain from the shock, the Indian jumped up 
exclaiming fiercely, 'You hurt me; I kill you.' Running 
for his hatchet he quickly returned with the uplifted weapon. 
Horatio stood motionless, and as the Indian cautiously ap- 
proached addressed him thus : 'Cousin, this was a trial of 
strength and you challenged me. I was the victor, but if 
my cousin thinks me worthy of death, here I am.' The In- 
dian hesitated a moment, then threw away the hatchet, and 
approached with outstretched hands in token of friendship. 
This display of unflinching courage rendered the Seneca 
warrior a life-long friend."* 


tempting to be declined he agreed to start as soon as he 
could make the necessary preparations. Hastening home he 
entered the house, shouting "Noh-yeh, noh-yeh!" ("Mother, 
mother!") "Go-a-wak, go-a-wak," ("My son, my son,") 
returned the good woman, pausing a moment in her work 
to smile at the impetuous youth and learn the cause of his 
excitement. Horatio eagerly explained the proposition of 
the trader and his own agreement to go after the goods, 
without a thought that the arrangement would be otherwise 
than pleasing to his family. To his astonishment the smile 
gave place to an expression of grave disapproval and when 
he had finished she sternly refused her consent, telling 
Horatio he was not mature and was not strong enough to 
carry a large pack such a distance ; besides, she said, if he 
went to Niagara alone among the white people he would not 
return and she would never see him again. In vain he 
promised and argued ; she would not listen and positively 
forbade him to leave home. 

Seeing her so resolute he apparently accepted her decision 
as final and cheerfully started upon some slight mission she 
required. Being quite as stubborn as his Indian mother he 
determined to go at any cost. During the day he informed 
the trader of the state of affairs and received from the latter 
an order upon the post-sutler at Niagara for the goods 
wanted. Later he removed his rifle and equipments to a 
hiding place in the woods, managed to secure some bread 
and rested as much as possible during the day. At night 
Horatio retired at an early hour and apparently soon fell 
asleep ; he however watched the tardy movements of the 
other members of his family until all were wrapped in sound 
slumber. Then he stole quietly into the forest, secured his 
arms and food and started on the trail for Buffalo Creek. 

The path ran northwest over the summit that divides the 
waters of the Genesee River from those of Lake Erie ; fell 
into the valley of Cattaraugus Creek, passed over into the 
valley of the west branch of Buffalo Creek and followed the 
general course of that stream to the Seneca settlement at the 
junction of the branch with the main stream four miles from 
its mouth on Lake Erie. Having been over the trail with 


the fishing party the young captive was familiar with the 
route. He had no fear of meeting any one during the night 
and as there was sufficient light to enable him to see the path 
quite plainly he started at a rapid pace ; but as daylight ap- 
proached he turned aside into a dense thicket at a bend of 
the path. Here on a bed of dry pine needles he reclined in 
such a manner that he could see the trail for a dis- 
tance each way without danger of being discovered himself 
by persons on the road. After eating his simple meal and 
placing his arms ready for instant use he stretched out his 
weary limbs and fell asleep. Being awakened late in the 
afternoon by the sound of voices, he looked forth from 
his concealment and saw two Indians approaching over the 
trail by which he had come. He recognized them at once 
and knew they were in pursuit of him. 

It had been his intention to abandon the regular path for 
the rest of the day and to travel parallel with and at such a 
distance from it as to avoid being seen, but as the pursuers 
w r ere now in advance he had no further fear of being over- 
taken. An hour after the Indians passed he resumed his 
journey on the main trail. Traveling through the lonely 
forest all that night, he crossed several streams and avoid- 
ing Indian camps near the end of Lake Erie, passed over 
the present site of Buffalo on the trail running down the 
east side of the Niagara River. As he was again in advance 
of his pursuers, probably, he halted for a brief rest and ate 
his breakfast. Resuming the march by daylight he for- 
tunately reached the crossing of Tonawanda Creek without 
encountering a human being. As the route was much trav- 
eled a canoe was usually kept at this point for general use as 
a ferry. Finding the canoe on the east side Horatio hastily 
paddled across the stream, secured the boat, hastened on- 
ward two or three miles and again turned aside at a place 
where he could rest and at the same time look out without 
himself being observed. As he munched his coarse brown 
bread he soberly considered the situation. At the point 
where he lay the trail turned nearly west following the curve 
of the Niagara River to Fort Schlosser, a few miles further 
on. Fie knew that Indians in ereater or less numbers were 


almost constantly encamped at Schlosser and he feared that 
some of them might annoy or detain him, if he kept the 
usual road. 

By waiting a few hours he would get a much-needed rest 
and possibly be able to pass Schlosser unobserved in the 
darkness ; but even if he were successful the delay might 
bring his pursuers upon him. He now decided upon a 
movement that illustrates his courage and self-reliance in 
taking risks to accomplish desired ends. Up to this point 
he had depended upon the regular Indian paths for his 
course, but he now decided to take a straight cut through 
the wilderness to Fort Niagara. To his great joy after sev- 
eral hours of travel he came out upon the portage road not 
far from the crest of the mountain ridge near the present 
village of Lewiston. Stepping into the well-beaten path he 
walked to the mouth of the river, some eight or nine miles, 
boldly entered the fort, presented his order, received his 
goods, obtained some bread and hurried back into the forest. 
Not daring to take the open trail on the return journey and 
encouraged by the success of his first venture Horatio again 
ventured through the woods, taking a course further east 
that avoided the river trail and led him to the crossing of 
Buffalo Creek, where he resumed the regular path to the 
Genesee. In due time he arrived safely with his heavy 
load. This had been a difficult, lonely journey of about ioo 
miles through a gloomy wilderness. Yet Horatio experi- 
enced no exultation beyond a thought of satisfaction at the 
probability of securing greater liberty in his future move- 
ments. The trader, receiving his goods, at once paid the 
carrier his well-earned reward. Horatio arrayed himself in 
his new clothes and marched proudly home. His mother 
was delighted at his return and his other relatives were loud 
in their expressions of welcome; his arrival in advance of 
the runners sent to bring him back convinced them of his 

Accepting the greetings with good-nature Horatio im- 
proved the opportunity to impress upon the minds of all that 
he had no desire to return to the settlements of the whites 
but wished to remain with the red men if they would permit 


him the rights and privileges to which the other young men 
of the nation were entitled. Thereafter his family accorded 
him their full confidence, permitting him to come and go un- 
questioned; but he was conscious that others maintained 
secret watch upon his actions. 

VIII. Van Campen's Capture and Escape. 

Among those whose lives were intimately associated with 
Horatio Jones was Moses Van Campen,* who was born in 
1757 in Hunterdon Co., New Jersey. Soon after his birth 
the family moved to Northampton Co., Pennsylvania, and 
located on the Delaware River; but in 1773, in com- 
pany with a brother they moved to Northumberland Co., 
to the present town of Orange, about eight miles above the 
mouth of Fishing Creek. This stream enters the north 
branch of the Susquehanna, near the present town of Ru- 
pert, Columbia Co., the Fishing Creek country being one of 
the points where were the earliest settlements of the North 

The Indian trail from the West Branch to Nescopeck 
crossed the divide several miles above Jerseytown, and an 
Indian town was located where Lycoming, Montour, and 
Columbia counties meet. Even after the wdiites began to 
occupy the soil in considerable numbers the savages clung 
tenaciously to that region which had been a favorite hunt- 
ing ground. Among the pioneers of the Lower Fishing 
Creek were James McClure, Thomas Clayton, Peter Melick, 
Joseph Wheeler, Joseph Salmon, the Van Campens, Aik- 
mans, McHenrys and others whose names have long been 
conspicuous in history. 

"In 1775, two years subsequent to the advent of the Van 

* "Life of Moses Van Campen" by J. N. Hubbard, B. A., Dansville, N. Y., 
1842; revised and re-published at Fillmore, N. Y., in 1893 by John S. Minard; 
Also "Petition of Van Campen to Congress" with affidavits of Horatio Jones; 
Bates' "History of Columbia Co., Pa.," by C F. Hill, Hazelton, Pa.: Stone's 
"Life of Brant," Sims' "History of Schoharie Co." and "Pioneers of the Gene- 
see Valley." 


Campens," says Bates, "George Whitmoyer,* Michael Billi- 
mer and Daniel Welliner came from that region on the Dela- 
ware in New Jersey opposite Northampton Co., and cross- 
ing Eastern Pennsylvania to Harris' ferry, followed the 
Susquehanna and Frozen Duck, or Chillisquaque, to the 
Jerseytown valley. 

"Whitmoyer settled a short distance above Jerseytown, 
Billimer located on Muddy Run, and Welliner fixed his resi- 
dence on Whetstone Run." 

Surrounded by these pioneer families, in a comfortable 
log cabin, Moses Van Campen matured into a sturdy young 
man, inn tired to the hardships of border life, skilled in wood- 
craft, and with a considerable acquaintance among the In- 
dians, who frequented the region. He was a natural leader 
of men engaged in desperate enterprises. In 1776 he en- 
tered the Continental army as an ensign in the 12th Penn- 
sylvania regiment, commanded by Col. Wm. Cook, and the 
following year became orderly sergeant of Capt. Gastrin's 
company in Col. Kelley's regiment. In 1778 he was a lieu- 
tenant of a company of six-months' men and in April built 
Fort Wheeler, on Fishing Creek, about three miles above its 
mouth. In 1779 Moses Van Campen was appointed quarter- 
master of General Sullivan's army, held that position during 
the expedition to the Genesee valley, and at the close of the 
campaign returned to Fort Wheeler, where his father and 
several neighbors still remained. 

The Indians had been so completely routed by Sullivan 
that the Americans had little fear of further invasions, so in 
the spring of 1780 the Fishing Creek settlers determined to 
re-occupy their farms. Late in March Moses Van Campen's 
father and uncle left Fort Wheeler for their farms about two 
miles up the creek. They were accompanied by Moses, a 
young brother, a cousin also a lad, and Peter Pence, one of 
the most noted hunters and Indian fighters of the Susque- 

* The earliest form of this name that we find is "Witmer"; it was so spelled 
by the emigrant from Switzerland who reached Philadelphia in 1733. It has 
since had various forms. Mr. Harris usually wrote "Whitmoyer," as it is 
giv*en in many records; the more modern form, "Whitmore," is used by Sarah 
Whitmore's granddaughter, Mrs. Sarah E. Gunn, in her narrative of the cap- 
tivity, printed later on in this volume. 


hanna region. Establishing a camp on each farm the parties 
began the work of reconstructing their houses. Not fearing 
any clanger they were not armed, having with them but two 
rifles, one at each camp. 

One of the first results of Guy Johnson's efforts to hasten 
the red men upon the warpath in the spring of 1780 was an 
expedition headed by Joseph Brant, that left Niagara in 
March. Proceeding to the Genesee, a number of people re- 
mained there, while the chief and forty-three Indians, and 
seventy Tory rangers, crossed the summit at the head of the 
Canaseraga and descended the Chemung to Tioga Point, 
where they joined detachments under John Mohawk and 
English, two noted chiefs, departing from there to ravage 
the Pennsylvania settlements. They continued in company 
down the Susquehanna to Meshoppen Creek, where the two 
bands separated. English, with six warriors, proceeded to 
the upper end of Wyoming valley, capturing Libbeus Ham- 
mond, a man named Bennett, and his young son. Retreating 
to Meshoppen Creek the party camped to await the return 
of the other detachment. 

Chief English could talk with the prisoners in their own 
language ; during the evening he began a conversation with 
Hammond. Among other matters he asked the latter if he 
had ever known Lieut. Boyd of Gen. Sullivan's army. Ham- 
mond replied that he was once intimately acquainted with 
that officer. English then produced a sword and drawing 
a blade from the scabbard handed it to Hammond with a 
smile of exultation, saying, "There is Boyd's sword." Ham- 
mond examined the weapon closely and discovered the ini- 
tials T. B. stamped on the side near the hilt. English said he 
commanded the Indians lying in ambush for the advance of 
Sullivan's army the night Boyd was sent on as a scout. After 
describing in detail the capture of Boyd, Chief English con- 
tinued : "We took Boyd prisoner and put him to death. We 
cut off his fingers and toes and plucked out his eyes, but 
Boyd neither asked for mercy nor uttered a complaint. 
Boyd was a brave man and as good a soldier as ever fought 
against the red men." After the recital of English the pris- 
oners were securely bound and the warriors lav down to 


sleep. At daylight a cold wind caused the Indians to loosen 
the prisoners, with orders to build a large fire. Six of the 
warriors again went to sleep, leaving one on guard. The 
prisoners determined to escape and watching their oppor- 
tunity Hammond suddenly caught up a spear and thrust it 
tii rough the body of the guard with such force that the 
breast bone closed on the spear head holding it firmly. The 
Indian fell forward on the fire with a yell and Hammond 
tugged at the spear to withdraw it. English sprang to his 
feet with a "Chee-whoo, chee-whoo." Bennett seized a 
tomahawk, buried it in the head of the chief and instantly 
followed up the blow by braining three others. Hammond 
now abandoned his spear and as the remaining two Indians 
had fled into the woods, he threw a tomahawk, severely 
wounding one in the shoulder. During the fight Bennett's 
son tried to shoot, but found the guns empty. The whites 
gathered up such things as they desired, including Boyd's 
sword, threw everything else into the fire and set out for 
their homes, where they arrived three days later.* 

After the departure of English and his party from Tioga 
Point, Mohawk with nine warriors went down the Sus- 
quehanna to the vicinity or Shawnee Flats, where they killed 
Asa Upson, and captured a boy named Jonah Rogers. Ad- 
vancing to Fishing Creek the Indians killed the uncle of 
Moses Van Campen, captured the young son of the latter 
and Peter Pence. Shortly after they surprised and cap- 
tured Moses Van Campen and killed his father and young 
brother. Continuing up Fishing Creek to the head of Hem- 
lock Creek they captured a man named Abraham Pike, with 
his wife and child. "These,'' says Hubbard, "they stripped 
of all their clothing except a thin garment. One of the sav- 
ages took the little one by the heels and swung it around 
with the intention of dashing out its brains against a tree. 
The infant screamed and the mother with a frantic shriek 

* Hubbard's "'Life of Van Campen," Stone's "Life of Brant," "Annals of 
Binghamton" by J. B. Wilkinson, and statements to the writer by Asa P. 
Bovier of Elmirn, a grandson of Hammond. While at a treaty at Elmira in 
1790 Hammond saw the Indian whom he wounded with the tomahawk at Wyom- 
ing. Several years later Hammond gave the sword to Col. John Boyd, the 
former commander and fellow captive of Horatio Jones. 


flew to its relief, catching hold of the warrior's arm. Chief 
Mphawk seeing the situation came up, took the child from 
the cruel wretch and gave it to the agonized mother. He 
then returned the clothing that had been torn from her and 
taking out his paint box painted his mark upon her face, 
pointed in the direction he wanted her to go, saying, 'J°Sga 
squaw.' She departed and arrived safely at Wyoming." 

The Indians with Van Campen, Pence, Pike and the two 
boys continued their retreat to Meshoppen Creek, where 
they discovered the fate of English and his party. The 
faces of the warriors suddenly lighted up with passion and 
every move indicated their desire for revenge. Mohawk 
alone retained his composure; his utmost efforts were re- 
quired to prevent the savages from immediately avenging 
their comrades by the torture of the prisoners. On reaching 
a point about fifteen miles from Tioga Point the party 
camped to wait the arrival of Brant. 

Knowing they were doomed to torture and death Van 
Campen arranged with Pence and Pike to attempt escape. 
They planned to disarm the warriors while asleep. Pence 
was to take possession of the guns and fire, while Pike was 
to kill two on the left with a tomahawk and Van Campen 
the three on the right in a similar manner. That night the 
prisoners were bound as usual. "About midnight," says 
Van Campen, in his petition to Congress, "I got up and 
found them in a sound sleep. I slipped to Pence who arose ; 
I cut him loose and he did the same by me ; then I cut Pike 
loose ; in a minute's time we disarmed the Indians. Pence 
took his station at the guns. Pike and myself with toma- 
hawks took our stations. At that moment Pike's two awoke 
and were getting up. Plere Pike proved a coward and lay 
down. It was a critical moment. I saw there was no time 
to lose ; their heads turned up fair ; I despatched them in a 
moment and turned to my lot as agreed. As I was about to 
dispatch the last one on my side of the fire, Pence shot and 
did good execution. There was only one at the off wing 
that his ball did not reach, a stout, daring fellow named 
Mohawk. At the alarm he jumped off about three rods from 
the fire ; he saw it was the prisoners who made the attack ; 


giving the war-whoop he darted for the guns ; I was quick 
to prevent him. The contest was then between him and my- 
self. As I raised my tomahawk he turned quickly to jump 
from me ; I followed and struck at him, but missing his 
head my tomahawk struck his shoulder, or rather the back 
of his neck. He pitched forward and fell ; at the same time 
my foot slipped and I fell by his side. We clinched; his 
arm was naked ; he caught me round my neck ; I caught 
him with my left arm around the body and gave him a close 
hug, at the same time feeling for his knife, but could not 
reach it. In our scuffle my tomahawk dropped out. My 
head was under the wounded shoulder and I was almost 
suffocated with blood. I made a violent spring and broke 
from his hold; we both rose at the same time and he ran. 
It took me some time to clear the blood from my eyes. My 
tomahawk had got covered and I could not find it in time 
to overtake him. He was the only one of the party who 
escaped. Pike was powerless ; he was trying to pray and 
Pence was swearing at him, charging him with cowardice, 
saying it was no time to pray, he ought to fight. We were 
masters of the ground. I then turned my attention to scalp- 
ing them and recovered the scalps of my father and brother 
and others ; I strung them on my belt for safekeeping. We 
kept our ground till morning, built a raft and set sail for 
Wyoming. . . . The following day I went to Sunbury. 
... I was received with joy, my scalps were exhibited, 
the cannons were fired, etc." 

After the departure of English and Mohawk from Tioga 
Point the main expedition under Brant proceeded to the 
head waters of the Delaware, where Capt. Alexander Harper 
and thirteen militia on April 7th were surprised in a sugar 
camp. Harper told Brant there was a large force of troops 
at Schoharie and so impressed the war chief that the latter 
decided to change his course and at once began a retreat. 
Descending the Delaware to Cook House flats where Jasper 
Parrish had previously been located, the expedition crossed 
over to Oquago, constructed rafts and floated down the Sus- 
quehanna to the Chemung where they were to meet the de- 
tachment of seventeen men. "Mohawk." says Sims, "was 


occupying- a little hut near Tioga Point, where the Minne- 
sink party were to await Brant's arrival, trying to heal his 
wound." "As the party under Brant drew near the place 
the war-whoop was sounded and soon answered by a pitiful 
howl — the death yell of the lone Indian." "The party 
halted in mute astonishment when Mohawk, with nine pair 
of moccasins taken from the feet of his dead comrades, came 
forward and related the adventures of himself and friends 
and the terrible disaster that had overtaken them all." "The 
effect upon the warriors who gathered in a group to hear 
the recital," says Stone, "was inexpressibly fearful. Rage 
and desire for revenge seemed to kindle every bosom and 
light every eye as with burning coals. They gathered round 
the prisoners in a circle and began to make unequivocal prep- 
arations for hacking them to pieces. Harper and his men 
gave themselves up for lost . . . but at this moment de- 
liverance came from an unexpected quarter, . . . the only 
survivor of the murdered party rushed into the circle and 
interposed in favor of the captives. With a wave of the 
hand as from one entitled to be heard, for he was a chief, 
silence was restored and the prisoners were surprised by the 
utterance of an earnest appeal in their behalf." 

Capt. Harper knew enough of the Indian language to 
understand its import. In substance the chief appealed to 
his brother warriors in favor of the prisoners upon the 
ground that it was not they who murdered their brothers ; 
to take the lives of the innocent would not be right in the 
eyes of the Great Spirit. His appeal was effectual ; the 
passions of the incensed warriors were hushed ; their eyes 
no longer shot forth burning glances of revenge and their 
gesticulations ceased to menace immediate and bloody re- 
venge. "True . . . the chief who had thus thrown him- 
self spontaneously between them and death knew all the 
prisoners, he having resided in the Schohara canton of the 
Mohawks before the war. He doubtless felt a deeper in- 
terest in their welfare on that account ; still it was a noble 
action worthy of the proudest era of chivalry and in the 
palmy days of Greece and Rome would have insured him 
'an apotheosis and rites divine'. . . . The prisoners were 


so impressed with the manner of their deliverance that they 
justly attributed it to a direct interposition of the providence 
of God." 

Brant conducted the prisoners to Fort Niagara and de- 
livered them to Col. Butler. The feat of Van Campen and 
Pence was noised abroad and all the Indian nations in the 
service of the King condemned them as national enemies. 
Their names were repeated from lip to lip and lodge to lodge 
and with the view of discovering one or both of them every 
white prisoner taken by the Indians for many months was 
subjected to a rigid examination. 

Besides the expedition headed by Brant, a second war- 
party composed entirely of Indians and including warriors 
from several nations, was organized on the Genesee in 
March, 1780. Leaving Little Beard's Town prior to the ar- 
rival of Brant's expedition and descendinig to the Susque- 
hanna by a more westerly route, the party reached the lower 
Fishing Creek valley on the same day that Mohawk's band 
captured Moses Van Campen and his friends. Billimer and 
Welliner, who early realized their exposed situation, in good 
time retreated to one of the forts, but George Whitmoyer 
either continued to reside at his farm, or had returned to it, 
before the arrival of the war-party. It was Easter morning. 
The Whitmoyers awoke unconscious of the terrible danger 
that menaced them. Two girls, Catharine and Ann, aged 
fourteen and twelve, started out before daylight to secure 
the sap flowing in a sug _ ar bush. Philip, the eldest son, par- 
tially dressed, was kneeling on the hearth of the great fire- 
place endeavoring to kindle the smoldering embers into 
flame. Suddenly the door was thrown open and a yell rent 
the air. The half-dazed boy turned his head to learn the 
cause and, as he glanced over his shoulder, the painted form 
of a half-naked savage with uplifted tomahawk, met his 
horrified gaze. Mr. Whitmoyer comprehending the situa- 
tion, sprang out of bed and reached for his rifle to shoot the 
intruder, who stood for one moment undecided whether to 
strike the father or son : but a shot through the half open 
door stretched the brave pioneer lifeless on the floor ; before 
Philip had time to move the keen tomahawk of the savage 


was buried in his brain ; his scalp was torn off and his 
mother tomahawked in her bed. 

Meeting no resistance, the savages searched the house 
and secured Sarah, aged seventeen ; Mary, ten ; Peter, 
eight; George, six; John, four years, and an infant. Tak- 
ing such plunder as they desired the Indians emptied the 
beds upon the fire and the humble homestead was speedily 
enveloped in flames. The smoke from the burning cabin 
and the whoop of the savages warned the children in the 
sugar bush of the loss of home and relatives. Realizing 
that their own safety was threatened, and that they were 
utterly unable to render assistance to the dear ones, they 
hastily concealed themselves.* 

Knowing that an avenging force would speedily follow 
them, the savages gathered up their plunder, thrust each 
captive child upon a horse in front of a warrior and hur- 
riedly retreated northward. The children, being mounted, 
were saved the fatigue of travel and the Indians were thus 
enabled to journey at a more rapid rate than was usually 
maintained in a retreat with prisoners. The eldest girl, 
Sarah, or Sally as she was familiarly called, had secured 
the babe at the death of the mother, and, clasping it closely 
in her arms, soothed it to rest. When placed on a horse 
Sally still held the child, which became frightened and be- 
gan to cry, whereupon the Indian with whom they were 
riding struck it a heavy blow that only increased its cries. 

Becoming enraged, the savage seized the child by one of 
its feet, swung it about his head and brained it on the near- 
est tree. Sally struggled to save the babe or to rescue its 
lifeless body hastily thrown upon the ground. She received 
brutal warning to desist if she wished to escape a similar 
fate. For the sake of the other children whom she con- 
sidered her own charge, she stifled the agony in her heart 
and endeavored to obey. Being well mounted the Indians 
pushed forward, distancing any pursuers, and making only 

* The following day a party of rangers visited the ruins and buried the 
dead; the graves on the old road from Jerseytown to Washingtonville being 
still pointed out by descendants of the early settlers. Three days later some 
friends searched the sugar bush and discovered the two girls safe in their place 
of concealment. 


the briefest stops until they passed the borders of New 
York. Then they halted for a rest and assembled in council 
to settle the fate of their captives. It being the policy to in- 
crease their numbers by prisoners, especially by the adoption 
of children, Mary and Peter were assigned to their Mohawk 
captors and taken to Brant's town at Niagara ; George and 
John were claimed by Senecas, who had established homes 
at Tonawanda, while Sarah was separated from the others 
and sent to a family living at Deonindagao, or Little Beard's 

IX. Pigeons and Prisoners — Van Campen Again. 

Soon after Horatio's return from Niagara his mother de- 
cided to visit her brother, Gy-ant-wa-chia, or Cornplanter, 
who had settled on the Allegheny River. In order to obtain 
supplies, the family first journeyed to Fort Niagara and 
thence to their old camping ground at Devil's Hole. After 
leaving this camp the hunter's family returned to Buffalo 
Creek, and continued on through Cattaraugus to Corn- 
planter's town, on the Allegheny. Soon after their arrival 
a runner came in shouting, "Yu-ak-oo-was, yu-ak-oo-was !" 
("Pigeons, pigeons!") Pie said the birds had roosted in a 
wood on the Genesee River, about two days' journey above 
Caneadea village. 

All was now bustle and confusion, and every person in 
the village who could bear the fatigue of travel at once set 
out for the Genesee. On their arrival at the place designated 
by the runner, Jones beheld a sight that he never forgot. 
The pigeons, in numbers too great to estimate, had made 
their temporary homes in a thick forest. Each tree and 
branch bore nests on every available spot. The birds had 
exhausted every species of nesting material in the vicinity, 
including the small twigs of the trees, and the ground was 
as bare as though swept with a broom. The eggs were 
hatching and thousands of squabs filled the nests. Every 

* For an account of her captivity, see the narrative by Mrs. S. E. Gunn, a 

great-granddaughter of Sarah Whitmoyer and Horatio Jones, in this volume. 


morning the parent birds rose from the roost, the noise of 
their wings sounding like continuous rolls of distant thun- 
der, as flock after flock soared away to obtain food. A little 
before noon they began to return to feed their young; then 
arose a deafening chorus of shrill cries as the awkward 
younglings stood up in the nests with wide open mouths ut- 
tering their calls of hunger. Soon after noon the old birds 
departed again to return about sunset, when they came in 
such dense flocks as to darken the woods. All night long 
the sound of breaking branches caused by overloading the 
roosts, and the whir and flutter of falling birds trying to 
regain their foothold, disturbed the usual silence of the 

As the annual nesting of the pigeons was a matter of 
great importance to the Indians, who depended largely upon 
the supply of food thus obtained, runners carried the news 
to every part of the Seneca territory, and the inhabitants, 
singly and in bands, came from as far east as Seneca Lake 
and as far north as Lake Ontario. Within a few days sev- 
eral hundred men, women and children gathered in the lo- 
cality of the pigeon woods. Among those who came were a 
dozen or more captive whites, with several of whom Jones 
had some acquaintances. One of these captives, a Dutch- 
man named Smith llouser, was a simple-minded fellow 
whom Jones had befriended on various occasions, thus win- 
ning his friendship. Kor their temporary accommodation 
the people erected habitations of a primitive style, consisting 
mainly of huts constructed by setting up two crotched stakes 
on top of which a pole was laid. Other poles were placed 
against the ridge, three or four on each side, with the lower 
ends resting on the ground. One or two poles were then 
tied across the others parallel with the ridge-pole and to 
these were fastened long over-lapping sheets of bark form- 
ing tent-shaped huts with one open end that was closed at 
night by curtains of skins and blankets. This form of cabin 
was easily erected in a short time, and afforded a fair shelter 
to the occupants during (lie brief period of their stay. 

The Indians cut down the roosting trees to secure the 
birds, and each day thousands of squabs were killed. Fires 


were made in front of the cabins and bunches of the dressed 
birds were suspended on poles sustained by crotched sticks, 
to dry in the heat and the smoke. When properly cured they 
were packed in bags or baskets for transportation to the 
home towns. It was a festival season for the red men and 
even the meanest dog in camp had his fill of pigeon meat. 

In addition to the families at the pigeon woods, forty 
warriors on their way from Fort Niagara southward, halted 
there for a few days to enjoy the sport and obtain a supply 
of cured birds for food on their journey. 

Upon his return to Northumberland after the massacre 
of Mohawk's band, Moses Van Campen reentered the serv- 
ice as lieutenant in a company commanded by Capt. Thomas 
Robinson. On the 16th of April, 1782, while out on Bald 
Eagle Creek with twenty-five men, Van Campen was at- 
tacked by eighty-five Indians under Hudson and Shongo, 
assisted by Lieut. Nelles and a platoon of Butler's Rangers. 
Nine of Van Campen's men w r ere killed, three escaped, and 
the rest, including Van Campen, surrendered to Nelles. 
The savages then began to murder the w r ounded prisoners, 
killed two and assaulted a third, when Van Campen inter- 
fered and struck a warrior a blow that knocked him sense- 
less. Some of the Indians at once attacked the lieutenant, 
but others who admired his courageous act interposed to 
save him; a terrible struggle took place between the two 
factions ; the admirers of Van Campen saved his life. 

The surviving soldiers were stripped of all clothing but 
their pantaloons. Van Campen's commission containing his 
name and rank was in a silken case suspended from his neck 
by a ribbon. The Indians secured the case and tore off the 
ribbon but as none of them could read and neither Nelles 
nor his men happened to see it, it was left upon the ground, 
so none of the party was aware that their long-looked-for 
enemy was in custody. Placing heavy packs of plunder 
upon the prisoners, the savages- crossed the Susquehanna at 
Big Island, made their way across the hills to Pine Creek 
above the first fork, which they followed up to the third fork, 
took the most northerly branch to its head, crossed the 
Genesee, and in two days' journey down that stream ar- 


rived at the pigeon woods, where they camped a short dis- 
tance from the huts of the Indians with whom was Horatio 
Jones. The prisoners were naked, except their pantaloons, 
but Van Campen had in addition an old blanket given him 
by one of the warriors. His name was still unknown to his 
captors, but the band had scarcely halted before he noticed 
that the attention of all the people was upon himself. He 
was soon taken to the camp of the outgoing war-party for 

"Upon coming up to the warriors," says Hubbard, "Van 
Campen was made to sit on one side of the fire between the 
rows of cabins where he could be seen by all who wished to 
gratify their pride or curiosity in beholding him as a trophy 
of their awful warfare. But he was no less curious than they 
in surveying the forms that met his eyes, for he was inter- 
ested in knowing whether among those that were before him 
there could be the Indian with whom he had a severe en- 
counter when making his escape in April, 1780; yet he no- 
where saw anything of the warrior Mohawk and he began 
to feel a little more at ease." 

Upon the arrival at the pigeon woods of Nelles and his 
party, with Van Campen and his men, Jones was at a dis- 
tance and while corning leisurely to camp ran upon Houser, 
who was talking aloud to himself in an excited and un- 
guarded manner: "Vot for dot Van Camp vot killed the 
Injuns comes among us! Now we'll all be burnt every tarn 
bugger of us. Yes, we will, dots vot, oney way!" 

"Tut, tut," said Jones, in a low voice. "What's the mat- 
ter, Houser?" 

"Vy, Van Camp what killed the Injuns is here and we'll 
all be burnt to the stake, so sure as my gun was a firelock, 
oney vay !" 

"Stop, stop," said Horatio, looking cautiously about to 
see if others were. near. "How do you know that the man 
who killed the Indians is here?'' 

Houser answered that a party had just come in with 
prisoners, that he went to see the captives and recognized 
one as an old acquaintance named Elisha Hunt. That he 
spoke to "Lish," who said that he belonged to Van Campen's 


company and that that officer was now among the prisoners. 
Jones was astonished at the information. He was familiar 
with the story of Van Campcn's marvelous escape and by 
direction of the chiefs had occasionally asked questions of 
prisoners regarding the redoubtable frontiersman, but of 
late the topic had not been mentioned. As he stood a mo- 
ment in deep thought, Houser said : "Dat's Lish Hunt vot 
stands by der dree yonder," at the same time pointing to 
one of the groups of prisoners, surrounded by men, women 
and children, all staring at the wretched militiamen. 

"See here, Houser," said Horatio, with an earnestness 
that startled the Dutchman, ''Don't you stir a foot nor 
speak a word till I come back." Then he walked over to the 
group and approached Hunt, who was a little apart from 
his comrades. There was nothing in the appearance of 
Jones to distinguish him from the Indians about him. He 
was clad in full Indian costume and his bronzed features 
were about as dark as the faces of many of his red asso- 
ciates. Without seeming to notice the soldier he spoke to 
the latter in a low voice. 

"Elisha Hunt, if you men do not wish to be burned alive 
at once, do not tell any one of the name of your captain. 
Caution your comrades." 

Before the militiaman could speak, Jones disappeared in 
the crowd, then returned to Houser. The latter was in great 
fear and Horatio purposely increased his distress. "I don't 
believe the man who killed the Indians is here, Houser," he 
said, "but if our people once get that idea in their heads 
they will surely kill us all. Now if anyone speaks to you 
about these men you must lie like the deuce, and stick to it 
too, or you will be tortured to death by fire ; you keep close 
to me where I can see you every moment, and when the In- 
dians ask you any questions answer 'Te-qua' ("I don't 
know")* and do not speak another word; and Houser," 
continued Jones, stepping close to the Dutchman and speak- 
ing in a stern tone that caused the unhappy fellow to start 
as though struck by a blow, "If you ever tell a person of this 
conversation / will kill you." The desired effect was pro- 

* Allen's narrative. 


duced upon the simple-minded man, who promised strictly 
to obey Jones in ever)- particular. This incident had occu- 
pied but a short time and without attracting the attention of 
others, and Horatio, closely followed by Houser, proceeded 
directly to the camp where "the man who killed the In- 
dians" had previously been taken. 

"During the time Van Campen was sitting by the fire," 
continues his biographer, "the warriors were standing in a 
group not far distant, engaged in earnest conversation, the 
subject of which he supposed to be himself. Presently the 
conversation ceased, the crowd opened and a person of 
noble proportions came slowly forth. In color and garb he 
was an Indian, but these were all that gave him claim to be 
a savage warrior. He came to Van Campen and com- 
menced questioning him concerning that part of the fron- 
tier from which he had been taken, inquired about the 
number and condition of the inhabitants, the manner in 
which they were defended, the number and vigilance of 
their scouts, etc." "The captive officer gave correct answers 
to all of these questions except the one respecting the 
strength of the force guarding the settlements ; this he rep- 
resented as being much greater than it was, to discourage 
them, if possible, from visiting the frontier. He said the 
country about Northumberland was very strongly garrisoned 
with troops and that large numbers of scouts were sent in 
every direction to discover and waylay any Indians who 
might be sent against them. He was next directed to mark 
out with a coal, upon a piece of bark, the course of streams 
emptying into the Susquehanna, the situation of forts and 
the paths pursued by scouts. In marking down the courses 
of streams and the location of the forts Van Campen ob- 
served accuracy of statement for he knew that the Indians 
were as well acquainted as himself with these matters. He 
expected that his exactness in this would lead them to give 
more credit to that part of his story in which he desired to 
exaggerate. Executing his work promptly and correctly he 
showed them on his little bark map the situation of the forts 
and routes of the scouting parties, again giving them a very 
large idea of the number of soldiers and preparations of the 


settlers to receive an attack." In the questions asked him 
Van Canipen observed that the subject of his identity was 
not broached. This fact was not surprising as it was a cus- 
tom of the Indians never to inquire the name of a person of 
himself. When the examination was ended a chief asked the 
interpreter if he knew of the officer. He threw a careless 
glance at Van Campen and replied in an indifferent manner, 
"I never saw the man before." Houser was standing near 
watching the proceedings. At that instant Jones caught the 
eye of the Dutchman and the latter blubbered out "Te-qua, 
te-qua." His distress was so evident and his weakness so 
well understood that the warriors laughed at his needless 
fears. Every other white captive was called forward to 
look at the prisoner. Fortunately all were strangers and un- 
able to identify him. "Immediately after the examination," 
says Hubbard, "the Indian interpreter by whom Van 
Campen had been questioned, came up to him and said in a 
rather low voice, 'There is only one besides myself in this 
company that knows anything about you.' Van Campen re- 
plied rather sternly, 'And what do you know about me, sir?' 
'Why, you are the man who killed the Indians !' Van Cam- 
pen's thoughts were then turned to the fire and tomahawk, 
supposing that since he was known he would certainly fall 
a victim to savage barbarity. He enquired the name of the 
one who was standing by his side and was answered 'Horatio 
Jones.' The interpreter then spoke, 'Do not be discouraged, 
sir, for I too am a prisoner and a white man in blood and 
sympathy. You can be assured of my silence and friend- 
ship.' Van Campen quickly looked up ; stern warrior that 
he was, the moisture came to his eyes as he exclaimed with 
heartfelt fervor, 'Those are the sweetest words I ever heard 
spoken.' As the interpreter gave renewed assurances of 
secrecy promising to use his influence in behalf of the other 
prisoners, Van Campen felt his courage revive. Jones told 
him that the Tories and Indians were well informed con- 
cerning the destruction of Mohawk's men and the slightest 
suspicion of his identity would certainly result in his torture. 
If he could pass through to Niagara undiscovered and be 
consigned to the British there was hope for him, otherwise 


there was none. He must trust in Providence and be brave." 

This language and the earnest manner of the interpreter 
inspired Van Campen with the belief that he was in the 
presence of a friend in whom he could repose perfect con- 
fidence. Yet he was not then aware of the extent of his ob- 
ligations to Jones, nor of the decided action the latter had 
taken to suppress the report of his presence in camp ; a fact 
that he soon after learned of Elisha Hunt. 

The party remained at the pigeon woods only two days, 
their departure being hastened through some stratagem of 
Jones, known only to himself. During that time he was 
cautious in his communications with the prisoners lest his 
actions arouse suspicion ; yet he managed to hold consider- 
able conversation with Van Campen who parted from him 
with deep emotion. "Under Providence, Sir/' he said, 
wringing Horatio's brown hand, "I owe my life to you, and 
so long as I live I shall bear your kindness in earnest re- 

Continuing down the Genesee to Caneadea Van Campen 
and all his men were then compelled to run the gauntlet to 
the same house where so many others had sought refuge in 
similar trials. Caneadea being the home village of the ex- 
pedition the prisoners were divided there. Elisha Hunt and 
one or two others were taken by their captors to Little 
Beard's Town. The warriors claiming Van Campen under 
escort of Nelles and his rangers, took the trail to Xiagara 
where the American officer was delivered to the British. 

Jones remained at the pigeon woods with the company 
from Cornplanter's settlement and part of the war-party 
lingered engaged in the sport of catching pigeons. One day 
an Indian, travel-stained and exhausted arrived in camp. 
The warriors were hastily summoned to his presence and 
recognized the brave chieftain Mohawk. He informed them 
that while on an expedition near Bald Eagle Creek he had 
learned of the defeat of Van Campen's company and the cap- 
ture of that officer and several of his men. Leaving his own 
band Mohawk started on the trail of Nelles and with the 
briefest possible stops for food and rest had followed the 
party to the pigeon woods. 


Standing up before the astonished warriors Mohawk re- 
lated the thrilling story of the massacre, described the 
struggle between Van Campen and himself, and striding 
back and forth like a caged tiger, his black eyes glowing 
with anger, he tore the blanket from his back, pointed to a 
deep scar in his left shoulder saying, 'This was made by Van 
Campen with my own ax and this" — holding a tomahawk up 
to view — "is the weapon." The warriors were greatly en- 
raged at Mohawk's recital and furious on learning that the 
man they so fervently hated had passed safely through their 
hands. Their first thought was that he could have escaped 
detection only by the assistance of some one among them- 
selves. As communication with Van Campen had been held 
mainly through Jones, the latter was brought before the 
chiefs and sternly questioned regarding his knowledge of the 
prisoners. As he saw the glowering faces about him his 
heart grew heavy and he fully believed he was doomed to 
death. Knowing the general good feeling of the people 
towards himself and their confidence in his word he deter- 
mined to face the matter boldly and not make a direct reply 
unless forced to a positive answer. "You were all present 
when the prisoner was examined and heard the talk," said he 
quietly. "I told you what the man said and you heard it." 
''But did you not know that the officer you examined was 
Van Campen who murdered our brothers?" they said. 
''How should I know?" retorted Jones with an air of sur- 
prise. "I never heard of Van Campen until after I came 
smong you, now going on two summers ; and I told you 
truly at the time the man was examined that I had never 
seen him before. How should I know any better than you 
who the prisoner might be? Did any of you think to ask 
the officer his name? If I had known Van Campen do you 
think I would now tell and have you kill me? Do you want 
me to lie?" Pausing a moment to observe the effect of his 
words Horatio proceeded to greater lengths. Straightening 
up and looking the chiefs full in the face with the manner 
and tone those who knew him feared he demanded, "Who 
says I knew the prisoner?" Captive though he was Jones' 


reputation as one not only physically able to defend himself 
but also as one who never hesitated to swiftly avenge an in- 
sult, now aided him greatly. His calm manner and deter- 
mined attitude silenced all open expression regarding his 
knowledge of the prisoner. If not entirely satisfied the In- 
dians were prompt to announce their confidence in his in- 
tegrity. "Hoc-sa-go-wah speaks like a man," said the head 
chief. "His tongue is not forked; his words are full of 
reason. How should he know Van Campen any better than 
we? Hah-ne-go-ate-geh * placed a spell before our eyes." 
Fleet runners were sent to Caneadea and others sent on the 
north-western trail with instructions to bring Van Campen 
back to the Genesee. The messengers reached Niagara only 
to learn that the object of their hatred was safe within the 
walls of the fortress and that Col. Butler had adopted him 
into his own family. 

The news spread through all the Indian camps. They as- 
sembled in large numbers about the fort and offered to ex- 
change fourteen other white captives, then held in the Gene- 
see towns, for Van Campen. Col. Butler refused the offer 
and sent Van Campen to Montreal where he was exchanged. 

Mohawk was too exhausted by his forced march from 
the Susquehanna to the Genesee to proceed farther than the 
pigeon woods. There he remained in camp several days 
awaiting news from the runners sent to Niagara. Tones 
talked with the chief regarding his struggle with Van Cam- 
pen, obtained his version of the affair and ingratiated him- 
self into Mohawk's good graces. The tomahawk that had 
borne so fearful a part in the massacre possessed a peculiar 
fascination for the interpreter and as the handle was broken 
he finally induced Mohawk to sell it. The weapon was oi 
French manufacture, had been obtained by Mohawk in the 
old French war and carried through many a bloody fray. 
Unlike the usual form of Indian belt axes it was of the knife 
blade pattern. The top was hollow forming the bowl of a 
pipe and the handle bored to serve as a stem. Jones re- 

* The evil-minded spirit. 



placed the handle with a new one and thereafter the noted 
war ax adorned his own belt.* 

X. Expeditions — The Witch of the Tonawanda. 

No further reference was made to the part taken by Jones 
at the examination of Van Campen and the interpreter con- 
gratulated himself upon his success in evading the questions 
addressed to himself; but the Indians determined to test his 
sincerity in a manner wholly unexpected. To his astonish- 
ment they proposed that he accompany the outgoing expedi- 
tion to the Susquehanna. Horatio fully understood the rea- 
son of the proposition and as he had decided to remain with 
the Indians he was pleased with the opportunity to demon- 
strate his loyalty to them, and what was of greater import- 
ance in his view, the probable opportunity to assist such of 
his countrymen as might fall into the hands of the savages. 
With the concurrence of his family he promptly accepted the 
proposal and joined the ranks of the war party. 

The object of the expedition was to attack the forts in 
Northumberland, but the story told by Van Campen about 
large garrisons of soldiers, caused the leaders on the way 
down to change their plans and strike farther west into Bed- 
ford County. "Jones however," says Hon. Orlando Allen in 

* Horatio Jones left it to his son, Col. William Jones, from whom 
it passed to his younger brother, Charles Jones of Geneseo. It is now 
owned by the Hon. William P. Letchworth, and exhibited in his mu- 
seum near Portage, X. Y. In the same collection may be seen a deli- 
cately-carved bone awl-handle, made by Horatio Jones while a captive. 
In the museum of the Livingston County Historical Society at Geneseo 
is preserved a child's high. chair, made by Horatio Jones of the small 
limbs of trees, presumably in the days of his early married life. 

■>- — — .■ — . - ■■ i. •.• 

Tomahawk Owned in Turn by Chief Mohawk. Major VanCampen, 

Capt. Horatio Jones and His Heirs. Xow Owned by 

Hon. Wm. P. Letchworth. Portage, X. Y. 



his excellent account received from the interpreter's own 
lips, "was not permitted to go into the settlement, but was 
left at a camp several hours' march back from the point of 
intended attack. In relating the circumstances in later years 
Jones said he had no idea nor desire to escape, for he had be- 
come so fascinated with Indian life that he wished to remain 
with them. He was fond of adventure and the hope of being 
of service to such prisoners as might be taken, overcame any 
scruples he might otherwise have had. It was ever after a 
source of gratification and a pleasing reflection to him that 
he accompanied the expedition as he was undoubtedly, un- 
der Providence, the means of saving the lives of some of his 
former neighbors and acquaintances who were made prison- 
ers and from whom he obtained the first information regard- 
ing his own family that he had received during his cap- 

While the warriors informed Horatio that he would not 
be permitted to enter the settlements no other restraint was 
placed upon his actions. His conduct thoroughly satisfied 
the Indians of his honest intentions to remain with them, 
thereby advancing him greatly in public estimation. His 
duties as interpreter rendered him a conspicuous figure in 
the communications between the red and white man and his 
influence with the prisoners induced them to yield quietly 
to their fate and cause as little trouble to their captors as 
possible. Appreciating this fact the savages treated the 
whites with unusual leniency, permitting them considerable 
liberty of action. "One prisoner who was badly wounded 
failed to keep up with the party. . . . The Indians re- 
peatedly threatened him and Jones as often begged them to 
spare him a little longer ; perhaps he might revive and be 
able to proceed on the journey; but they became impatient 
and annoyed at the delay the man was beginning to occasion, 
and a warrior dispatched the wounded prisoner with a club, 
tore off his scalp and left him where he fell. By carefully 
using their strength the other prisoners accomplished the 
journev and reached the Indian town on the Genesee in 

Horatio had hardlv recovered from the fatigue of the ex- 


pedition when Hah-do-wes-go-wah's restless disposition in- 
cited him to visit relatives who had recently removed to the 
Grand River in Canada. 

Placing the broom against the door as usual on leaving 
the habitation alone, the family set out on the journey, going 
by way of Little Beard's Town and the great spring in the 
present town of Caledonia, where they witnessed the torture 
of a prisoner at the stake. Years afterwards Jones pointed 
out the location of the torture stake and told how the super- 
stitious natives thereafter avoided the spot believing that 
the spirit of the murdered victim still haunted the locality. 
Passing through Tonawanda* the family followed down the 
south bank of the creek to its mouth where a canoe was 
usually kept for the accommodation of travelers. The little 
craft lay on the opposite side of the stream in plain sight and 
Horatio offered to swim across and bring it over. 

"Deh-wi-ya !" ("It is not good") his father replied, "for 
witches live in the stream near its mouth, and when people 
venture into its waters they are pulled under its surface and 
drowned. No wise person ever attempts to swim the Tona- 
wanda Creek at this point. It is better to wait until some 
one comes this way and brings the canoe to us." 

"That may be true of the red men," replied Horatio, "but 
I was born in a nation of people who can control witches in 
water. I have the secret and can swim the creek in safety 
and bring the canoe back, besides you know our friends at 
Fort Schlosser expect us to-night and we are all anxious to 
get there." 

At this point the mother interposed. "Mind your father, 
my son," said she, "he is a man of years and sense and will 
not counsel you wrongly. It is better to remain here in 
safety than to tempt the evil spirits. Go help your brothers 
gather wood for the night while your sister and I prepare 
supper." Indian children are subject to their parents as 
long as they remain under the parental roof, even to middle 
age, and Horatio was usually obedient to the slightest com- 
mand ; but he especially disliked the idea of camping on the 
creek to satisfy a superstitious whim. He turned aside care- 

* The old Indian village near the great bend of the Tonawanda. 


lessly but the sight of the canoe lying so temptingly on the 
farther shore aroused his impatience. Hastily slipping oft 
his frock and moccasins he plunged into the water and struck 
out for the opposite bank despite the warning cries and com- 
mands of his family, none of whom dare follow him. To 
their astonishment he reached the bank, jumped into the 
canoe and with a few vigorous strokes of the paddle brought 
it back to them. A person who had passed through the 
greatest danger could not have been received with greater 
demonstrations of pleasure than those that greeted the head- 
strong young man as he stepped ashore in his dripping leg- 
gins. His act of disobedience was utterly ignored and he 
was welcomed as one who had escaped only by a miracle. 
The preparations for camping were discontinued and the 
half built fire abandoned. 

Crossing in the canoe the family reached Schlosser that 
evening. Hoc-sa-go-wah's wonderful feat in swimming the 
witch-troubled Tonawanda was narrated to friends, the 
strange story spread through the camp and the swimmer 
speedily found himself regarded with increased respect. 
From Schlosser the family went down the river to Fort Ni- 
agara where the witch incident was already well known, and 
operated to his advantage. 

Notwithstanding the bitterness engendered by war and 
the frightful results of employing savages to devastate the 
homes of the Americans, there were many men in British 
service whose efforts to mitigate the sufferings of unfor- 
tunate prisoners have never been properly recognized. While 
Col. Butler by the surrender of Boyd and Parker dishonored 
his manhood he also, in numerous other cases, exhibited 
noteworthy forbearance and generosity towards persons with 
whom he might have dealt harshly. Capt. Powell, Robin- 
son, Pye, Lieutenants Hillyard, Nelles and other officers at 
Niagara, frequently made strenuous efforts to obtain the 
release of captives in whose wretched condition they had no 
interest other than that sympathy excited by the distress of a 
fellow mortal. When persuasion failed to effect their benev- 
olent purposes these officers did not hesitate to spend their 
money to ransom prisoners whose circumstance forbade the 


possibility of any future recompense ; they sometimes made 
lung journeys through the wilderness on foot to relieve de- 
spairing captives. 

Capt. Powell, an officer whose loyalty to the British crown 
was never questioned, had interested himself in the ransom 
of several prisoners and previous to the Tonawanda inci- 
dent had purchased two captives whom Hah-do-wes-go-wah 
had brought in from the frontier. His attention was called 
to Jones, probably by Jasper Parrish through his father 
Capt. Hill, and while the family was at Niagara offered to 
buy the "handsome boy." Hah-do-wes-go-wah declined the 
offer. After urging the matter quite persistently, Capt. 
Powell displayed a handful of gold saying that his master 
the King had great store of the precious coin and could buy 
anything his servants wished ; the warrior must state his 
price and the gold would be at once paid. Meeting a more 
decided refusal Capt. Powell demanded the reason. The 
warrior said Hoc-sa-go-wah had been of great service, not 
only to himself, but also to the entire Seneca nation. Though 
young, his wisdom was superior to that of many older men 
and his relatives in the clan had decided he should thereafter 
sit in council with the chiefs. He then told of the Tona- 
wanda feat, adding that though the power exercised over 
witches by the handsome boy was a qualification no other 
person possessed there was a better reason why he could not 
be bought. "We believe," said he, "that Ha-we-ne-ya sent 
this boy to us as a special gift for the good of the Seneca 
nation, and he cannot be taken from our people until the 
Great Spirit so directs. We have adopted him according to 
cur custom and he is considered by all our people one of my 
cwn children. Go, tell your master the King that he is not 
rich enough to buy Hoc-sa-go-wah. A Seneca will not sell 
his own blood !" To prevent further discussion Hah-do-wes- 
go-wah pulled his blanket over his head and strode hastily 
away, leaving the generous officer astonished at the vagaries 
of Indian nature. 


XL Horatio a Chief — Sarah Whitmore's Captivity. 

At the organization of the league of the Iroquois the 
Senecas were granted eight sachems, ranking as follows : 

1. Ga-ne-o-di-go, Handsome lake, Turtle clan 

2. Sa-da-ga-o-yase, Level heavens, Snipe 

3. Ga-no-gi-e, Turtle " 

4. La-geh-jo-wa, Great forehead, Hawk " 

5. La-de-a-no-wus, Assistant, Bear 

6. Nis-ha-ne-a-nent, Falling day, Snipe 

7. Ga-no-go-e-da-we, Hair burned off, . . . Snipe 

8. Do-ne-ho-ga-weh, Open door, Wolf 

These titular names were hereditary in five clans. When 
a sachem died a successor was elected from the same clan, 
his name was taken away, the name of the sachem conferred 
upon him, and he was raised up by a ceremony of the great 
council. The Seneca nation was termed Ho-nan-ne-ho-ont, 
Doorkeeper of the league, and the eighth sachem was the 
official doorkeeper and great military commander of the 
nation. The sachems as a council ruled the nation. They 
were termed officially Ho-yar-na-go-war. 

Subsequent to the foundation of the league there came 
into prominence a class of men known as chiefs. The office 
of chief was a reward of merit and died with the individual. 
Each of the eight clans of the Senecas was entitled to ten 
chiefs, who were elected by the members of the individual 
clans. The national council raised the new chiefs to office, 
and the great council of the confederacy either confirmed 
the election or deposed the person. 

Soon after the refusal of Hah-do-wes-go-wah to sell 
Horatio, the latter was summoned before a meeting of the 
members of the Hawk clan, then at Niagara, who informed 
him that his relatives had elected him a chief. He was ac- 
cordingly raised to the office under the name of Ta-ya-da-o- 

* This is a compound word and signifies "lying across." I think that this 
was the last Indian name borne by Capt. Jones; at any rate it is the only name 
I have heard given by Indians who knew him during- his last years. I conclude 
it was regarded as an honored name for they conferred it upon the late Dr. 


Jones was amazed at the announcement. Brought to the 
wilderness a helpless captive as he had been, adopted by 
force, he had received from those parents the same treat- 
ment they had bestowed upon their own children. Under 
their care he had passed from boyhood to manhood ; though 
nominally a prisoner his liberty was unrestrained and all 
the Senecas looked upon him as one of themselves. This 
election to a seat among the councilors was very gratifying 
and confirmed his high standing among the proud Iroquois 
as expressed in the new name bestowed upon him. Again 
he admitted to himself that the trend of events was in ac- 
cordance with his own wishes. Concealing his emotions, 
he quietly thanked his friends for their action and again as- 
sured them he would remain with them until it was clearly 
manifested to all that it was the will of Ha-we-ne-ya that he 
should leave them. 

Of the captive life of Sally Whitmoyer — or Whitmore — 
we have little knowledge. Upon her arrival at the Genesee 
in April, 1780, she was adopted by a Seneca family whose 
home was at Little Beard's Town ; but like other Indian 
households the members were frequently moving about 
from place to place. In after days Sally mentioned their 
wanderings up and down the Genesee valley and spoke 
especially of their camping at the late town-site of Williams- 
burg and Squakie Hill. While she endured the hardships 
incident to nomadic life in common with her forest asso- 
ciates she was treated not only kindly, but affectionately, by 
her Indian relatives, who provided for her as for one of 
themselves. Her sex precluded the possibility of distinction 
and her existence was circumscribed by the simple duties 
incident to an Indian girl's home life. At the age of twenty 
she was a light-complexioned girl of medium height. Her 

Lewis H. Morgan at his adoption at Tonawanda. General Ely S. Parker in a 
letter to the writer Aug. 19, 1891, gave the name "Do-ne-ho-ga-wa," Door- 
keeper of the Seneca nation. Horatio Jones was called "To-yah-daoh-wok-go," 
which means "lying across." Lewis Bennett, a contemporary of Horatio Jones, 
cave it as "Dah-yah-daoh-woh-koh," or "lying across." Chester C. Lay, presi- 
dent of the Seneca Nation in 18S8, gave it as "Da-ha-ya-dah-woh-goh," "A 
body lying across," as a parent holds a child in its arms, so the bearer of the 
name connected the Senecas and the whites, or constituted the bond between 
them.— G. H. H. 


hair was gathered in a heavy braid, its glossy smoothness 
confined by a simple band in native fashion ; her whole at- 
tire was marked by a neatness so characteristic of the pio- 
neer woman of her time. She had become well versed in 
the Seneca tongue and her gentle manners had won the af- 
fection of those within her limited circle of acquaintances. 

It was a rule of native etiquette that any female who ap- 
peared alone in public, thus invited attention, but no girl or 
woman having an attendant, even if it were but a little child, 
was ever notice^ or molested. Sarah Whitmoyer preferred 
the modest retirement of her humble home and to avoid 
publicity never left the house with uncovered head or with- 
out a companion — generally one of her Indian relatives. 
While her own brothers and sisters were becoming thor- 
oughly Indianized in their Iroquois homes, and the younger 
ones were forgetting their parentage and the English lan- 
guage, Sarah longed for the scenes and faces familiar to 
her youth. The rude life of the wilderness shared with sav- 
ages was distasteful. She knew that peace would soon be 
declared and she prayed that the glad day of deliverance 
from captivity might be hastened.* 

[Sought in marriage by a native, Sarah turned for coun- 
sel to her fellow-captive, Horatio Jones. Some time before 
this, it would appear, he had taken to wife an Indian woman ; 
she had either died, or left him, before he met Sarah Whit- 
more. Jones had a son by the Seneca woman, who, in ac- 
cordance with custom, remained with his mother's clan. 
One may believe that it was a stronger feeling than pity 
which prompted Horatio to point out to the white girl that 
her only escape from an Indian alliance was to wed him. 
She assenting they were duly joined in Indian fashion, by 
her acceptance of his gift, which he made larger and more 
valuable than the offering of the Indian rival. When oppor- 
tunity offered, they were married by a Christian ceremony, 
performed by the Rev. Samuel Kirkland.] 

* To avoid repetition of facts presented in Airs. Gunn's account of Sarah's 
captivity, Indian wooing and marriage with Horatio Jones, Mr. Harris's narra- 
tive has been considerably condensed, the bracketed sentences being supplied by 
the editor to preserve continuity. 


A preliminary treaty of peace was signed at Paris No- 
vember 30, 1782, but incursions upon the borders of New 
York, Pennsylvania and Virginia continued until the spring 
of 1783, when an agreement for the cessation of hostilities 
ended the war, and the Indians, sheathing their scalping 
knives, resumed their ordinary occupations. By the treaty 
finally signed Sept. 3d, Great Britain acknowledged the- in- 
dependence of the United States and agreed that the boun- 
daries of the United States, roughly stated, extended north- 
ward to the Great Lakes and westward to the Mississippi ; 
all territory west of that river being recognized as the prop- 
erty of Spain. 

Notwithstanding the faithful service the Iroquois had 
rendered Great Britain during the war, that power made no 
provision for her red allies, leaving them to the mercies of 
the conquerors. The agreement of Sir Guy Carleton at the 
opening of the war, to reinstate those Indians who entered 
the service of the King to their former condition, was rati- 
fied by General Haldimand in 1779. With the exception 
of the Oneidas, Tuscaroras and a few scattering members 
ct other nations, the Iroquois had espoused the British cause 
and the eastern nations were exiled from their former 
homes ; but the Senecas, located in the wilderness, far from 
the borders of civilization, still retained possession of their 
own territory. 

When the terms of peace were announced and the Iro- 
quois learned that the British Government had made no 
provision for them, the Senecas offered their exiled brethren 
a tract of land in the Genesee valley ; the offer was declined 
and Joseph Brant visited Quebec to claim from Haldimand 
the fulfillment of his promise. The General agreed to give 
the Mohawks a tract at the Bay of Ouinte on Lake Ontario, 
but the Senecas were greatly displeased at the idea of their 
friends being located so far away. At Brant's renewed so- 
licitation Gen. Llaldimand purchased for the British Indians 
a new tract six miles wide on each side of the Grand River, 
in Canada, extending from its mouth on Lake Erie to its 
source, about 100 miles away. The Senecas continued 


quietly in occupation of their own territory, awaiting with 
grave concern the action of the American Government. 

By the treaty of 1783 England relinquished her claim to 
all Indian lands within the limits of the United States. New 
York asserted her right, as the natural successor of the 
British crown, to control the sale of all such territory within 
her boundaries, and March 25, 1784, her legislature author- 
ized the appointment of commissioners to take charge of all 
affairs pertaining to the Indians within the borders of the 
State. On Sept. 10th, the New York Commissioners met 
representatives of the Six Nations at Fort Stanwix. Upon 
receiving assurances that the State acknowledged their own- 
ership of the soil of their territory, the Iroquois agreed to 
terms of peace and promised not to sell any land in New 
York without consent of the State Commissioners. 

Some time in the fall of 1784 a council was called at Little 
Beard's Town to consider the affairs of the Six Nations. 
According to the tradition of the Jones and Whitmore fam- 
ilies this council met but a short time before the captives on 
the middle Genesee were released, probably in October. 

Horatio Jones was by this time recognized by the Iro- 
quois as a counselor of great influence in their interests ; his 
moral and physical courage so often tested, good sense and 
perfect command of the Seneca language put him on an 
equal footing with the ablest men of the council, while his 
good humor made him popular with the people. 

Once assured of his right to claim his wife Horatio 
learned of the fears entertained by her family that she would 
be taken from them ; he and Sally earnestly assured them 
that if released from captivity they would in time return to 
the Genesee and live among their Indian friends. The 
pledge was accepted in good faith and Sally continued in 
her home awaiting the claim of her promised husband. 

On October 22, 1784, the United States Commissioners 
met the representatives of the Six Nations at Fort Stanwix. 
now Rome. New York had recognized the title of the red 
men to their ancient possessions within the state, and prof- 
fered the olive branch of peace ; the Commissioners treated 
the Iroquois as a conquered people and secured peace on 


terms of their dictation. The Oneidas and Tuscaroras as 
late allies of the Americans, were confirmed in the possession 
of their respective territories. The Senecas, Mohawks, On- 
ondagas and Cayugas were granted peace upon condition 
that the Six Nations should yield to the United States all 
claims to lands west of a line four miles east of the Niagara 
River drawn from Lake Ontario to Lake Erie at Buffalo 
Creek, thence south to Pennsylvania and west and south 
along the border of that state to the Ohio River. All pris- 
oners of war held by these natives were to be surrendered to 
the United States ; and six principal chiefs were retained in 
custody as hostages for the delivering of the captives. It 
was estimated that the Six Nations then held in captivity no 
less than ninety-three persons, of whom a list was made; 
and Hill, Jasper Parrish's Indian father, and five other prin- 
cipal men, were surrendered to the Commissioners as a guar- 
antee of the fulfillment of the terms of the treaty. Some 
captives who had come to Fort Stanwix with their red mas- 
ters w r ere immediately set at liberty, but a greater number 
still remained at the towns of the Iroquois. The Indians 
agreed to collect and forward them to Fort Stanwix as 
speedily as possible. 

When the runner reached the Genesee with particulars of 
the treaty, and Horatio and Sarah understood that accord- 
ing to its conditions they must soon be freed, they were much 
affected by the information. From the date when Jones lay 
alone in the depths of the forest and wore out the dismal 
night in mental argument regarding his proper line of duty 
he had given himself up to the belief that he was under the 
special care of a Higher Power that directed the principal 
events of his existence and impelled him to continue in cap- 
tivity for the benefit of his fellow-prisoners. He had looked 
forward to the close of the war as a period when he could 
conscientiously be released from his moral duty, but now 
that the time had actually come he found the ties binding 
him to his associates greatly strengthened by his predilection 
for forest life ; once again he balanced in mind his inclina- 
tion for freedom and the pleasures of the wilderness against 
what he considered a call of duty to return to civilization. 


It was not, however, a matter of personal choice ; the United 
States demanded the surrender of all persons taken by the 
Iroquois, and the latter in good faith honestly endeavored to 
perform their part of the contract. There were a number of 
captives who had married with the Indians, and others who 
preferred to remain with their captors, but all the prisoners 
were informed that the demands of the thirteen Great Fires 
must be complied with. 

"We know that Ha-wen-ne-ya sent you to us to be a bond 
between the red men and the white men," said the chief of 
the council to Horatio, "and your mission is not yet fulfilled ; 
but for some purpose He now directs that you again go to 
the home of your palefaced friends, and you must go. We 
believe the separation will be brief and that you will again 
be sent to us. Remember you are one of our children en- 
titled to share with us in all things and whenever you return 
a seat shall be given you where your old age may be passed 
in peace." 

In December (1784) a large delegation of Senecas es- 
corted the Genesee captives to Fort Stanwix and there for- 
mally surrendered them to the United States authorities ; 
but it was not till the following May that the last formal 
surrender of prisoners was made at Albany and the hostages 
released. Even then some twenty or thirty captives either 
remained with the Indians or returned to them after being 
released. Among this number were Black Joe, John Sim- 
monton, Mary Jemison, James Pemberton, Poudry, Deam- 
hout, Frances Slocum and others whose names have since 
passed into history. 

It cannot be learned what was the immediate procedure 
of Jones and his wife upon their release at Fort Stanwix. 
It is said that the Whitmore children were collected at 
Schenectady. We know that Jones and Sarah were mar- 
ried at that place by Rev. Samuel Kirkland. the missionarv, 
in 1784, and that they decided to establish a home in the 
wilderness, where Jones could build up a trade in furs. 
Their subsequent life has been carefully traced. 


XII. The Home in the Wilderness. 

Early in 1785 farewells were spoken to friends in Sche- 
nectady, and shouldering his rifle, Jones went away into 
the forest, closely followed by his trusty horse bearing his 
wife and all their possessions. The course was westward 
over the great trail leading from Albany through the Iro- 
quois towns to Lake Erie. It was the intention of Horatio 
to locate near the boundary of Seneca territory on the route 
between the western towns and settlements of the whites, 
where he could secure traffic between the Indians and the 
whites. The easternmost town of the Senecas on the great 
trail had been located at Kanadesaga, a mile and a half west 
of Seneca Lake, and Old Smoke, the so-called King of the 
Senecas, had lived there prior to the destruction of the place 
by Gen. Sullivan in 1779. After Sullivan's invasion Old 
Smoke, or at any rate some Seneca families, appear to have 
lived at the end of the lake ; the site of the former strong- 
hold was called the Old Castle, while the name Kanadesaga 
was applied to all the section between the Old Castle and 
the lake, though there seems to have been no town or settle- 
ment of any consequence at the lake when Jones was seek- 
ing a home there in 1785. The western town of the Cayugas 
on the great trail was at Skoi-yase, four miles east of Seneca 
Lake, and a few houses stood there when Jones reached the 
place early in the spring of 1785. 

The young couple decided to settle there and Horatio 
built a bark house similar to those used by the Indians. It 
was located on the south side of the Seneca River near the 
spot now occupied by the lock at the falls. In this humble 
habitation they set up housekeeping and began trade with 
the Indians. At that date no other white man had estab- 
lished a home in the territory now comprising Seneca 
County, and the late captive interpreter thus became the 
pioneer settler of a section that soon proved the doorway 
through which civilization made its advance into the ancient 
domain of his recent savage masters. There was a shorter 
trail between Cayuga Lake and the West that struck the 
Seneca River above Skoi-vase, and as many of the Indians 


took that route our young trader lost chances to barter ; ac- 
cordingly he soon moved to the end of Seneca Lake and 
built a second habitation on the east side of the outlet on the 
high ground near the present road. Jones soon discovered 
that he had not been wise in this location as many Indians 
turned south on the trail along the western side of Seneca 
Lake. How long he remained at the outlet is not known, 
but probably till early spring of the following year, when he 
went farther west and settled near the intersection of the 
east and south trails ; thus becoming the first white settler 
upon the present site of Geneva. 

De Bartycli and Poudry, two French traders, were lo- 
cated at the Old Castle and at Cashong, a small Seneca vil- 
lage south of Horatio's new home ; and the latter deter- 
mined to open barter at the camps of the native hunters. 
Accordingly he made long excursions into the Seneca coun- 
try, leaving his young wife in their bark house with no 
neighbors other than parties of Indians who occasionally 
camped in the vicinity. The native friends who came from 
time to time to visit Horatio and his wife met with a warm 
welcome. The generous bounty bestowed upon all was ap- 
preciated by some who often laid the fruits of the chase at 
the cabin door ; thus their larder was seldom free from 
evidences of the good will of Indian friends. In this humble 
home, with none other than the women of the forest to at- 
tend her, Sarah's first child was born. December 18, 1786. 
He was named William, in honor of his parental grand- 
father, and Whitmoyer, after his mother's family. He is 
said to have been the first child of white parentage born on 
the great trail west of L T tica. Horatio remembered to have 
seen the wreck of an old batteau in the outlet near his former 
home and he secured enough of the pitch pine boards to 
make a rude cradle wherein the children of the Indians loved 
to rock the little stranger as they crooned their lullabys and 
peered wonderingly at the dimpled pale-face.* 

* William Whitmoyer Jones, the first horn of Horatio, preserved with re- 
ligious care this cradle which, at the time it was made, was considered a great 
improvement upon the bark or hollow log cradle of that day. For many years 
it was in the possession of John H. Jones of Leicester. Its present owner is 
not known to the editor of this volume. 


Sitting- in the firelight of their humble home one chill 
evening Horatio and his wife were startled by a loud knock 
at the door. The natives exercised no such formality upon 
entering a dwelling and the sound suggested to the young 
pioneers the presence of some person from civilization. 
"Come in," Jones called out instinctively, certain that some 
young- person stood without. The rude door at once swung 
open, admitting a man bearing upon his shoulders a pack of 
furs. Pausing a moment to give a keen glance at the occu- 
pants of the room, whose faces were lighted by the flames 
in the fireplace, the stranger coolly unslung his pack and ad- 
dressing Jones in a pleasant voice, the accent revealing a 
German origin, briefly explained that he had become lost in 
the wilderness and seeing a light and a house had hastened 
to it in hopes of obtaining food and shelter. Jones gave 
the new-comer hearty welcome and Sarah set before him a 
venison steak, smoking from the embers, with corn bread 
and coffee. The guest was about Horatio's age. His face 
was smooth and there was an expression in the clear eyes 
and firmly-set mouth, indicating shrewdness and strength 
of character, that caught the fancy of the young host. In 
the conversation that followed the stranger said his name 
was John Jacob Astor;*he resided in Xew York, was en- 
gaged in the fur trade and had come to the Indian country 
alone and on foot to establish a trade with the Indians. Mr. 
Astor was equally impressed with the manly appearance and 
intelligence of his host, soon learned the history of the young 

* Mr. Harris's authority for this account of Astor' s visit to Jones is not 
known to the present editor. Most likely it is a tradition of the Jones family, 
and the prohahilities favor its truth. John Jacob Astor came to America in 
1783. and in a few years his fur trade had so developed that he was on the 
highway to wealth. From 1785 or thereabouts for several years he was often 
on the Niagara, at the fort, negotiating with traders and Indians throughout the 
region, and directing his own agents. In a biographical sketch of him his great- 
grandson, W r illiam Waldorf Astor, has written: "Upon reaching New York he 
at once busied himself in the fur trade, to whose vast developments his thought- 
ful attention had been directed by a fellow countryman and wherein immense 
profits were being realized. He entered upon this occupation with unremitting 
vigor and in a dozen years had diverted some of the most profitable markets 
from his competitors and was at the head of a business branching to Albany, 
Huft'alo, Plattsburg and Detroit. . . During the first years of his life in Ameri- 
ca, the development of the commercial establishment Mr. Astor was building up 
called for his frequent presence among the Indian tribes with which the fur 


couple and shrewdly concluded that their knowledge of the 
Genesee country and acquaintance with the natives would 
prove a great advantage in matters of trade. Jones then 
had quite a quantity of furs. Astor looked over the stock. 
gave the young trader several valuable suggestions and 
bought the lot ; an agreement followed that thereafter Jones 
should collect for Astor alone and deliver his stock at the 
/ Astor warehouse in New York. Jones purchased for Astor 
for many years. 

The following season Joseph Smith, the former Seneca 
captive whom Horatio met at Little Beard's Town, and -who 
had been a friend to Sarah during her captivity, came to 
Seneca Lake and built a log house near that of Jones. For 
awhile he assisted Horatio, but finally began trade upon his 
own account; Mrs. Jones and Mrs. Smith were often alone 
together for days, while their husbands were far away in 
the wilderness. 

XIII. The Buffalo Creek Council of July, 1788. 

We will now review events that soon made the place that 
Jones had selected for a residence the most noted spot in 
Western New York. When the Commissioners of New 
York State and the representatives of the Six Nations met 
at Fort Stanwix, September 10, 1784, the latter agreed not 

trade was carried on. He was obliged to be his own agent at the frontier trad- 
ing stations, making agreements for the delivery of large quantities of furs; 
and as his dealings multiplied, it was no less necessary to regulate the affairs of 
his agencies. In later life he often spoke with enthusiasm of the incidents and 
adventures of this period of his career. It is easy to place before one's im- 
agination the grandeur of the scenes he then beheld in their primeval beauty. 
Through the forests of Lower Canada, of New York and Michigan, he walked, 
guided by courcurs de bois, sometimes the first European explorer of their re- 
cesses. He traversed the Great Lakes with a band of Ontario voyageurs, and 
shot the Sault Ste. Marie in a birch canoe with a couple of Indians. He visited 
encampments on the St. Lawrence and at Saginaw Bay, and beheld along the 
Mohawk Valley the last Iroquois wigwams — those final vestiges of the intrepid 
Six Nations. Wherever he went he dealt with the chiefs, bargaining with them 
in a spirit of fairness and humanity, and forbidding his agents ever to sell 
liquor to the savages. These journeys were continued through the summers of 
several years and extended from the Hudson to the copper rocks of Lake 
Superior." — (Pall Mall Magazine, June, 1S99.) 


to sell their lands in New York without the consent of the 
State. In 1785 Massachusetts, by virtue of the grant of 
1620, set up a claim to the Iroquois territory in New York; 
but at a convention of delegates from the two states, held at 
Hartford in December, 1786, Massachusetts relinquished all 
claims of sovereignty and jurisprudence within the borders 
of New York upon condition that the latter state should 
concede to her the right of preemption, or sole privilege of 
purchasing from the native owners all lands in the State 
west of a due north and south line drawn from the 82d mile- 
stone on the Pennsylvania line to Lake Ontario. The new 
boundary between the white and the red men was to super- 
sede the line of property and be known as "The Preemptive 
line." As the purchase of Iroquois lands by individuals was 
illegal and the fever of land speculation possessed many 
people, two companies, known as the New York Genesee 
Land Company and the Niagara Genesee Land Company, 
were organized in 1787 for the purpose of leasing of the 
Six Nations for a period of ninety-nine years all their coun- 
try west of the old line of property. In November, 17S7, 
the New York company called a council of the Six Nations 
at Kanadesaga and the Indians assembled on the lake shore 
near Jones' house. 

In their pursuit of traffic in the depths of the wilderness 
Jones and Smith had little knowledge of the acts of legisla- 
tures or of the motives underlying the schemes of men eager 
to obtain a f rst title to Iroquois territory, hence when the 
Hon. John Livingston, one of the most prominent men of 
the day, offered to engage the two traders as interpreters, 
they deemed themselves fortunate. For their services at 
this treaty each received liberal compensation and Jones a 
gratuity of half a share of stock in the lessee company.* 

January 8, 1788, a lease was obtained of the Oneidas for 
their lands. Thereafter the companies were termed lessees. 
These companies included some of the most prominent men 
of New York and among the British at Niagara. In Feb- 

* In that month, November, a daughter was born to Joseph Smith and wife 
whom they named Mary. She married Justice Button, who died in Moscow in 
1S15. Her daughter married Dr. D. P. Bissell of Utica— G. II. II. 


ruary, Livingston, who was then in the Assembly, with oth- 
ers, memorialized the Legislature to recognize the leases ; 
but the petition was summarily rejected and the Governor 
was empowered to use the force of the State to prevent in- 
trusion or settlement upon Iroquois lands. On April 1st 
Massachusetts sold to a company represented by Nathaniel 
Gorham and Oliver Phelps, the sole right to preempt Indian 
lands in New York, on condition that the company should 
extinguish the native title. Phelps was appointed general 
agent, and to prevent complications opened negotiations 
with the lessees, promising Livingston and others several 
townships if the lessees would surrender their leases and 
procure from the Senecas a deed of cession to Phelps and 
Gorham. This proposition was accepted and the lessees 
contracted to hold a treaty at Kanadesaga for that purpose. 
On May 2d Livingston tried to compromise with New York, 
but his proposition was rejected. 

On June 1st, Mr. Phelps, the Rev. Samuel Kirkland as 
Commissioner of Massachusetts, and other gentlemen arrived 
at Seneca Lake, where Horatio Jones and Smith were the 
only white residents. Mr. Phelps was so pleased with the 
location that he decided to found a town there if the place 
fell within his purchase. The Indians refused to go to 
Kanadesaga to meet Livingston, and Phelps decided to hold 
a treaty on his own responsibility. Jones was sent to the 
Senecas and on June 21st Red Jacket, Little Billy, Heap-of- 
Dogs and three others brought to Mr. Phelps an invitation 
to meet the Indians at Buffalo Creek. 

The council convened at Buffalo Creek July 4, 1788, 
James Dean, Joseph Smith, Horatio Jones, Wm. Johnson 
and other interpreters being present. Phelps bought of the 
Indians for $5,000 and an annuity "forever" of $500, a tract 
of 2,600.000 acres lying mainly between Seneca Lake and 
Genesee River, since known as the Phelps and Gorham Pur- 
chase, giving his bond therefor to the Seneca chiefs. When 
the bargain was concluded Phelps asked for a present of a 
lot west of the Genesee upon which he could place a mill to 
grind corn for the Indians. They objected, but fmally 
agreed to give him land sufficient for a mill lot. Phelps 


selected a section extending from Lake Ontario twenty-five 
miles southward and twelve miles west, comprising some 
200,000 acres. When the Indians learned that an acre 
would have been sufficient for mill purposes their amaze- 
ment was indescribable. 

The council closed July 8th, and the following day Dr. 
Benton and Elias Gilbert of the lessees obtained the signa- 
tures of the Indian chiefs to a writing abrogating their lease 
to the lands of the Phelps and Gorham Purchase; but af- 
firming their lease to the lands of the Six Nations east of 
the preemption line yet to be established on consideration 
that the State of New York ratify the contract. 

These transactions were effected through the influence 
and with the sanction of the accredited agents of New York 
and Massachusetts, and by prominent men of the day, in 
whom the Indian interpreters had unlimited confidence ; 
hence was it strange that Horatio Jones and Joseph Smith 
deemed their own actions as interpreters as perfectly con- 
sistent with their character as good citizens and their con- 
nection with the lessee company as a fortunate occurrence, 
destined to bring them into close relations with leading men 
of the times ? 

The travel of traders, settlers and white men over the 
great trail was increasing and on their return from Buffalo 
Creek in July, Clark Jennings, a former Iroquois captive, 
built a log house on the shore of Seneca Lake, south of 
Jones', and opened a tavern. Horatio also erected a bark- 
covered house of logs, and soon after Capt. Peter Bartle and 
Leonard Widener settled near him. Joseph Smith lived 
near Jones. In honor of the Seneca Castle, which was well 
known in all the country, the former Indian captives, now 
pioneers, called their little settlement Kanadesaga. William 
Walker, chief of surveyors for Phelps and Gorham, arrived 
at Kanadesaga with his men in August, and Col. Maxwell 
began the survey of the preemption line from Pennsylvania. 
It was expected that the line would run east of Kanadesaga, 
in which case the new town would be established there. 

In March the State had called a council of the Six Na- 
tions at Fort Schuyler (old Fort Stanwix) to negotiate the 



purchase of Iroquois lands east of the preemption line, and 
as the last lease procured by the lessees covered those lands 
the companies opposed the prospective treaty and endeav- 
ored to induce the Indians not to attend. When the council 
convened in September, Gov. Clinton peremptorily ordered 
Livingston and Schuyler to retire forty miles from the 
treaty grounds. The State then purchased the Onondaga 
and Oneida lands of the Indians and Rev. Samuel Kirkland, 
Dean, Schuyler, Olcott, Ryckman and others who had acted 
with the lessees up to that date, withdrew from the com- 
panies and entered the service of the State. Kirkland was 
immediately sent to the Cayugas and Senecas to call a coun- 
cil of those two nations at Albany to extinguish their claims 
to lands east of the preemption line. 

In October a number of men, afterwards noted pioneers 
of the Genesee country, arrived at Kanadesaga, or, as it 
was later called, Geneva. Among the number were William 
Markham, Ransom Smith, Enos and Jared Boughton, John 
H. and George Jones, the last two being brothers of Horatio. 
The boys had made their way on foot from Pennsylvania 
over Sullivan's old route. All the men mentioned entered 
the service of Phelps and Gorham. It had been the general 
expectation that the preemption line would run east of 
Seneca Lake, but Maxwell's surveyors made a mistake and 
ran the line through the Old Castle, one and one-half miles 
west of the lake, apparently leaving the new village within 
the borders of the last lease of the lessees. Walker, there- 
fore, decided to build a new town and in November removed 
his men and stores sixteen miles westward and established 
the village of Canandaigua, on the outlet of Canandaigua 
Lake. Jones and Smith had been on friendly terms with 
Walker and John H. Jones was in his employ. In December, 
Walker placed all his property in Canandaigua in the care 
of Joseph Smith, and with his surveyors went East for the 

The Senecas were constantly importuning Jones to re- 
turn to the Genesee, and some time during the winter of 
T788-V), a delegation, of which Farmer's Brother was a 
member, visited him with a formal request that he would 


share their dish, in other words, would settle among them. 
Captain Jones, as he was then called, gave the matter seri- 
ous consideration. His trade was already affected by the 
influx of white people, and the continual excitement under 
which the Indians were laboring. It was evident that the 
settlement of the Phelps and Gorham tract would destroy 
his business. 

By removing to the Genesee he would again be on the 
border of civilization and in the path of Indian trade. He 
decided to accept the offer of his red friends and informed 
them he would_ dip his spoon in their dish as soon as he 
could make proper arrangements. The delegation replied 
that when he was prepared to look they would stand a 
broom at his door ; in other words whenever he selected a 
piece of land for a home they would confirm his title. 

The lessees had not given up the hope of profiting in 
some manner from the lease they held of Indian lands east 
of the preemption line. The Rev. Mr. Kirkland discovered 
that considerable opposition to the proposed treaty existed 
among the white people and the Indians appeared indif- 
ferent. Col. Seth Reed and Peter Ryckman, traders at 
Kanadesaga, wrote to Gov. Clinton, offering to carry the 
Seneca and Cayuga Indians to Albany and his offer was 
accepted ; but the two men greatly overestimated their in- 
fluence. To excuse their failure they wrote to Gov. Clinton 
in January that "Indian interpreters Wemp, Smith and 
Jones, together with what lessees were on the ground, pre- 
vented the Indians from going to the treaty and kept them 
so intoxicated that it was almost impossible to do business 
with them."* In the same letter Reed said he was too ill 
to attend to the matter which was left to Ryckman, and 
begged for some land for his services. 

Ryckman reached Albany in February with thirty In- 
dians and squaws, including one Seneca chief. The State 
Commissioners, in accordance with the custom of the times, 
furnished liquor to the Indians, and one died in beastly in- 
toxication. The Indians then ceded all the Cayuga lands 
to the State, and Ryckman was granted a large tract of land 

* Hough's "Indian Affairs." 



on condition that he should share it with Reed. In accord- 
ance with his agreement with the lessees Phelps had in- 
structed Walker to survey a line of townships on the Gene- 
see for them the previous fall, and following the February 
treaty the three leases held by the lessees were surrendered 
to the State authorities. 

As soon as he could get through the snow in the spring 
of 1789 Joseph Smith moved to Canandaigua and com- 
menced keeping tavern in a log house near the outlet. 
Walker's surveyors returned from the East and a steady 
tide of travel flowed through Geneva and Canandaigua. 
Horatio Jones had afforded the surveyors considerable in- 
formation the previous fall and he now found his services 
in demand to guide new settlers to their purchases. 

The 1st of June, 1789, Horatio and John H. Jones pro- 
ceeded to the present town of Phelps and planted five acres 
of corn. The 10th of June they guided Enos Boughton to 
the present town of Victor, which he had purchased for 
twenty cents an acre. Boughton had several hired men and 
they began building a cabin on Boughton Hill, while the 
Jones brothers plowed and sowed to buckwheat three acres 
of Indian clearing on the east side of the present road a 
mile or two south of Boughton Hill. The corn in Phelps 
and the buckwheat in Victor are said to have been the first 
crops raised in those townships by white settlers. Horatio 
and John H. then assisted Boughton's brother-in-law to 
survey the township. 

In June, 1789, Joseph Brant, in behalf of the Six Na- 
tions, wrote to Gov. Clinton that the so-called treaty held in 
February, was the work, so far as the Indians were con- 
cerned, of unauthorized persons, contrary to Indian usage, 
and repudiated by the Six Nations. He asked that the lands 
should not be surveyed or settled until the matter was ad- 
justed. The State surveyors had begun work in June and 
Gov. Clinton wrote that they must not be disturbed as the 
treaty was considered valid. On July 5th Capt. Harden - 
bergh,* in charge of the survey, wrote the Governor that In- 
dians from Buffalo had notified Reed and Rvckman to leave 

* Captain, later Major, Abraham Hardenbergh. 


Kanadesaga, and requested the surveyors to stop work. 
Hardenbergh said : "These carryings on, I have no doubt, 
are fostered by the preemption people looking forward to 
the establishment of a new state. . . . The following are 
heads of the active lessees, viz. : Dr. Caleb Benton, most 
influence; Joseph Smith; John McKinstry, very active; 
Benj. Allen, violent in words; Horatio Jones, an inter- 
preter ; Peter Bartle ; Clark Jennings, subtle fellow ; Robt. 
Mitchell, interpreter. I think it would be well if they were 
immediately apprehended. It would discourage the rest and 
bring them to serious reflection."* 

July 14, 1789, Gov. Clinton commissioned Hardenbergh, 
Seth Reed and George Fleming as justices of the peace; he 
authorized Hardenbergh to organize a battalion of militia 
and in his letter to the Major said: "Although repeated 
information has been received charging them (Benton, 
McKinstry and others) with treasonable practices, yet for 
want of magistrates authorized to take affidavits we are not 
possessed of any legal proofs of the facts. This difficulty is 
now obviated and you will be able to authenticate the 
charges. " 

About the 1st of July a runner reached Capt. Jones with 
a speech from the Seneca chiefs who were then assembling 
on the Genesee. In substance the message stated that the 
voices of birds (rumors) were very strong and confusing, 
that the Senecas believed it was a proper time for Horatio 
to renew his relations with the nation as a chief, and they 
desired him to come to the Genesee where the council would 
grant him a seat upon Seneca territory. Capt. Jones, in 
company with his brothers, John H. and George, immedi- 
ately set out on horseback for Little Beard's Town, where 
he found the council assembled. He informed the chiefs 
that he had not yet decided upon a permanent seat, but 
would like a place to build a hut and plant some seeds for 
next year's harvest, when he expected to come to the Gene- 
see. With the approval of the Indians he set his brothers 
to work mowing a quantity of hay upon the flat, and promis- 

* Hough's "Indian Affairs." 


ing the chiefs to meet them later at Canandaigua, he re- 
turned to Geneva. 

On August I, 1789, the chiefs of the Six Nations assem- 
bled at Canandaigua to receive the first payment from Phelps 
and Gorham. When Mr. Phelps was ready, they appointed 
Horatio Jones, Jack Berry, Joseph Smith, Nicholas Rosen- 
crantz and James Mathews a special committee to count the 
money and appraise the goods offered by Phelps, which duty 
was performed to the satisfaction of all. The Senecas then 
returned Phelps' bond and on August 4th, the chiefs of the 
other Iroquois nations signed a quit claim to the territory 
purchased by Phelps and Gorham. 

Upon receiving authority to investigate charges, Major 
Hardenbergh called a meeting of the inhabitants of Geneva, 
to whom he explained the State laws and the illegal proceed- 
ings of the lessees. On September 1st he arrested Benjamin 
Allen, who escaped the following day. McKinstry could 
not be found and there appears to have been no mention of 
Jones, Smith, Wemp and others whom Hardenbergh and 
Ryckman had previously denounced. Hardenbergh wrote to 
Gov. Clinton : "The Senecas we begin to learn on further 
information wholly decline taking any part in the business," 
i. e., obstructing the surveyors. It is a fact that the Senecas 
distinctly stated that they had long before resigned all 
claims to lands east of the preemption, and had no interest 
in, nor right to sell, such lands. 

As Jones' influence with the Senecas was well understood, 
and Reed and Ryckman had secretly charged him with de- 
taining the Senecas from State treaties, Maj. Hardenbergh's 
statement to the Governor may be considered an official refu- 
tation of the charges. 

In the papers and traditions of the Jones family there is 
not the slightest hint that Jones or Smith ever heard of the 
charges. It is undoubtedly a fact, that the alarming reports 
of expected resistance to State authority emanated mainly 
from persons who wished to magnify their own importance 
in order to procure cessions of land from the State. 

Reed and Ryckman quarreled in September, and in Oc- 


tober Gov. Clinton suggested that the authority of the Legis- 
lature be invoked to compel Ryckman to disgorge Reed's 
share of lands granted for the benefit of both. The legal 
contest that followed between Reed and Ryckman developed 
such a disgraceful state of affairs as to render the secret 
accusations against Jones and Smith utterly valueless. 

XIV. A New Home — With Proctor in 1791. 

The location selected Dy Horatio Jones for a temporary 
home covered in part the site of the old Seneca Castle de- 
stroyed by Gen. Sullivan in 1779.* Believing the spot un- 
lucky for themselves and having strong faith in Ta-yah- 
da-o-noh-ka's power over evil spirits, the Senecas were 
pleased to see him occupy the ground. No definite bounds 
to the space he was to use were mentioned. When left to 
themselves in July, John H. and George found a temporary 
residence in a vacant Indian hut. Whetting their scythes, 
the young men mowed nine acres of grass upon the flat a 
little east and south of the present bridge over Little Beard's 
Creek, and but a short distance from the spot where Boyd 
and Parker were tortured. The hay was turned and cocked 
with forks made of crotched branches of trees, carried on 
brush drags to high ground, where it was stacked and se- 
cured. The haymakers then went to Geneva and later, prob- 
ably in September, returned to the Genesee with grain, tools 
and provisions. Having brought plow irons, they con- 
structed a rude plow and with the horses they had ridden 
turned over the soil of the nine acres, cut the hay,' and 
sowed them to wheat. The crop of grain cut from this 
ground the following season is supposed to have been the 
first crop of wheat raised by white settlers in the town of 
Leicester. The clevis used on the plow in breaking the nine 

* Arthur Cumrriings owns the north side of the road, James F. Colt the 
south side where Boyd's tree stands. — G. II. H. 


acres was carefully preserved, and is now in the possession 
of James W. Jones of Moscow.* 

Mary Jemison's Indian mother was a blood sister of Big 
Tree, or Ga-non-do-wa-nah. When she moved from Gen-i- 
sha to the west side of the river, she built her cabin at the 
east door of the Genesee Castle on the spot which Jones 
afterwards selected for his dwelling. It was there that the 
"white woman'' entertained the British officers in their jour- 
neys to and fro, prior to Sullivan's invasion in 1779. There 
she planted seed for an orchard and to those seeds a sturdy 
apple tree, now in Mr. Perkins' orchard owes its existence. 
By his selection of this spot Jones was again located upon 
the border of the coming civilization in the doorway of the 
Indian country. After sowing the wheat, John H. and 
George constructed a pole and bark shanty as a stable for 
the horses, or other stock that might winter there ; they 
built a house, also of poles and bark, for Horatio. 

Although we have temporarily lost sight of Mrs. Jones 
in recording the events with which her husband was so 
closely connected, the brave little woman had nobly sus- 
tained her character as a pioneer wife and mother. Three 
sons, William W., George and Hiram, had been born at 
Geneva; their log house was one of the most comfortable 
and cheery homes in the place. Horatio had made his se- 
lection on the Genesee through Sarah's advice and they 
planned for the future with the Genesee Castle location as 
the center of their anticipated home life. About the 16th of 

* Grandson of Horatio through William W. Jones. The exact spot fixed 
upon by Capt. Jones for his dwelling is now covered by the farmhouse of John 
Perkins, at the angle in, and north of the road between Cuylerville and Geneseo 
nearly a mile east of the crossing of Beard's Creek, and from sixty to eighty 
rods west of the bridge over the Genesee. For some distance east of Beard's 
Creek the land is occasionally submerged by high water, but in the vicinity oi 
Mr. Perkins's house the ground is more elevated and has never been tinder wa- 
ter. In 1789, in fact as late as 1825, the river ran within eight or ten rods of 
the site of Mr. Perkins's house and the center of the channel was the divisional 
line between the Phelps and Gorham tract and the lands of the Seneca?. The 
location is historic. In Indian days several trails crossed the river, in the vi- 
cinity, especially those paths connecting old Genisha, Fall Brook and the later 
Big Tree's village east of the Genesee, with the Genesee Castle and later Little 
Beard's Town on the west side. — G. H. H. 

tA lantern used by them then is now in the possession of Lucien M. Jones 
of Leicester, a grandson of Jchn II. Jones. 


May, 1790, Horatio turned his back on Geneva and again 
set out towards the Seneca country. First came Mrs. Jones, 
then Sally Griffith, a servant, each mounted upon a horse 
bearing a load of bedding. 

Mrs. Jones had little Hiram tied in a shawl upon her 
back in Indian style, with baby George on the cushion be- 
fore her, with several articles of domestic utility dangling 
at either side of the saddle horn. Sally Griffith bore William 
in her arms and was also encumbered with sundry small ar- 
ticles. Following them came a two-wheeled cart, driven 
by Jones, containing the balance of their household pos- 
sessions. The little cavalcade journeyed over the rough 
road in safety until it reached the crossing of Flint Creek. 
Mrs. Jones passed the ford and halted on the bank to watch 
Sally, who attempted to follow ; but her horse caught his 
foot in the bottom and in the struggle to release it the child 
was thrown into the swift-flowing stream. In an instant 
the young mother dismounted, dropped her two children, 
ran down the bank near the child, plunged into the water 
and brought him to shore little worse for the ducking. 

Proceeding on to Canandaigua the family received a 
warm welcome from the family of Mr. and Mrs. Joseph 
Smith, with whom they remained over night. The next 
day's journey took them to the present location of Lima. 
At the present location of Avon, Horatio abandoned the 
rough road over which Berry, Markham, Smith, Ganson and 
other pioneers had previously passed to the Genesee, and 
turning southeast picked his way along the high grounds 
and open spaces of the woods very nearly over the present 
line of the Avon, Geneseo & Mt. Morris Railroad. Camp- 
ing one night on the journey, the family continued along 
the foot hills of Geneseo, through Big Tree Indian village, 
crossed the Genesee and on the 20th of May, 1790, reached 
the bark house on the ground of the Old Castle. 

A number of Indians, including Sarah's relatives, wel- 
comed them, and the young wife realized that she was again 
on or near the ground where she had passed the greater part 
of her captivity. Hospitality is the prime virtue of an In- 
dian home, and understanding this, Sarah quickly arranged 


her kitchen utensils and prepared some tea and food for her 
native visitors, who came in such numbers, that, upon their 
final departure, there was hardly enough food left in the 
house for the first family meal. 

In the northern and western boundaries of the territory 
conceded to the United States by England in 1783, roughly 
stated, were the centers of the Great Lakes from the River 
St. Lawrence to the head waters of the Mississippi, thence 
south by the latter river to Florida. Great Britain made no 
provision for her Indian allies resident within the ceded 
territory, and Congress was firmly impressed with the be- 
lief that the cession of the British crown absolutely vested 
the United States with the fee of all Indian lands within the 
borders of the new republic, and that the United States 
Government possessed the right to retain or dispose of such 
lands at will. The Senecas now became greatly concerned 
regarding their own condition and in November, 1790, de- 
cided to send a delegation to Philadelphia to learn from 
President Washington himself the intentions of the Govern- 
ment respecting the Six Nations. Cornplanter, Halftown, 
Big Tree, New Arrow, Black Snake, Red Jacket and a son 
of Cornplanter reached the capital on the 29th and on De- 
cember 1st and subsequent dates, addressed the President, 
saying in substance that the Senecas had given up their 
lands at the treaty of 1784 through compulsion, expecting a 
lasting peace with the United States, but they had been de- 
ceived and cheated by Livingston, Street and Phelps ; that 
the latter had failed to pay what he agreed and that year. 
1790, had paid nothing; that some of their people had been 
murdered by lawless whites; they asked justice at the hands 
of the Government, requested that mechanics and school- 
teachers be sent to them and that an official interpreter be 
appointed for the Seneca nation. The President replied in 
conciliatory speeches, explained the various treaties and the 
position assumed by the Government, declaimed his inten- 
tion to do the Indians justice, promised to redress their 
wrongs and send them instructors ; he left the appointment 
of an interpreter to the Governor of the western territory. 
He warned the Six Nations not to engage in the border war 


and obtained a promise from Cornplanter and other chiefs 
to assist the United States in securing peace with the hostile 
tribes. The Seneca delegation lingered at Philadelphia until 
February 9, 1791, and reached Pittsburg, March 17th, when 
Big Tree went to the Wabash tribes and Cornplanter de- 
parted for the Allegheny. The Senecas were divided in 
their opinion and desires regarding the situation. 

Phelps had failed to pay the promised annuity for 1790; 
Farmer's Brother, Red Jacket and other chiefs, under the 
direct influence of the British officers at Niagara and Erie, 
were inclined to thwart the efforts of the United States to 
obtain peace with the western tribes and title to their lands, 
while a majority of the inferior chiefs desired to remain in 
friendly terms with the United States authorities. 

That Capt. Jones was known to Gen. Washington as early 
as 1790 is well established, but through what means or when 
Washington first learned of him we have not been able to 
ascertain. Following his removal to the Genesee Jones was 
occasionally engaged in secret business for the Government : 
in the summer of 1790 he was directed to carry a quantity 
of specie to Buffalo Creek. The travel of drivers, traders 
and settlers from the Pludson and Susquehanna rivers to the 
Niagara frontier was increasing fast and a number of des- 
peradoes infested these routes, plundering and murdering 
those known to possess money. Jones packed the treasure 
upon the back of his favorite mare Bess and indicating his 
intended route and camping places, said: "If I am killed 
on the journey, hunt up the robbers ; but if I am murdered 
in camp, look for the money twenty rods northwest of where 
I sleep." 

Arming himself with a tomahawk and stout knife he set 
out upon his mission. Pie passed the Genesee safely and one 
night camped on a bank west of a branch of Tonawanda 
Creek. After securing his treasure he built a fire, ate his 
supper, turned Bess loose to feed, and lay down with his 
saddle for a pillow. He slept soundly for several hours 
and towards morning dreamed that a little Indian came to 
him, saying if he remained where he was his bones would 
lie in a pile. The dream was so real Jones awoke. Bess 


was standing near by and seemed to be frightened ; Jones 
got up and searched the surrounding bushes, but finding 
nothing suspicious again lav down to slumber, when the 
Indian came in a second dream with the same message. 
Rousing up he observed the same uneasiness on the part of 
his horse, Bess cowering before him in terror. He had often 
ridiculed belief in dreams as expressed by the superstitious 
natives, but now his mind was in unrest and the responsibil- 
ity of his mission bore heavily upon him. The horse was as 
thoroughly trained as a dog and he knew she had seen some 
object of a startling nature; probably some person prowling 
in the bushes to reconnoiter his position. Quietly saddling 
the mare he turned through the bushes closely followed by 
Bess, to the spot where he had buried the money. In a 
moment the treasure was secured in its usual place and 
Jones mounted just as daylight began to appear. He had 
gone about a quarter of a mile when he heard a rustling in 
the bushes close by the path. He gave Bess a touch and as 
the obedient creature suddenly bounded forward a man 
with a club in his hand stepped into the trail close behind 

"You stir early," said the stranger. 

"Yes," Jones answered curtly, without checking the brisk 
gait of his horse. A little farther on he saw a brisk fire 
burning under a large kettle and a man not far off. Jones 
could not divest himself of the idea that that kettle was in- 
tended to cook his body to destroy his identity. He reached 
his destination in safety. 

A few days later John Street, who kept a trading house 
at Fort Niagara, was robbed and murdered at a spring near 
the Ridge Road, a mile west of Warren's. His body was 
cut into fragments and scattered about. Gale, from Goshen, 
and Hammond, from the Delaware, were arrested for the 
crime; Hammond turned State's evidence, but escaped, and 
Gale was discharged. The spring has since been termed 
"Murderers' Spring. "* 

On March 10, 1791, Col. Thomas Proctor was ordered 
to visit the Wabash and Miami Indians and invite them to a 

* Turner's Holland Purchase. 


treaty of peace at Fort Washington on May 5th. Leaving 
Philadelphia on horseback, accompanied by Capt. M. G. 
Houdin, who was to assume the mission in case the Colonel 
was killed or disabled, Proctor crossed the Blue Mountains 
and reached Wilksburg on the 19th. 

On the 20th he reached the residence of Capt. Waterman 
Baldwin, who had been a captive at Cornplanter's town and 
who was to reside there and instruct the Senecas in study 
and agriculture. At Tioga Point Proctor hired an Indian 
named Peter Cayantha to guide him to the Genesee River. 
At Painted Post the party was joined by George Slocum, 
who expected to redeem from captivity his sister Frances, 
who had been a prisoner at Cornplanter's town for twelve 
years. Crossing over the divide to the Canaseraga, Proctor 
arrived at the house of Ebenezer Allan, in the present village 
of Mt. Morris at ten P. M., on the 30th. The following 
morning Col. Proctor found himself surrounded by the 
Senecas of Squakie Hill and without an interpreter. 

As Allan was not at home Col. Proctor says in his of- 
ficial journal : "I wrote a letter directed to Capt. Allan or 
'Horatio Jones and sent it by a runner by way of Connewago, 
or at such a place where I could meet with either of them, 
requesting that whoever received it should repair to Squakie 
Hill to meet me ; and should they meet any Indian chiefs or 
warriors to invite them to meet me also, having business of 
importance from Gen. Washington, the President of the 
United Mates, to lay before their nation. I at the same 
time dispatched two runners, one to the several sugar camps 
adjacent to give them like information and the other to 
Capt. Big Tree and Little Beard, who reside about seven 
miles hence. By evening several warriors and chiefs had 
arrived at Mr. Allan's residence, among the latter Stump- 
foot, the chief of Squakie Hill ; Little Beard and Black- 
Chief." "April 1st. Mr. Horatio Jones, Indian interpreter, 
arrived this morning and shortly afterwards I convened the 
thirty odd chiefs present into council and introduced my 
message by some prefatory sentiments, touching the candor 
and justice of the United States . . . and read my mes- 
sage to them from the Secretary of War (asking the Senecas 


to accompany and assist Col. Proctor in his efforts to secure 
peace with the western tribes). They signified their full ap- 
probation in their accustomed manner." On learning that 
Cornplanter had called a great council at Buffalo, Proctor 
decided to go there, and several chiefs agreed to accompany 
him. "I made inquiry whether it was easy to obtain a good 
interpreter at Buffalo or otherwise," continued Col. Proctor. 
"and being informed there were no interpreters there except 
those under British pay, I conceived it a duty incumbent en 
me to engage Air. Jones, as being a proper person for my 
business from the reputation he bore from inquiries I had 
made and I accordingly agreed with him in behalf of the 
United States, to pay him the customary wages so long as I 
should find occasion for his services." Ebenezer Allan ar- 
rived home and refused to receive any compensation for the 
trouble and expense for provisions Col. Proctor's party had 
caused him. The Colonel made him presents of an amount 
equalling eleven dollars. 

As Proctor was starting for Buffalo, a second runner 
came with news that the council fire at that place had been 
covered for one moon and the Colonel decided to go to Oil 
Spring, where he expected to find Cornplanter. Proceeding 
by way of Nunda, Caneadea and Oil Creek the party reached 
a place called Dun-e-wan-gua, at the great bend of the Al- 
legheny River where, on x\pril 6th, runners informed Col. 
Proctor that a number of Virginians had killed several Dela- 
ware Indians near Fort Pitt. In revenge the Indians at- 
tacked a settlement above Pittsburg and killed seventeen 
whites. Cornplanter, New Arrow and other chiefs, with the 
commander of Venango, were coming up the river in the 
garrison boat and canoes, when a company of militia over- 
took them and forced the party to return, under threats of 
death. Proctor engaged one of the runners as a guide and 
proceeding to Cornplanter's town found the place deserted 
by chiefs and warriors, who had gone to Venango to rescue 

Procuring a canoe and two young Indians to work it. 
Col. Proctor, Baldwin and Jones set out for French Creek, 
130 miles distant, and paddling continuously for thirty 


hours, reached Fort Franklin, where Cornplanter and other 
chiefs informed them that the militia had taken New Arrow- 
to Pittsburg and carried off all the Indian property, leaving 
the Senecas utterly destitute. 

Proctor used every possible argument to appease the 
fears of the Indians, promised to report their situation to 
the Secretary of War and have New Arrow released, called 
them together in council, represented the horrors of war- 
fare and entreated their aid in his mission to the Miamis. 
The Indians, notwithstanding the murder of their people, 
imprisonment of their sachem and the robbery of their 
property, promised the desired aid, but insisted upon going 
to Buffalo Creek to hold a council. Proceeding up the Al- 
legheny to New Arrow's settlement, where they arrived on 
the 15th, Proctor left Capt. Baldwin and Cayantha, the In- 
dian guide, in company with Dominick De Barge, formerly 
of Canadesaga, and James Culbertson of Genesee, who were 
there trading with the Indians. There Slocum found his 
long-lost sister Frances married and with an Indian fam- 
ily. No persuasion could induce her to return to her white 
relatives. News also came that New Arrow had been re- 
leased and the stolen goods, given to Cornplanter at Phila- 
delphia safely returned. Passing onward by way of Cat- 
taraugus, Proctor and the Senecas reached Buffalo Creek 
on the 27th, where Farmer's Brother, Red Jacket and other 
Indian chiefs invited them to the council house of the 

Floratio Jones then informed the council that Col. Proctor 
came with messages from President Washington to the Six 
Nations, but Red Jacket intimated that Proctor might be an 
impostor, and it was agreed that his commission and papers 
should be submitted to the commanding officer at Fort Erie. 
The following morning Capt. Powell came as the representa- 
tive of the commandant of Fort Erie, and through him 
Colonel Proctor learned that the Indians were entirely under 
the control of the British officers of Niagara and Erie and 
that Brant had been sent with forty warriors to Detroit and 
thence to the great encampment of the hostile Indians on a 
mission. Proctor explained to the Indians, through Jones, 


the nature of his mission and the messages sent by the 
United States officials to the Six Nations and the hostiles. 
Red Jacket replied that the council must be adjourned to 
Fort Niagara and held in the presence of the British officers. 
Col. Proctor peremptorily refused to move the fire or submit 
his business to the British. So the Indians sent for Col. 
John Butler. Finding that the influence of the British of- 
ficials rendered futile all his own efforts to secure an escort 
of the Six Nations' chiefs to the hostiles, Col. Proctor sent 
a letter by Capt. Jones to Col. Gordon, commandant at Ni- 
agara, requesting permission to use one of the vessels on 
Lake Erie to transport him and party to the Miamis at the 
upper end of the lake. 

Capt. Jones assumed his Indian costume and proceeded 
to Fort Niagara, where he sent Col. Proctor's letter to Col. 
Gordon. Wishing to look over the fort where he had spent 
several weeks while in captivity, Jones passed hither and 
thither in a leisurely manner until he was suddenly con- 
fronted by a corporal and file of men who restricted his 
movements to the parade ground. Receiving his package 
he retraced his steps to Buffalo Creek, when Col. Proctor 
learned that the British commandant chose to consider him 
a private individual and refused him the use of a vessel. 
The Senecas, therefore, refused to attend Proctor to the 
hostiles and the mission thus unhappily ended. Proctor left 
Buffalo, May 21st, and Jones returned to the Genesee, hav- 
ing served as interpreter and assistant in all the contro- 
versies and incidents of the mission.* 

[End of the narrative as written by Mr. Harris; the fol- 
lowing chapters by the editor of this volume.'] 

* We omit from Mr. Harris's narrative a long account of treaty negotia- 
tions with Western Indians, the organization of the Indian department, and 
the operations of Harmar and St. Clair, the principal facts being elsewhere ac- 


XV. Treaties and Councils — The Jones and Parrish 
Tracts in Buffalo. 

During the years that followed, down almost to the time 
of his death, Horatio Jones was often in Government or 
other employ, as interpreter, his salary from the Government 
being $400 per year. His services on many of these occa- 
sions gave him an important part in negotiations of the 
greatest import, between the United States Government, or 
representatives of land companies, and the Indians. With- 
out undertaking to rewrite the history of these treaties and 
councils, all long since fully recorded, it is essential to our 
narrative that some account of them be given. 

Horatio Jones had served as interpreter at the treaty of 
Buffalo Creek, July 8, 1788, at which the Five Nations sold 
to Nathaniel Gorham and Oliver Phelps, for £2,100 and 
an annuity of $500, all their lands east of the Genesee and a 
small tract west of it, more than two and a half million 
acres, containing what are now the counties of Ontario, 
Steuben and Yates, and portions of Monroe, Livingston, 
Wayne, Allegany and Schuyler. The earlier and later his- 
tory of this tract is matter of familiar record, and need not 
be entered upon here. It was an important step towards the 
final extinction of Indian title in the Empire State, save for 
the narrow bounds of a few reservations. 

Two incidents of the year 1791 should be recorded at 
this point. In 1791 the Senecas deeded four square miles 
on the Genesee River, now the site of Mt. Morris, to Ebene- 
zer Allan in trust for his two daughters, Mary and Chloe. 
Horatio Jones and Jasper Parrish, with others, signed the 
deed as witnesses, July 16th.* This tract, whether by over- 
sight or otherwise, was not reserved in the sale to Morris. 
In 1823 the Senecas made an ineffectual appeal to the Secre- 
tary of War, John C. Calhoun, in behalf of Allan's heirs, 
and referred to Jones and Parrish, who had served as in- 

* Their signatures, with the marks of Farmer's Brother, Little Beard and 
some sixteen other chiefs and sachems, including Red Jacket, may be seen in 
the Ontario County Clerk's records at Canandaigua. 


terpreters at the Pickering treaty, when the original grant 
was made, for substantiation of their claims. 

Jones and Parrish were both with a large party of Sene- 
cas, who in the summer of 1791, on their way to meet Col. 
Pickering at Newtown, encamped at Norris' Landing, about 
a mile south of Dresden on Seneca Lake, and there met the 
famous Jemima Wilkinson, "the Universal Friend." It is 
recorded that on this occasion she preached to the Indian 
multitude, through the medium of an interpreter, presumably 
either Jones or Parrish ; and that the Indians were much 
pleased with her discourse. David Hudson, in his history 
of the "preacheress,"* adds the following : "Jemima having 
seated herself beside the interpreter, who accompanied the 
Indians, desired him to explain to her the language of the 
speaker [an Indian]. When the Indian had ended his dis- 
course, he enquired of the interpreter what the conversation 
had been between him and his white sister, and on being 
informed that she had requested an interpretation of his 
words, he fixed his eye sternly upon her, and pointing his 
finger, said in broken English, 'Me think you are no Jesus 
Christ if you don't know what poor Indian say — he know 
what Indian say as well as anything,' and immediately turned 
contemptuously away from her, and neither he nor any of 
his party took any further notice of her." Jones met Jemima 
Wilkinson at Canandaigua in 1794, but it is not recorded 
that he served again as interpreter between that singularly 
deluded woman and the shrewd, keen-witted Indians. 

Horatio Jones bore his accustomed useful part in the 
treaty held in 1793 with the Indian tribes northwest of the 
Ohio, by commissioners of the United States. On February 
19, 1793, President Washington, in a message to the House 
of Representatives, set forth that "it has been agreed on the 
part of the United States, that a treaty or conference shall 
be held the ensuing, season with the hostile Indians north- 
west of the Ohio, in order to remove, if possible, all causes 
of difference, and to establish a solid peace with them." The 
President reminded Congress of their duties consequent 

* "History of Jemima Wilkinson, a Preacheress of the Eighteenth Cen- 
tury," etc, Geneva, N. Y., 1821. 


thereon. An act was passed appropriating a sum not to ex- 
ceed $100,000 for the purposes of the treaty. The commis- 
sion was finally constituted of Gen. Benjamin Lincoln, Bev- 
erly Randolph and Timothy Pickering, and Sandusky was 
fixed upon as the place of meeting. 

The best narrative of this episode is the journal of the 
tour kept by Gen. Lincoln.* The commissioners set out 
from Philadelphia, April 27, 1793, and journeyed by way 
of New York, Albany, the Mohawk River and south shore 
of Lake Ontario, to the Niagara. Gen. Lincoln's narrative 
is graphic and picturesque, and forms a valuable addition 
to the chronicles of our region. The party reached Fort 
Niagara May 25th, and sojourned there, and with Gov. 
Simcoe across the river, for some days. On June 4th, the 
King's birthday, the commissioners attended a levee at the 
Governor's house. Later Gen. Lincoln was the guest of 
Robert Hamilton at the Landing (Oueenston), visited Ni- 
agara Falls, and on June nth came up Buffalo Creek to the 
Seneca villages. It was at this time, apparently, that he en- 
gaged Horatio Jones to accompany the expedition to the 
West. There was speechmaking at the council house on 
Buffalo Creek, f presents, and mutual expressions of good 
will. For some days following, the commissioners were at 
various points in the Niagara region, their sight-seeing and 
visiting being very pleasantly recorded by Gen. Lincoln. 
On July 5th, while waiting for a favorable wind at Fort 

* The Massachusetts Historical Society owns the original manuscript. It 
was published in the "Collections" of that Society, 3d ser. vol. v, Boston, 1836. 

t At this council on Buffalo Creek, June 11, 1793, there was present a 
young British officer, Col. C. A. Pilkington, who made a sketch of the scene 
at the conference. Many years later, in 1 819, while stationed at Gibraltar, he 
presented it to a friend, a Mr. Henry. In 1S36 it came into the possession of 
the Massachusetts Historical Society, which has preserved it, with Gen. Lin- 
coln's journal. So far as known it is the first picture made at what is now 
Buffalo. Our reproduction, greatly reduced, shows the principal part of the 
drawing. The three seated figures, left to right, are Mr. Randolph, Gen. Lin- 
coln, and Mr. Pickering. Behind Pickering, standing with hand in breeches 
pocket, is Gen. Israel Chapin. To the right of Randolph is the interpreter, pre- 
sumably Horatio Jones; he accompanied Lincoln for the rest of the mission 
and probably served him on this occasion. No other portrait of Jones is known 
to the present editor. At the interpreter's right are officers of the 24th British 
Grenadiers, and an Indian orator; behind the commissioners, the Quaker dele- 
gation, a negro servant and other spectators. 


Erie, the commissioners were met by an Indian deputation 
from "the rapids of Miami," asking questions as to the in- 
tentions of the Government. The speeches on this occasion 
are preserved in Gen. Lincoln's journal, undoubtedly in the 
phraseology of interpreter Jones. Another council, shared 
in by Joseph Brant, followed at Navy Hall, Niagara. Let- 
ters were dispatched from Niagara to President Washington 
and to the Secretary of War, showing the unfavorable out- 
look for the western undertaking. The commissioners and 
Horatio Jones sailed from Fort Erie July 14th, and did not 
reach the upper end of the lake until July 21st. They were 
not permitted to visit the British garrison of Detroit, but 
were entertained at the mouth of the river, eighteen miles 
below. In some of the councils which followed, Simon 
Girty acted as interpreter. On July 31st the commissioners 
made their principal speech to the assembled tribes, and 
Gen. Lincoln wrote in his journal: "This speech was read 
by paragraphs, and interpreted by Mr. Jones into the Seneca 
tongue, and then delivered to the oldest chief with a white 
belt and with thirteen stripes of black wampum." The oc- 
casion illustrates the difficulty of communication between 
the Government and the tribes. The message was first 
translated into Seneca by Jones, whose knowledge of the 
Western dialects was apparently too slight for use. Then a 
second transmutation followea through the medium of the 
dubious Simon Girty, who knew the Wyandot, or of some 
Western chief who could understand, more or less ade- 
quately, the Seneca, as spoken by Jones.* Such double inter- 
pretation was by no means unusual. When one reflects upon 
the change of sentiment, if not utter perversion of meaning. 
likely in such twice-told messages, the marvel is, not that 
treaties were sometimes inconclusive, but that they came to 
any business-like conclusions at all.f 

*"A lengthy reply in writing was made by the commissioners on the just [July], 
the gist of which was that they were not authorized to fix the Ohio River as the 
boundary. This was interpreted by Girty and a Mr. Jones in the Seneca tongue, 
which was well understood by the Wyandot chief and by others of the deputa- 
tion."— Butterf/eld's " History of the Girtys," p. 277. 

t There were other interpreters at this abortive council; William Wilson 
and Sylvester Ash, from Fort Pitt, as interpreters for the Delawares and 



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In the present instance, the result was far from satisfac- 
tory. The Shawanese, Wyandots, Miamis and Delawares 
were loth to commit themselves to peace pledges. On Au- 
gust nth Gen. Lincoln wrote in his journal: "The King's 
vessel, called the Chippewa, arrived from Detroit, bound to 
Fort Erie. Twelve Senecas, including women and children, 
and most of them sick, from the Indian council at the rapids 
of the Miami, came in her. These Senecas are well known 
to General Chapin ; and Jones the interpreter, one of them, 
an intelligent man, gave us the like information about the 
proceedings of the council upon our last speech, with that 
received from Hendrick's men and the Munsees and Chip- 
peways ; only that the four nations who inclined to continue 
the war, remained obstinate when he departed from the 
council.'' Farmer's Brother, Brant, perhaps Jones himself, 
spoke eloquently for peace, but the four nations named con- 
tinued to stand out. Gen. Lincoln waited for many days. 
Finally, the chiefs and warriors sent word consenting to 
make peace if the L T nited States would make the Ohio the 
boundary between its lands and the Indians' possessions. 
This the commissioners could not do, and the negotiations 
ended. Gen. Lincoln's party set sail from the mouth of the 
Detroit, August 17th, and were at Fort Erie on the 21st, 
whence the commissioners returned to Philadelphia, and 
Horatio Jones to his home. He had shared in an occasion 
which later years showed to be the last great stand of the 
red man for a part of that territory which had once been 
his, east of the Mississippi. 

In February, 1794, a council was convened at Buffalo 
Creek, its purpose being, on the part of the Federal Govern- 
ment, to strengthen the Senecas in their allegiance. British 
influence was still strong upon them ; the British still held 

Shawanese; and Mr. Dean, from the Mohawk, for the Oneidas. Jasper Par- 
rish "had gone express to Philadelphia," but may have been present for a 
part of the time. Besides the commissioners and interpreters, there were pres- 
ent Charles Storer, secretary; Gen. Chapin, Indian agent at Buffalo Creek; 
Dr. McCoskry from Carlisle, as physician; William Scott, commissary; six 
Quakers, Wm. Savery, John Parrish, John Elliot, Jacub Lindley, Joseph Moore 
and Wm. Hartshorne; the Moravian missionary, John Heckewelder ; two 
British officers, sent by Gov. Simcoe, Capt. Bombary of the Regulars and Lieut. 
Gibbins of the Queen's Rangers; a cook, and several servants. 


Fort Niagara, and exercised no little sway over the Indians 
of Western New York. The region of the Niagara and 
Buffalo Creek was debatable territory ; so far as the Indians 
could foresee, it might yet be given over into British hands. 
It is not strange, therefore, that they invited British officers 
to their councils. On the occasion named Brant was the 
principal speaker. Red Jacket shared in the talks, Horatio 
Jones acting as his interpreter. The United States Govern- 
ment distributed presents, and deferred further efforts until 
the great council of Canandaigua, in the autumn of that 
same year. 

For the Canandaigua council, over 1600 Indians of the 
various tribes assembled, the Senecas from the Allegheny 
arriving at the rendezvous October 14th, under the leader- 
ship of Cornplanter, accompanied by Horatio Jones as in- 
terpreter. Two days later came Farmer's Brother and his 
Senecas from Buffalo Creek, and with them Jasper Parrish. 
Colonel Pickering was again the United States commis- 
sioner. Several graphic accounts exist of this last great 
council in Western New York ; subsequent assemblages sur- 
passed it in historic importance, but none — except perhaps 
that of '97 — equalled it in the number of Indian attendants, 
nor in picturesque wildness of incident. At this, the last 
general council between the Six Nations and the United 
States Government, both Jones and Parrish served as in- 
terpreters. By the terms finally agreed upon, November 
nth, the Oneidas, Onondagas and Cayugas were confirmed 
in their reservations ; the boundaries of the Senecas were 
established, and the four-mile strip along the Niagara from 
Fort Schlosser to the mouth of Buffalo Creek was granted 
to the Government, that a road might be made. Other minor 
stipulations were agreed upon. Several notable speeches 
were made during the long confabs by Red Jacket and 
Farmer's Brother, which as preserved to us are undoubtedlv 
in the language of Horatio Jones. At one point Col. Picker- 
ing spoke with great heat because of the presence of Johnson 
from Buffalo Creek, whom the United States commissioner 
regarded as a British spy. After he was sent away and 
feelings had cooled, Col. Pickering and about fifteen of the 


chiefs dined together "by candle-light." "Many repartees 
of the Indians, which Jones interpreted, manifested a high 
turn for wit and humor.* A few days later," wrote Savery, 
one of the Quaker delegates, "Red Jacket visited us with his 
wife and five children, whom he had brought to see us. . . . 
Jones came to interpret. Red Jacket informed us of the 
views which the Indians had in inviting us to the treaty, 
which Jones confirmed, being present at the council at Buf- 
falo Creek, viz., believing that the Quakers were an honest 
people and friends to them, they wished them to be present, 
that they might see the Indians were not deceived or im- 
posed upon." 

Horatio Jones and Jasper Parrish were the interpreters at 
the treaty concluded September 15, 1797, at Geneseo, at 
which a contract was entered into, under the sanction of the 
United States Government, between Robert Morris and the 
Seneca Nation, for the sale to Morris of all the Indian lands 
in New York State west of the Genesee, excepting ten reser- 
vations aggregating 337 square miles. f This is known as 
the treaty of Big Tree. It is said that 3,000 Indians gath- 
ered for the occasion, the negotiations lasting three weeks. 
Here, even more strikingly than on any previous occasion, 
Horatio Jones was the medium of communication through 
whom the Six Nations signified their relinquishment of their 
rich domain. The principal arrangements at this treaty are 
said to have been made in the unfinished house of Col. 
Wadsworth, the Indians accepting $100,000, to be deposited 
in the United States Bank, and paid in instalments. 

Horatio Jones moved from his home at Fall Brook to the 
village of Williamsburg, but in 1797 he left it for Sweet 
Briar, as he named his farm, near Geneseo. The place was 
afterwards known as the Jones ford, and when the road was 

* "Journal of William Savery," p. 73. Stone, in his "Life and Times of 
Red Jacket," follows Savery's account closely, but omits the references to 
Horatio Jones. 

t For a full, accurate narrative of this transaction, the reader is referred 
to the address by Mr. W. H. Samson of Rochester, delivered before the Liv- 
ingston Co. Historical Society in 1894, and published with other matter under 
the title "A History of the Treaty of Big Tree" (8vo, pp. 103), by the Liv- 
ingston Co. Historical Society in j 897. 


sun-eyed across the river at that point it was called the Jones 
road, and the bridge the Jones bridge. This was to be the 
home of his last years ; and here, after his forty years of 
useful service to the United States Government, he gave his 
final years to the labors and pleasures of farm life, continu- 
ing active to the last.* 

In this same year Horatio Jones officiated in the execution 
of a contract whereby the Seneca Nation confirmed to Mary 
Jemison her title in the tract on the Genesee, where, for 
many years, she made her home. 

The Senecas wished to give to Horatio Jones and Jasper 
Parrish a substantial proof of their friendship and good will. 
This motive brought them together at Geneseo in the year 
of 1798. The occasion proved to be of lasting importance in 
the history of Buffalo. The principal speech at this council 
was made by Farmer's Brother. As interpreted, signed by 
the chiefs present and submitted to the Legislature for ap- 
proval, it ran as follows : 

"Brothers : As you are once more assembled in council 
for the purpose of doing honor to yourselves and justice to 
your country, we, your brothers, the sachems, chiefs and 
warriors of the Seneca Nation, request you to open your ears 
and give attention to our voice and wishes. 

"You will recollect the late contest between you and your 
father, the great King of England. This contest threw the 
inhabitants of this whole islandf into a great tumult and 
commotion, like a raging whirlwind which tears up the trees, 
and tosses to and fro the leaves, so that no one knows from 
whence they come, or when they will fall. This whirlwind 
was so directed by the Great Spirit above, as to throw into 

* Williamsburg, projected as a village south of Geneseo, no longer exists. 
The Sweet Briar farm where Capt. Jones ended his days is about three miles 
south of Geneseo. on the east side of the river, and is now (1903) owned 
by Mr. George Austin. Hor.atio Jones's old house is still standing and in 
good repair; a well-built two-story frame farmhouse, with a fine portico on 
the west or river side, and another on the south, the latter apparently a later 
construction. Some of the outbuildings date from Capt. Jones's time, and 
several of the fine old trees under which the Captain used to greet his Seneca 
friends, are still standing. 

t The Indians universally considered this country an island. 


our arms two of your infant children, Jasper Parrish and 
Horatio Jones. We adopted them into our families, and 
made them our children. We loved them and nourished 
them. They lived with us many years. At length the Great 
Spirit spoke to the whirlwind and it was still. A clear and 
uninterrupted sky appeared. The path of peace was opened, 
and the chain of friendship was once more made bright. 
Then these, our adopted children, left us to seek their re- 
lations ; we wished them to remain among us, and promised, 
it* they would return and live in our country, to give each of 
them a seat of land for them and their children to sit down 
upon. They have returned and have, for several years past, 
been serviceable to us as interpreters. We still feel our 
hearts beat with affection for them, and now wish to fulfil 
the promise we made them, and reward them for their serv- 

"We have, therefore, made up our minds to give them a 
seat of two square miles of land, lying on the outlet of Lake 
Erie, about three miles below Black Rock, beginning at the 
mouth of a creek known by the name of Scoy-gu-quoy-des 
Creek, running one mile from the River Niagara up said 
creek, thence northerly as the river runs two miles, thence 
westerly one mile to the river, thence up the river as the 
river runs, two miles, to the place of beginning, so as to con- 
tain two square miles. 

"Brothers : We have now made known to you our 
minds. We expect and earnestly request that you will per- 
mit our friends to receive this our gift, and will make the 
same good to them, according to the laws and customs of 
our nation. 

"Why should you hesitate to make our minds easy with 
regard to this our request? To you it is but a little thing; 
and have you not complied with the request and confirmed 
the gifts of our brothers the Oneidas, the Onondagas and 
Cayugas to their interpreters ? And shall we ask and not be 
heard? We send you this our speech, to which we expect 
your answer before breaking up our great council fire.'" 

This speech has been much admired, and deserves to be. 
for its strength of metaphor. But more than that, it adds 


to the annals of Buffalo as signal an instance as may be 
found in all history, of the high-mindedness and rectitude 
of the red man. The Senecas, at any rate, were glad to re- 
ward faithful service, and their spokesman on this occasion 
was one of the noblest specimens of his race. 

The tract, or rather tracts, of land which the Legislature 
confirmed to the interpreters in accordance with the wish 
of the Senecas, have borne the names of Jones and Parrish 
from that day to this. They were laid out by the Surveyor 
General of the State in 1803, and form the irregular north- 
western corner of the city. Both tracts are part of the Mile 
Strip, the Parrish tract being the southerly one, its south 
line following the Scajaquada, and its north line running 
from the Niagara, just above the mouth of Cornelius Creek, 
to near the west end of Race Street. Uniformly, on modern 
maps, and usually in land descriptions and title searches, the 
name is printed "Parish," but wrongly so, as numerous auto- 
graph signatures of Jasper Parrish prove. In 1824 Parrish 
sold a strip across the northerly side of his grant, 172.46 
acres, to William A. Bird, and this has since been known as 
the Bird iarm. 

The Jones tract extends from the northerly line of the 
Parrish tract, running back one mile from the river, to what 
is now the southeast side of Riverside Park, along Esser 
Avenue, and intersecting lands between Doyle and Wiley 
avenues. The irregular extension of the city limits, north- 
westerly from the Jones tract, is bounded by a continuation 
of the northwest line of Riverside Park to an intersection 
with the easterly line of the Mile Strip. This old State re- 
serve — the Mile Strip — is responsible for many peculiarities 
hi the map of Buffalo. 

In this year of 1798 Horatio Jones was witness of an in- 
cident that illustrates the summary character of frontier jus- 
tice. It is told in the words of Judge Augustus Porter : 

"A Mr. Jenkins who went out for the proprietors, John 
Swift and others, to survey township 12, 2d range (Pal- 
myra), commenced his labors early in the season, and erected 
for the accommodation of his party a small hut of poles. 
One night when the party were asleep two Indians attacked 


them, first firing their rifles through the open cracks of the 
hut, and then rushing in. One of Jenkins's men was killed 
by the first fire, but Jenkins and his party after a brief 
struggle succeeded in driving the savages off, without fur- 
ther loss. He went the next morning to Geneva where he 
learned that the Indian party to which they probably be- 
longed had gone south. He accordingly, in company with 
others, followed in pursuit as far as Newtown (now Elmira) 
on the Chemung River, near which place the murderers were 
captured. Newtown was then the principal, indeed the only, 
settlement in that region of country. The Indians were ex- 
amined before an informal assembly, and the proof being in 
their opinion sufficient to establish their guilt, the question 
arose as to how they should be disposed of. The gaol of 
the county (then Montgomery) was at Johnstown, and it 
was not deemed practicable to transport them so great a 
distance through an Indian wilderness. It was therefore 
determined summarily to execute them, and this determina- 
tion was carried into immediate effect, an account of which 
I received from Jasper Parrish and Horatio Jones (after- 
ward Indian agents), .who were eye-witnesses of the execu- 
tion."* It is not unlikely that Jones and Parrish were in- 
cluded in the party of pursuit for the sake of their services 
as interpreters. 

In 1802 Horatio Jones, with Oliver Phelps and Isaac 
Bronson bought from the Senecas for $1200 the tract con- 
taining two square miles, or 12S0 acres, known as Little 
Beard's reservation, "bounded," in the terms of the treaty, 
"on the east by the Genesee River and Little Beard's Creek, 
on the south and west by other lands of said parties of the 
second part, and on the north by Big Tree reservation." At 
this treaty, held at Buffalo Creek, and signed June 30, 1802, 
Jasper Parrish was the sole interpreter, Jones, as one of the 
parties to the contract, naturally not acting in his accus- 
tomed capacity. At the same gathering, however, and on 
the same date, he did serve as interpreter in a treaty between 
the Seneca Nation and Joseph Ellicott, representing Wilhelm 

* Unpublished MS. narrative by Augustus Porter, in the possession of the 
Buffalo Historical Society. 



Willink and his company of Dutch land speculators at Am- 
sterdam, by which a tract a mile wide along the south shore 
of Lake Erie, from the mouth of Eighteen Mile Creek to the 
Cattaraugus, and another tract on the south side of Cat- 
taraugus Creek, were exchanged, for lands lying to the north 
of the Cattaraugus, and now embraced in the Cattaraugus 

Strange to say, Horatio Jones was not prominent on the 
frontier in the War of 1812, and his name rarely occurs in 
the 'history of that period. True, his home was not on the 
border in those troublous times, and he was no longer a 
young man. But he gave two sons to the cause ; their story 
adds still another tragic episode to our chronicle. James 
and George Jones, serving under Major Bennett were cap- 
tured with others, by the British and their Mohawk allies, 
near Lewiston, on December 19, 181 3. The invaders, under 
Col. Murray, had landed at Five Mile Meadows, 500 strong, 
and at once entered upon that memorable march of destruc- 
tion which laid waste the American frontier and culminated 
in the burning of Buffalo. On attempting a division of spoil 
at Lewiston, the Indian warriors quarreled, worked them- 
selves into a frenzy, and soon, beyond all restraint by the 
British, fell upon their prisoners. Here, within sight of the 
spot where Horatio Jones had come out upon the crest of 
the mountain ridge on his memorable journey to Niagara, 
his two manly sons met the fate their father had so often 
narrowly escaped. They were put to death by the toma- 
hawk, their bodies scalped and maltreated by the infuriated 

XVI. Anecdotes — Death of Horatio Jones. 

From the restoration of peace in Western New York un- 
til the end of his life Horatio Jones lived in comfort, though 
frequently called from home to serve as interpreter. He 
was welcomed wherever he went. At his own home he was 

* Some account of this massacre is contained in Turner's "Holland Pur- 
chase," p. 590. 


ever a cordial host, to his Indian friends as well as to his 
white neighbors. There are many family traditions of these 
visits. Old Judy, and her husband, Tom Cayuga, a relative 
of the Jemisons, were warm friends of Horatio Jones, and 
often camped at Sweet Briar. But no friend had a warmer 
welcome than Moses Van Campen. Once a year the veteran 
came to visit Capt. Jones, and once a year the Captain jour- 
neyed to Dansville to see Van Campen. It is told that "the 
two old friends would sit down on the steps of the old Eagle 
tavern, drink grog and recall reminiscences of their early 
forest life, while crowds of friends gathered round to 

Capt. Jones was intimately acquainted with James Wads- 
worth, and on occasion was of great service to him. It was 
at James Wadsworth's, at Geneseo, in 1815, that Jones once 
more met his old adversary Sharp Shins. The occasion was 
a visit to the Wadsworth brothers of Col. Wadsworth of 
Durham. In his honor a dinner was given by James Wads- 
worth, several chiefs being invited. Apparently the old ani- 
mosities between Jones and Sharp Shins were outgrown, for 
together at the Wadsworth board they discussed old times 
and smoked the pipe of peace. Some time in the '20's Hora- 
tio Jones fell on the stone steps of the Wadsworth office, 
displacing both kneecaps. He walked with a cane ever after. 

Horatio Jones numbered among his friends William H. 
C. Hosmer, the distinguished poet of the Genesee valley, 
whose "Yonnondio" and other poems dealing with the life 
and legends of the Senecas are of enduring worth. For 
some of his material, as Dr. Hosmer acknowledges in the 
notes to his collected "Poetical Works" (New York, 1854), 
he was indebted to Capt. Jones. "I was informed by Captain 
Jones/' he writes, "that the wild glen at Fall Brook, near 
Geneseo, has been the scene of a tragic story, and that the 
place is haunted, after night-fall, by a frightful headless 
spectre. The Indians believe that it is a spot accursed ; but 

* MS. memorandum among Mr. Harris's papers. H. C. Sedgwick of Dans- 
ville, N. Y., has described his emotions as a boy on seeing Captain Horatio 
Jcnes and Major Moses Van Campen riding together in a carriage heading a 
Fourth of July parade. 


the tourist looks with delight upon a scene where beauty 
contends for mastery with the sublime." Again he says, in 
his notes to the "Legends of the Senecas" : "I have adopted, 
as the ground-work of my poem, the narrative of Captain 
Jones, late Indian interpreter, and a man who towered in in- 
tellectual stature above common men, as the pines (to use 
an Indian metaphor) rise above the smaller trees of the 
forest/' Other acknowledgments are made in Dr. Hosmer's 
volume which show how deeply he was indebted to Horatio 
Jones for his material ; for the narratives of Indian legend, 
and for guidance in the precise use of Seneca words. In- 
deed one may say that although not a man of the pen, Hora- 
tio Jones was truly — and indispensably — a joint author with 
Hosmer. Without his knowledge and painstaking communi- 
cation of it to the poet the literature of Western New York, 
in its record of aboriginal life and beliefs, would be much 
the poorer. 

The Hon. Charles Augustus Murray traveled in America 
in 1834-36, was the guest of Gen. Wads worth, and met 
Horatio Jones, apparently in May, 1836. Of this visit he 
writes as follows : "During my stay in this neighborhood I 
went once or twice to see a western veteran, named Captain 
Jones. He was at the time of my visit, aged probably a little 
more than seventy years, and was taken prisoner when a 
boy by a band of the Seneca tribe in their attack upon 
Wyoming, [ !] where he and his parents then lived. He was 
adopted by the tribe, and lived with them upwards of 
twenty years ; since which time he has been in constant in- 
tercourse with them, and has acted in the capacity of inter- 
preter in many treaties and 'talks.' Of course he speaks 
their language, and knows all their habits as well as a native 
Seneca, and he can also speak and understand a good deal 
of the Mohawk, Oneida, and other Six Nation languages. I 
had several long conversations with him upon aboriginal 
character, customs, etc., and I found that the old man was 
at heart more than half Indian. He spoke of many of the 
red men with an affection quite fraternal, and his general 
impression of their qualities was much more favorable than 
that which I received during my residence among them ; 


but two things must be remembered, first, his own judgment 
was liable to be prejudiced by his being so long identified 
with the Senecas, that even now the pride of the tribe is 
strongly to be remarked in his expressions ; and, secondly, 
1 have every reason to believe, from all my later inquiries 
and observations, that, of all the great tribes uncontaminated 
by civilization (alias whiskey), the most mischievous, treach- 
erous, and savage are my old friends the Pawnees. Captain 
Jones told me that they had that character among all the In- 
dians whom he had known."* Murray is said to have re- 
ceived from Horatio Jones the information regarding In- 
dian customs, etc., which he utilized in his tale 'The Prairie 

That Horatio Jones personally met George Washington 
can hardly be doubted, though no documentary evidence is 
known. He is said to have dined with the President on one 
occasion, in company with Tall Chief and a considerable 
deputation. In due course Tall Chief kindled the peace pipe 
and passed it to Washington, who tried unsuccessfully to 
draw smoke through the long stem. It was then handed to 
Horatio Jones, who succeeded better, and who then returned 
it to Washington, this time for a successful whiff. It may 
have been for this same occasion, apparently in the year 
1792, that Capt. Jones and Joseph Smith had conducted to 
Philadelphia a party of Seneca, Oneida and Onondaga 
chiefs, for conference with the Government. It was at this 
convocation that the Chief Big Tree died from excessive 

Some years afterward Jones was in Washington with 
Pollard, Thomas Jemison and other natives. Jones said to 
Follard, "I outran you, I think, some years aero," referring 
to the famous race of his youth. "Oh, yes," replied Pollard, 
"but I have often wanted to try it over again and you were 
never quite ready," a reply which greatly amused Jones. 

* "Travels in North America . . . including a Summer Residence with 
the Pawnee tribe of Indians," etc., 2 vols. London, 1839; vol. ii., pp. 358-9. 
It was characteristic of the British tourist, good observer though he was, to 
compare the scraps of information picked up by himself in a summer excursion 
on the plains, with Horatio Jones's fifty years of experience, and to describe 
the veteran's views as "prejudiced"! 


Both men were then long- past their fleet-footed years. Pol- 
lard died in 1838. 

Many are the anecdotes told of Horatio Jones in his re- 
lations to various celebrities, both red and white. For many 
years, as intermediary between the two races, he was con- 
stantly in demand, not only in affairs of national conse- 
quence, but smaller matters as well. No white man knew 
Red Jacket better than did Horatio Jones. It is related that 
on one occasion in Buffalo, Red Jacket was wanted, on busi- 
ness with the Government agent, but could not be found. 
"Horatio Jones, who was to act as interpreter, after a long 
search, found him in a low tavern quite drunk. The porter, 
who was about shutting up the house for the night, was pre- 
paring to put him out of doors when Jones interposed. " :|c 
Jones cared for the tottering orator on many an occasion. 
Although knowing him in his weakness, Jones appreciated 
to the full the eloquence of Red Jacket. Indeed, from his 
familiarity with the Seneca tongue Horatio Jones could ap- 
preciate it, probably better than any other white man who 
ever heard him speak. Jones bore frequent testimony to this 
effect. On one occasion at Canandaigua Red Jacket was 
acting as counsel for an Indian who had killed a white man. 
In his appeal to the jury — through the interpretation of 
Horatio Jones — Red Jacket proved so eloquent that he won 
the sympathy of all auditors, including jury and judge, and 
gained his case. Captain Jones, although fluent in English. 
declared that it was utterly impossible for him to preserve 
the full force and beauty of the great Seneca orator's utter- 

Red Jacket, it is said, adopted Jones as his son. Stone 
in his life of Red Jacket relates the following: "On a cer- 
tain occasion, owing to the slanderous imputation of some 
mischief makers of his nation, Red Jacket entertained a sus- 
picion that Jones was actuated by motives of self-interest 
and did not regard the welfare of the Indians. Shortly after 
he met Capt. Jones at the hotel of Timothy Hosmer at Avon. 
Jones advanced to greet the chief with his accustomed cor- 
diality of manner, but was received with haughty distrust 

* Doty, "History of Livingston County," p. 105. 


and coldness. After a lapse of a few moments, during which 
time the questions of Jones were answered in monosyllables, 
the Captain asked an explanation of Red Jacket for his con- 
duct. Fixing nis searching glance upon him as if reading 
the secrets of his soul, Red Jacket told him of the rumor 
circulated in reference to his fidelity to the Indians, and con- 
cluded by saying with a saddened expression, 'And have 
you at last deserted us ?' The look, the tone, the attitude of 
the orator were so touching, so despairing, that Jones, 
though made of stern material, wept like a child, at the same 
time refuting the calumny in the most energetic terms. Con- 
vinced that Jones was still true, the chief, forgetful of the 
stoicism of his race, mingled his tears with his, and em- 
bracing him with the cordiality of old, the parties renewed 
old friendship with a social glass." It is a pretty tale, but 
somewhat of a tax on credulity. 

"Red Jacket did not relish being trifled with. At one of 
his visits to the house of Captain Jones, on taking his seat 
at the breakfast table with the rest of the family, Mrs. Jones, 
knowing his extreme fondness for sugar, mischievously pre- 
pared his coffee without it. On discovering the cheat the 
chief looked at the Captain with an offended expression, 
and thus rebuked him : 'My son/ stirring his cup with 
energy, 'do you allow your squaw thus to trifle with your 
father?' Perceiving at the same time by the giggling of the 
children that they had entered into the joke, he continued, 
'And do you allow your children to make sport of their 
chief?' Jones and his wife apologized and the latter handed 
him the sugar bowl, which he took, and with half angry sar- 
casm filled his cup to the brim with sugar." 

In September, 1822, we find Captain Jones at the Indian 
council at Buffalo; and the following year, again sharing 
with Jasper Parrish the duties of interpreter, Horatio Jones 
was present at Moscow, Livingston County, when the Sene- 
cas sold the Gardeau reservation to John Greig and Henry 
B. Gibson, 17,928 acres, for $4286. 

The influence which Horatio Jones exerted among the 
Senecas was never more strikingly illustrated than in the 
fall of 1794, when, with Cornplanter, Red Jacket, Tall Chief 


and a large following, he was on his way to the Canandaigua 
council. On the trail at the foot of Honeoye Lake stood the 
large log house, where lived Capt. Peter Pitts, his wife and 
ten children. A party of warriors surrounded this house and 
demanded liquor. Being refused by the women, the Indians 
were beginning an attack which would probably have ended 
in the dire old way had not Capt. Pitts, his sons and hired 
men appeared on the scene, and seizing shovels, clubs, and 
anything they could lay hands on, set up a sturdy defense. 
The melee was general, and the whites would have been 
overpowered by superior numbers had not Horatio Jones 
with some of the chief men of the Senecas come over the 
western slope of the valley and on hearing the cries devined 
the trouble and hastened to the spot. It is related that on 
seeing Jones Capt. Pitts begged him for assistance ; and that 
in a few moments Jones gained the attention of the crazy 
leaders, who desisted from their attack and left the pioneer's 
family unharmed. Before leaving the place Jones shamed 
and joked the warriors into good humor, and what had bid 
fair to be a tragedy was turned by the interpreter into a 
friendly parting. 

There is a story of one encounter in which Jones was 
vanquished, though by a white man. In the spring of 1793 
two guides, Bennett and Patterson, brought through to 
Williamsburg a party of colonists. The guides came upon 
a Seneca encampment, the Indians being gathered about a 
fire, engaged in a fierce discussion. As the day was cold, 
the guides drew near, were welcomed, and allowed to warm 
themselves, while the Indians continued their excited talk 
among themselves, directing their remarks to one of their 
number, whom they presently seized and threw into the fire. 
The fellow scrambled out, whereupon the Indians caught 
him and threw him back in again. Patterson had no idea 
what the trouble was about, but exclaimed, ''Don't burn the 
man alive !" and springing forward helped the victim out of 
the fire. The angry warriors attacked Patterson, but at this 
moment Horatio Jones, who appears to have been of their 
party, came upon the scene and was told of the stranger's 
interference. Thereupon Jones and Patterson fell to fight- 


ing; and tradition has it that for the first time in his life 
Jones met more than his match, and came off much the 
worse for the engagement ; "but afterwards learning the 
cause of Patterson's action he banished all ill-will and re- 
gret, ever after expressing his admiration of the sturdy 

Jacob G. Roberts of Tecumseh, Mich., has related that 
his father Peter and uncle John Roberts came to the Gene- 
see flats and settled near Horatio Jones, in June, 1798. Jones 
helped them to locate and build their house. "About this 
time the Indians in the vicinity held a pow-wow and dance. 
In the tribe was one squaw who had committed some mis- 
deed contrary to Indian rules, consequently she was not per- 
mitted to join in their sport. They had whiskey and a high 
time, and the squaw not being permitted to join in their fes- 
tivities became so enraged that she shortly afterwards set 
fire to the flats ; the weather during the fall having been very 
dry the fire spread rapidly and did serious damage, destroy- 
ing all the hay in that vicinity. Mr. Jones in trying to save 
his ponies and other stock, became surrounded by fire and 
in order to save himself selected the greenest spot con- 
venient, dropped on his face, and the wave of fire passed 
over doing him but little injury. Mr. Jones having the 
handling of moneys and paying off the Indians, kept back 
$91, and paid the same to the new-comers in silver for the 
loss of their hay. This so enraged the Indians at this squaw 
that they drove a stake in the ground, tied her to it, piled 
wood around her, set it on fire and burned her to death. 
They invited our people to go and see her burn, but they did 
not go.' f 

In his later years Horatio Jones was often called on to 
interpret in court in cases involving Indian prisoners or wit- 
nesses. One such famous case occurred in 1831, when one 
Ouaw-wa, known in English as James Brewer, was wanted 
on a charge of murder. It was Capt. Jones and Jellis Clute 

* McMaster gives the story in his "History of Steuben County," adding 
that many years later Jones and Patterson happened to be in Bath on the same 
day, when Jones told the story of the fight and sent his compliments to the old 

t Doty's ".history of Livingston County." 


who made the formal complaint ; Jones became bail for him 
after the offender had been found on the Buffalo reserva- 
tion, and acted as sworn interpreter at the trial, at Geneseo.* 

Jasper Parrish died one month before Jones. When his 
death was reported, Capt. Jones said mournfully that the last 
link which had bound him to his old-time Indian associations 
was broken, and that he would not long outlast his ok! 
friend. From that time he sank rapidly until his death. 

Horatio Jones died at Sweet Briar farm, near Geneseo, 
September 18, 1836, aged 72 years and 9 months. Five days 
later the Livingston Republican contained a sketch of his 
career, in which occurs the following just tribute: 

"Possessed of uncommon mental vigor and quick percep- 
tion, he was enabled to form a just estimate of character and 
determine with readiness the springs of human action and 
thus made himself useful to the early settlers of the valley 
as well as to the Indians. His bravery, physical energy and 
decision gave him great control over the Indians, and the 
perfect confidence they reposed in him afforded him the op- 
portunity of rendering invaluable aid to the General Govern- 
ment in our subsequent treaties with the northern and west- 
ern tribes. This confidence was never betrayed. ... In 
the full possession of his mental faculties until the last mo- 
ment of his life, he has gone down to his grave full of years 
and with a character above reproach." He is buried in 
Temple Hill Cemetery, Geneseo, where a monument bears a 
simple inscription to his memory, and also to Elizabeth, his 
last wife, who died March 4, 1844, aged 66 years. f 

Horatio Jones is described as a fine figure of a man ; not 

* Doty gives the history of this case at some length in his "History of 
Livingston County," pp. 125-127. 

t His grave stone at Geneseo, New York, bears the following inscriptions: 
"Horatio Jones, Died August 18, 1836, aged 72 years and 9 months." On 
another side: "H. J. Esq., Honored in life, lamented in death." 

"The patriot whose dust endears this spot, 
In boyhood for a bleeding country fought, 
Thus early in the cause of truth embarked, 
By kind ennobling deeds his life was marked. 
Age could not dim the sunshine of his breast — 
Beloved the most by those who knew him best. 
Such men have hearts for tablets when the bust, 
Triumphal arch and obelisk are dust." 


tall, but exceptionally sturdy and athletic. In his later years, 
although weighing- some 220 pounds, he continued of a fine 
commanding presence, with a manner of dignified cordiality. 
In a letter to Mr. Harris, Mrs. Charles C. Fitzhugh, a 
daughter of Horatio Jones, has written : "My father's face 
and his manner, in conversation, are as vivid in my memory 
as though yesterday we were together. He related his ad- 
ventures, both in Indian and our own language, with the 
greatest ease. He must have had a wonderful flow of lan- 
guage for a person in those early days and one also who 
had lived the life that he had. As a child I recollect trotting 
after him as he was showing an Indian (and a very respect- 
able looking one, too,) about his house. I said, 'Why, 
father, do you like him better than other Indians ?' His 
answer was: 'My dear, he is my father; it was his family 
in which I was adopted when a prisoner.' 'Well, where is 
your mother?' 'She is dead.' This made a great impression 
upon me. I do not know where he came from ; it must have 
been from a distance. It was the only time I ever saw him 
and his visit was short. He and Red Jacket were the only 
Indians my father ever received at his table." 

The Hon. B. F. Angel, in conversation with Mr. Harris 
at Geneseo, September 20, 1889, related the following: 

"The first time I saw Horatio Jones was about 183 1, at 
the trial of an Indian named Ouaw-wa. who had killed a 
reputed witch. I was a boy then, attending school, with lit- 
tle interest in such matters, but I recall that Capt. Jones 
acted as interpreter, and that his remarks kept the court and 
audience in good humor. When the trial was ended Ouaw- 
wa asked of Jones in broken English, 'Who beat — who 
beat?' I subsequently became intimately acquainted with 
him and married his daughter. The Indians gave him 3000 
acres in the Genesee valley, extending nearly to Moscow. 
He has told me that the house he built at Hermitage was the 
first substantial house in the Genesee valley, and he removed 
it, or some portions of it, to Sweet Briar, his last home- 

"Horatio Jones died intestate, and left property valued at 


$100,000. I was appointed administrator, and the estate was 
settled amicably by his children."* 

[Genealogical data will be found on subsequent pages.] 

Note. Some use has been made in the foregoing narrative of documents 
preserved with the Pickering papers, in the archives of the Massachusetts His- 
torical Society. Much more might be gleaned from them, did space allow, re- 
garding Horatio Jones and some of the transactions in which he shared. In a 
letter dated "Genesee River, Oct. 24, 1790," from William Ewing to Col. 
Wilson, Commissioner for Pennsylvania, in relation to the Senecas, the writer 
refers to Horatio Jones as "the only interpreter who can do the business write 
in this country," and adds that Jones "thinks he has not been well used by 
not being called on to do the business at Tyoga as he has had all the tro-ible 
in getting the indians to start and I am fearful he will not prevent the indians 
of doing damage to us at this place." There is a letter of the same date, writ- 
ten to Col. Pickering from Geneseo, in which Capt. Jones makes claim for 
payment for his trouble in notifying the Senecas of the treaty at Tioga. It is 
signed "Horatio Jones," but it is pretty certain that at that date Jones could 
neither read nor write. Numerous letters from him to Col. Pickering were 
presumably written for him by William Ewing. Late in life Jones learned at 
least to write his name, his signature, however, suggesting the school-boy's 

The Pickering papers show that Col. Pickering lacked confidence in Jones, 
in his treaty transactions. He calls the interpreter "an unprincipled fellow," 
and charges that Jones and Smith conspired to detain the Indians at Geneseo, 
and keep them from attending Pickering's treaty; "one great object with 
them," wrote Pickering, "was to supply the Indians with provisions at their 
own prices as long as they should choose to obtain them at the expense of the 
United States. For this purpose they wrote to me that the Indians desired 
such supplies, but as this contradicted the verbal message of the chiefs sent to 
me by the runners, I paid no regard to the letters of Jones and Ewing." The 
present editor has found no evidence that Jones ever thus profited by his great 
influence among the Senecas. 

Among the Pickering papers are also numerous letters from Jasper Parrish. 
some of them of considerable historical value. These, and other unused ma- 
terial relating to the life and times of this interesting history-maker of Western 
New York, may be presented to our readers in a subsequent volume of these 

* Much of Mr. Harris's account of Horatio Jones's captivity and events of 
his early life is based on information communicated by Mr. Angel. 






Of Leavenworth, Kas., great-granddaughter* of Sarah 
Whitmore and Horatio Jones. 

The story of the life of Sarah Whitmore Jones is a ro- 
mantic one, while lacking many essential details of fact. 

She was born in or about the year 1768, in Lancaster Co.. 
Pennsylvania. Her descent may be traced to those Palatine 
emigrants who came to America from Germany and ad- 
jacent provinces in large numbers, during the early part of 
the eighteenth century. The "Witrners," as the name is 
given in Rupp's "List of 30,000 Names," came from Switzer- 
land, canton of Zurich. There were three brothers who 
came in 1733. to Philadelphia, and were of the Dutch Re- 
formed faith. Peter Winner was the ancestor of Sarah 
Whitmoyer, or in more modern form, Whitmore. The name 
became anglicized in the printed tax lists ; from which 
source we learn that they became a numerous and prosperous 
family which extended over three counties of Pennsylvania 
— Lebanon, Lancaster and Chester. 

* In the note on page 441 Mrs. Gunn is erroneously referred to as Sarah 
Whitmore Jones's granddaughter. It should read "great-granddaughter." 


Early spring days in Eastern Pennsylvania are often ac- 
companied by a sudden, light fall of snow, called a "sugar 
snow," because this is the perfect condition for making 
maple sugar. The "sugar bush/' as the whole group of 
maple trees set apart to be tapped, is called, is usually some 
distance from the house. On this account, -during the period 
of sugar-making, a camp is formed at the bush for greater 
convenience. The process of sugar-making requires both 
the men and women of the family ; the former attend to col- 
lecting the sap from the trees which is then conveyed to the 
large kettles over the fires, where the women watch the boil- 
ing mass until it is ready for "sugaring off." 

One of these spring mornings of 1782,* the older mem- 
bers of the Whitmore family, consisting of the parents and 
three eldest children, started for the sugar bush, leaving 
Sally, a girl of about fifteen years, to mind the younger 
brothers and the baby, and to cook dinner. We can imagine 
the picture: the bright sunlight streaming into the room, 
the light-hearted girl singing at her work, the noisy little 
boys at play, while the baby slumbered in its cradle. 

But the reverse of the picture is in sharp contrast. The 
children's merriment was cut short by the Indian war- 
whoop. Hideous in war-paint the savages rushed in and 
seized the two boys, while Sally caught up the baby, as if 
she could protect it from harm. The buildings were plun- 
dered and set on fire while the captive children were placed 
on horses in front of an Indian as guard. The smoke of the 
fire was the signal of the disaster to the other members of 
the family at the sugar bush, who hid themselves until the 
marauders had passed by. In all such cases, rescue was im- 
possible, resulting only in greater loss of life. 

The band of Indians which destroyed the Whitmore 
home, were only a fragment of a large party who were rav- 
aging the country under Brant. An avenging party of 
whites were close in pursuit of them, so that they were in 
haste to rejoin the larger force and make their escape into 

*The reader will notice discrepancies with Mr. Harris's account, preceding; 
in data relating to the Whitmores, Mrs. Gunn is probably correct, following the 
records of her family. 


New York. To this fact, no doubt, the rest of the Whitmore 
family owed their escape. 

As the party hurried along the baby in Sally's arms began 
to cry from fright. The Indian who had them in charge 
struck it harshly, which only increased its cr^es. Becoming 
enraged, he seized the child, and swinging the helpless little 
body arounu his head, brained it on a tree. Sally tried to 
save the baby, but was given to understand that a similar 
fate awaited the others if they did not submit quietly. The 
Indians made rapid progress and soon reached the boundary 
of New York. 

A council was held and the fates of the white captives de- 
cided upon. The two young Whitmore boys were purchased 
by members of the British army. They were adopted into 
the family of a British officer and reared in Canada. After 
they were men with families, they revisited Pennsylvania to 
meet their relatives, but always returned to Canada. They 
have left many descendants, who are loyal subjects of the 

Sally Whitmore remained with the Mohawks, the tribe 
which had taken her captive. The council decided to save 
her for adoption and marriage among themselves, a custom 
frequently occurring with a favorite captive. 

This seemed a hard fate to the young girl, torn from 
home and friends, and separated, probably forever, from the 
little brothers who had been her companions in suffering. 
The outlook seemed hopeless, for already a stalwart chief of 
the tribe sought her for a mate. She was permitted to tem- 
porize, but knew that if she finally refused their terms, it 
meant death. 

About this time occurred the assembly of all the tribes at 
what was known as the ''Pigeon Roost/' Near the shores 
of Seneca Lake was the rendezvous of thousands upon thou- 
sands of pigeons at mating and nesting time. For this rea- 
son, annually, the Indians assembled here for days and 
weeks together. The young birds were fat and juicy, and 
were devoured in large numbers ; while the squaws smoked 
and cured great quantities of them for future use. Conse- 


quently, with the Indians, the "Pigeon Roost" was synony- 
mous of a feast and dance, and especially of a council. 

The tribe having Sally Whitmore a captive, came with 
the others. Here she heard of the white captive of the Sene- 
cas, who by adoption and long captivity among them had 
become a chief, and admitted to their councils. We do not 
know that she knew that he was Horatio Jones, for while 
his capture had been made near her own home, it is not cer- 
tain that the families were acquainted ; besides, his own 
people had long mourned him as dead. Anyway, she re- 
solved to appeal to him as a white man, sure to sympathize 
with one of his own race, and get his advice on what course 
to pursue. Sally was able to see him very soon and lay her 
case before him. She told him how averse she was to mar- 
riage with an Indian, and besought him to aid her evade it. 

Horatio Jones knew how difficult was the task set him, 
but he did not dishearten her, but told her he would think 
it over and tell her the result on the next day. Doubtless 
his heart already suggested the plan his tongue had not ut- 
tered. Sally Whitmore, with her girlish figure and the clear 
olive skin, dark eyes and gentle voice of her people, must 
have been very pleasing in his sight. At their next meeting 
Sally was told that there was but one way to save her from 
the Indian marriage, and at the same time conform to their 
customs. Horatio had himself been forced to submit to such 
conditions and had done so to save his life, and tried to make 
the best of it, had gained their confidence and now had some 
influence. During the preceding year his Indian wife had 
died, and his lodge was empty. He would soon be expected 
to make a second choice ; so if the plan suited her, he would 
ask her adopted parents for her in the usual manner among 
the Indians and he believed on account of his acquired stand- 
ing with the Senecas his proposals would be accepted. In 
this way the girl would be under his protection, absolutely, 
and if they succeeded in gaining their release at some future 
time, the tie would be in no way binding upon them. 

Sally was, of course, glad to accede to this plan and it 
was carried out. The Mohawk lover was vanquished by the 
favorite chief of the Senecas. 


Their captivity did not last long afterward, as the treaty 
of Fort Stanwix released all prisoners ; but the temporary 
arrangement agreed upon by them as captives, seems to have 
resulted favorably, for Horatio Jones and Sarah Whitmore 
were married by the celebrated missionary minister, Rev. 
Samuel Kirkland at Schenectady, in December [1784]. 

After a short visit to the old home in Pennsylvania, we 
learn of Mrs. Jones returning to New York, where her hus- 
band had established a trading post. Her first home was at 
Seneca Falls ; from this point they moved to Geneva, where 
the first baby — "little Billy" — was born in December, 1786. 

Mrs. Jones enjoyed the distinction of being the only white 
woman in that whole region and her baby with the sandy 
hair and blue eyes, the first white child born in the State west 
of Utica. Another boy, George, was born at Geneva in June, 

In 1789, at the earnest request of the Senecas, the family 
came overland, through the unbroken forest, to the Genesee 
country, where they were to make a new home. Here, close 
to the Genesee River, on a portion of a large tract of land 
given to her husband by the Seneca Indians, Mrs. Jones 
went to housekeeping again. She had brought with her 
Sally Griffith, a servant girl, and the two women soon suc- 
ceeded in making a home, with the bedding and whatever 
else could be brought from Geneva, over the trail, on horse- 
back. Social needs were not great at that time, as the only 
guests were likely to be the Indian women from Little 
Beard's Town, nearby — if we except the trappers and friends 
of her husband. 

In December, 1789, Hiram Jones, her third child, was 
born in the new house; and now, indeed, the mother's time 
was occupied. Much of the time her husband was away on 
business, as he had been appointed interpreter for the Sene- 
cas by the Government. At such times Mrs. Jones and her 
family were the only white people for miles. But she was 
never afraid, because the Indians held them as relatives, ac- 
cording to their rite of adoption, and no harm would come 
from that source. 

James Jones, the fourth boy, was born in March of 1791. 


He was the only one of the children who resembled his 
mother, inheriting from her his dark hair and eyes and a 
dark complexion. 

Sally Griffiths seems to have returned to Pennsylvania 
about this time; and but a few weeks later, the life of the 
brave little mother came to a close, surrounded only by the 
Indian women. Even her husband was absent from home, 
en some urgent business, to which she had insisted he should 
attend. The news of his loss was conveyed to him, as he 
sprang from his horse beside the lonely little home in the 

The funeral which followed was as impressive as it was 
sad. Hiram Jones was but three years old at his mother's 
death, but the memory of the event remained clear upon his 
mind when an old man. The body was borne ahead on the 
shoulders of stalwart Indians ; the little boy wrapped in a 
blanket by the squaw who held him before her on the horse, 
cried dismally, he scarcely knew why. The father and two 
other children followed on foot. The rain came down stead- 
ily and the tall gloomy trees surrounded them. Along the 
narrow trail through the silent forest the little procession 
made its way to the banks of the Genesee, which was crossed, 
then on again a little farther, where the grave was made in 
the side of a grassy knoll — facing her former home, left des- 
olate. Here, laid to rest by the hands of her red brothers, 
Sarah Whitmore Jones has slept for more than a century.* 

When the demands of official and social life required of 
Horatio Jones a more pretentious residence than the little 
home on the Flats, he selected a site on the summit of the 
hill, overlooking the grave of his wife, and named the place 
"Sweet Briar," where he spent the rest of his life. 

Even after the lapse of so many years, we may still find 
traces of the tender reverence borne for the memory of Sarah 
Whitmore. A daughter of her husband's second marriage 
bore her name, and the only daughter of each of her two sur- 
viving sons was named for their mother. 

Note. The name of the daughter of William Jones was afterward changed 
to Julia, for reasons which she herself explained to the writer. 

* Mrs. Jones died in June, 179-- Charles Jones stated to Mr. Harris that 
she was buried in the Indian burying-ground, "where the railroad gravel-pit 
now is, on the south side of the creek." No trace of it now can be found. 



Rev. Malachi Jones, founder of the Abing.ston and Downington 
branches of the Jones family of Pennsylvania, was born in Wales 
about 1651. He entered the ministry at an early age, and is re- 
ported to have been at one time established in London, though there 

is little proof of this. He married Mary about 1681-2. 

Benjamin, their first child, was born in March, 1683 ; Ann, in 
1686; Mary, in 1688; Elizabeth, Martha, Malachi and Joshua 
doubtless prior to i~co, but the exact dates of their births have not 
been found. 

During the first decade of the 18th century large numbers of 
Welsh left their native land for America and settled mainly in 
Pennsylvania. Among the new colonists were several families 
named Jones. Doubtless some were relatives of the Rev. Malachi 
and possibly through their influence and other outgoing friends, he 
was persuaded, about 1714, to emigrate to Pennsylvania, settling 
at Abington, fourteen miles north of Philadelphia. In September, 
1714, Mr. Jones was received into fellowship by the Presbyter}' of 
Philadelphia, which had then been organized eight years and num- 
bered eleven ministers. During that year a church organization 
was perfected at Abington with Rev. Malachi Jones as pastor. The 
First Presbyterian Church, or Great Valley Church, was organized 
in 1714, and the Rev. Malachi Jones officiated as pastor till 1720. 
This church is about twenty miles, in an air line, from Abington, 
and Mr. Jones no doubt officiated in both congregations. 

August 25, 1719. Rev. Mr. Jones deeded to certain trustees for 
ten shillings in silver, one half acre of land to "build a house of 
worship thereon and bury the dead.'' On this ground the congre- 

* Compiled from MSS. left by George II. Harris, and from data supplied 
by Mrs. Sarah J. E. Gunn of Leavenworth, Kas., Mrs. Frederick Law Olm- 
sted, Brookline, Mass., and Mrs. Anna Jones Prettyman Howland of Chicago. 



gation erected a log building, said to have been the first place of 
public worship possessed by the Presbyterian denomination within 
the limits of Montgomery County. 

The Rev. Malachi Jones was buried in the graveyard of the 
church he founded and his tombstone, a large flat slab supported 
upon four pieces of brick, is still to be seen there bearing the fol- 
lowing inscription : 

Here lyes the Body of 
The Rev'd Mr. Malachi Jones 
Who departed this life March ye 
26 In the year 1729. 

Aetalis Suae 78. 
He was the first minister of this place 

Dum Nihi Vita Fuit, Tibi 

Christi Fidilis ut is Sum. 

At the foot of the stone is the grave of the Rev. Mr. Jones's 
granddaughter Mary; also that of her husband, the Rev. Richard 
Treat, the second pastor of Abington Church, who died November 
29, 1779, after a ministry of nearly fifty years. 

Of the children of the Rev. Malachi Jones, Benjamin married 
Katharine Crusan, October 12, 1717. They had ten children, as 
follows: Malachi, 1718; Elizabeth, 1721 ; Samuel, 1722; Benja- 
min, 1725; Mary, 1727; Joshua, 1732; Henry, 1734; Katherine, 
1736; John, 1739; Ann, 1741. 

Benjamin Jones died at Abington November 10, 1748. Ann 
married the Rev. David Evans and died January 7, 1754. Mary 
married Abenego Thomas and had six children. (Her eldest 
daughter, Mary, was the wife of Rev. Richard Treat, and had five 
children.) Joshua married Hannah Givin, September 6, 1735; 
Elizabeth married David Parry, January 6, 1727; Martha married 
John Parry, November 5, 1729; Malachi, 2nd, married Mary Parry, 
November 27, 1729. 

Malachi Jones, son of the Rev. Malachi and Mary Jones, was 
born probably about 1695, in Wales, and emigrated with his parents 
to America prior to September, 1714. He married, November 27. 
1729, Mary Parry, daughter of James and Ann Parry, the marriage 
of whose children brought the Jones and Parry families into close 
relationship, three of their children having married three children 
of the Rev. Malachi and Mary Jones. James and Ann Parry came 
from Wales probably as early as 17 12, as a deed of 100 acres of land 
in Fredyffrin, Stony Valley Township, Pennsylvania, their home, 
was dated January 20, 171-3. 

Malachi, 2nd, succeeded his father in possession of the home- 
stead in Abington, where his aged mother continued to reside. In 


June, 1747, he purchased a lot on Fourth Street, Philadelphia. He 
removed about 1753 to Whiteland Township, Chester County, and 
died the next year. His will, dated August 12. 1753, appoints his 
wife Mary, executrix and directs her to ''dispose of all my estate 
to the use that therefrom she may cheerfully maintain my weak and 
feeble children . . . eldest son Horatio to be joint executor . . . 
all my children. Horasho, Esther, Martha, Malachi, Ruth, Stephen, 
William, Lynand and Abenego." 

William, the seventh child of Malachi (2nd) and Mary Parry 
Jones, was born about 1741-2, while his parents resided at the old 
homestead in Abington. He married in 1762 Elizabeth Hunter, 
daughter of John and Ann Hunter of Downington, Pa., and they 
became residents of Downington about that time. They had seven 
children, viz.: Horatio Jones, the eldest, born November 19, 1763; 
George; Esther; Ann; Mary; John Hunter; William. 

About 1769 William Jones moved to Baltimore Co., Maryland, 
where John H. was born. He returned to Pennsylvania about 
1771-2 and settled in Bedford County. 

John Hunter, Sen., was born in County York. England, in 1667. 
He was a trooper with his friend Anthony Wayne at the battle of 
the Boyne, and settled at Rathween, County of Wicklow, Ireland. 

He married Margrate , about 1693. In 1722, Mr. Hunter 

and Anthony Wayne emigrated to the Pennsylvania Colony and 
settled in what is now Newtown Township, Bucks Co., Pennsyl- 
vania, where Mr. Hunter purchased 1,000 acres of land. He died 
in 1734, being buried at St. David's Church, Radnor, Pennsylvania. 

John and Margrate Hunter had nine children, viz. : George 
Hunter, who settled in W 7 hiteland Township, Chester County, Penn- 
sylvania, and became proprietor of a large estate ; John Hunter 
(2d) ; Peter, a soldier in the French War ; William, married Han- 
nah Woodward in 1740; James; Mary, married William Hill, an 
emigrant from Wales; Ann; Elizabeth; Margrate (2d). 

John Hunter, Jr., son of John and Margrate Hunter ; settled at 
Downington in Whiteland Township, Pennsylvania, thirty miles 
from Philadelphia, and accumulated a large amount of real and per- 
sonal property. Pie married Ann , and had eight chil- 
dren, namely: James, died in 1781 ; Margrate, married William 
Buell ; Ann, married Col. Thomas Buell ; Mary, married Eli 


Ecntly; John, died young; Martha, married John Ratlen ; Hannah, 
married Malachi Jones (3rd), in 1759; Elizabeth, married William 
Jones, in 1762. 


Captain Horatio Jones married (1st) in 1784, Sarah Whit- 
more (name also spelled Whittemore, Whitmoyer), who died June, 
1792. They had four children: 

(1) William W., born December 18, 1786, at Seneca Lake out- 
let, near the present site of Geneva, died, 1870, at Leicester. He 
was twice married; first to Eliza (or Elizabeth) Lemen; after her 
death, to Nancy Harrington. 

(2) George W., born 178S; unmarried, killed by Indians at 
Lewiston, December, 1S13. 

(3) Hiram W., born 1789; married Verona Shepherd. 

(4) James W., born 1791 ; unmarried, killed by Indians at 
Lewiston, December, 1S13. 

/. Descendants of William JV. Jones. 

Children of Horatio's oldest son William W., by his first wife, 
Eliza Lemen: 1, Julia, married John H. Jones, Jr.; 2, George W., 
unmarried ; 3, James W., married, died young, leaving one daugh- 

Children of Julia and John H. Jones, Jr.: 1, Elizabeth, married 
James W. Jones (son of Hiram), no issue; 2, Edward, died an in- 
fant; 3, Delia, died an infant; 4, Edward, died an infant; 5, Delia, 
died unmarried, 1901 ; 6, Jane, died young; 7, Alma, died young. 

Children of Horatio's oldest son William W., by his second 
wife, Nancy Harrington : 

William, married Caroline Camp, no issue; Elizabeth, married 
Edward Camp, one son, one daughter; Flora; Nancy, married 
Jellis Clute, their children Fayette and George; Homer, married 
Fannie Wicker ; later married Josephine De Rochemont, no issue ; 
Mary, married Albert Phillips, one daughter. 

//. Descendants of Hiram IV. Jones and Verona Shepherd. 

George W\, married Emma Hutton ; Sarah E., married Alex- 
ander Clute (grandson of John H. Jones, Sr.) ; James W., married 
Elizabeth L. Jones (daughter of John H. Jones, Jr.), no issue; 
Hiram, died young. 


Children of George W. and Emma Hutton : Edward, unmar- 
ried; Grace, married George Hudson; Mary, unmarried. 

Children of Sarah E. Jones and Alexander Clnte : James H., 
married Almira Glines ; Charles O. S., married Marion Brown; 
Sarah J. E., married Chester B. Gunn, no issue. 

Children of James H. and Almira Clute: William; Charles; 
Ella, married, one son; Elizabeth. 

Children of Charles O. S. and Marion (Brown) Clute: Charles 
Benjamin; Frederick; Grace; Myrtle; James. 

William W. Jones (i) died in the winter of 1870 at Leicester, 
N. Y. 


Captain Horatio Jones married (2) in the summer of 1795 at 
Groveland, near Geneseo, N. Y., Elizabeth Starr. She was a 
daughter of Elijah and Rebecca (Hewitt) Starr, and was born in 
1779, probably at Genoa, Cavxtga Co., N. Y. She died March 4, 

1844. at Geneseo, N. Y. She bore to Horatio Jones twelve children, 
as follows : 

Horatio, born 1796, married Julia Wilmerding; Mary Ann, 
born 1790, married Richard Fitzhugh ; John, born 1799. married 
Lucy Tromley; Ann, born 1802, married William Lyman; Rebecca, 
born 1S04, married Elijah Hewitt (also spelled "Hughett") ; Eliza- 
beth, born 1805, married William Finley; Sarah, born 1807, married 
Dr. Henry Perkins; Hester, born 1S09, married Robert Flint; 
Julia, born 181 1, married Benjamin F. Angel; Seneca, born 1813, 
died in California after 1854; Charles, born 1S15; Jane, born 1820, 
married Charles Carroll Fitzhugh. 

Horatio, and Mary Ann Lyman lived at Moscow, N. Y. : Re- 
becca Hewitt at Geneseo; Betsy Finley at Ann Arbor, Mich.; 
Hester Flint, wife of Judge Robert Flint, at Fond du Lac. Wis.; 
Julia Angell at Geneseo, N. Y. : Charles, at Leicester and Geneseo; 
Jane Fitzhugh, at Saginaw, Mich. 

Charles Jones, youngest but one of Horatio Jones's sixteen chil- 
dren, was born August 27, 181 5, at Sweet Briar farm, near Geneseo. 
He went to Temple Hill Seminary, 1S26, Canandaigua Academy, 
J 830-32, and engaged in farming at Leicester. 1840. October 22, 

1845, he married Eliza Richmond of Aurora, Cayuga Co. She died 
December, 1849, leaving one daughter who died January 1, 1869, 
aged 13 years. On June 3, 1856. Charles married Sarah E. Cum- 
mings of New Bedford, Mass. Charles died February 26, 1899. 


A grandson of Capt. Horatio Jones, named Horatio Jones 
Hewitt, died in New York City, date not ascertained, but since 
1889. He was born November 25, 1828, in Greece, N. Y. ; learned 
the printer's trade, went to Chicago, where he became one of the 
founders of the Chicago Tribune and a stockholder in the company 
He married Margaret Lovett of Rochester; left Chicago in 1857, 
went to New York and engaged in printing. He invented a rotary 
press and other devices valuable in the printer's art. Up to 1889 
he was in business at No. 27 Rose Street, residing at No. 247 \V. 
Twenty-fifth Street. He was a personal friend of Horace Greeley. 
He left a widow and six adult children, two sons and four daugh- 

A granddaughter of Horatio and Elizabeth (Starr) Jones, and 
daughter of Sarah and Henry Perkins, is Mrs. Frederick Law 
Olmsted of Brookline, Mass., wife of the eminent landscape archi- 
tect and park maker, lately deceased. 


John H. Jones was a younger brother of Captain Horatio Jones. 
He came from Pennsylvania — one account says in 1792, another 
says 1794 — and settled on a part of the Jones and Smith tract, on 
the west side of the Genesee. He was for many years the first 
judge of Genesee County when that county extended from the 
Genesee River to Lake Erie and the Niagara ; a man of distin- 
guished ability. He married Kate Ewing; their children were: 
William, George H., Harriet (Mrs. Clute), Marietta (Mrs. Jones), 
Horatio, Thomas J., Napoleon B., John H., James M., Lucien B., 
Hiram, Elizabeth Hunter (Mrs. Jones), and Fayette. 




Jasper Parrish with his father was captured on the 5th 
day of July, 1778, by a small party of Monsief Indians, and 
conducted by them up the Delaware River to a place called 
Cook House, where they arrived six days afterwards. TenJ 

* This narrative is here published from the original manuscript by kind 
permission of the owner. Mrs. William Gorham of Canandaigua, whose late 
husband was a grandson of Jasper Parrish. Regarding certain peculiarities of 
the narrative Mrs. Gorham writes: "We do not know who wrote it. . . . We 
know that Jasper Parrish dictated it; 1 have heard his daughter, my mother- 
in-law, say so many times." The manuscript is not dated, but alludes to "the 
present time, 1822," which fixes the year of its composition. 

There is in the possession of the Buffalo Historical Society a copy of an 
unpublished paper written by the Hon. Orlando Allen, about 1869. This paper 
includes a sketch of Parrish's captivity, which, wrote Mr. Allen, "I copied 
from a paper lent me by his grand-daughter, Mrs. Carrie Draper, nee Cobb, of 
Canandaigua." The biography thus incorporated bears the following heading: 
"A Sketch of the Captivity of the late Captain Jasper Parrish, Se-ne-at'-do-wa, 
Pig Throat, as he was named by the Indians, prepared by his son Stephen 
Parrish, from short notes written by his father a few years before his death 
which occurred at Canandaigua, his place of residence, July 12, 1S36, aged 69 
years and 4 months." 

The two narratives, that which we here print, and that written by Stephen 
Parrish, in the main relate the same incidents, but in different phraseology; 
both drawn from Jasper Parrish's own notes, but written out either by dif- 
ferent persons or by Stephen Parrish at different times. We print the fuller 
document, with occasional reference t^ the Stephen Parrish narrative among 
the Orlando Allen papers. The latter begins with the following statement, not 
contained in the Gorham MS.: "My father was born in the year 1-67, at 
Windham, Conn., and removed with his father's family, at a very early day. to 
some point across the head waters of the Delaware River, in the State of New 

t Munseys, a branch of the Delawares. 
X "Two days," Stephen Parrish narrative. 


clays from their arrival at Cook House, the father was taken 
to the British at Fort Niagara, where he was surrendered 
to them, and two years thereafter was exchanged as a pris- 
oner of war and returned to his family. 

When captured, Jasper Parrish and his father were 
about six miles from home and had five horses with them. 
Cook House, where they were first conducted, was a small 
place where eight families of the Monsie tribe of Indians 
resided. While in this situation Jasper Parrish belonged 
to a captain or war chief of this tribe by the name of Cap- 
tain Mounsh. In a few days after reaching Cook House 
Captain Mounsh left his prisoner in the charge of an In- 
dian family and went off to the West. During this time the 
Indians offered no violence to young Parrish, who was 
then a boy only eleven years old.- He was permitted to ride 
one of their horses, and in other respects was treated with 
much kindness. 

While with this family he was very ill with dysenterv, 
owing to a change of diet and habits. The Indians tried to 
relieve him by administering some of their remedies, but 
he was so afraid that they would poison him that he refused 
At length, however, he consented, and the medicine gave 
him immediate relief, so that in a few davs he entirelv re- 
covered. The medicine was a black syrup made from roots 
and herbs. 

The Indians generally appeared to be friendly and took 
good care of him ; at the same time they said that by and 
by they would take the Yankee boy's scab, accompanied 
with motions and gestures of scalping. This conduct of 
the Indians kept him in continual apprehension, until his 
master, Capt. Mounsh, returned. 

On the ist of October, Capt. Mounsh set out with his 
prisoner for Chemung. The first settlement of Indians 
they came to was on the Big Bend on the Susquehanna 
River. They continued without delay until they reached 
Chemung, where they remained the following winter. On 
their arrival at that place and before they entered the vil- 
lage, young Parrish's master gave the Indian scalp halloo 
very loud, which is a long drawn sound, the accent on the 


test a and pronounced like "quaqa." At this the Indian 
men and boys came running from every part of the village 
to the center. This was a very noted place to make pris- 
oners run the gauntlet. As soon as they came to the center 
of the village, the Indians set up a horrid yell, and came 
running to Capt. Mounsh and his prisoner as they were 
riding, and getting hold of young Parrish bore him with 
great violence from his horse to the ground, and like so 
many tigers began to beat him with clubs, whips and 
handles of tomahawks. At length after he received a ter- 
rible beating, his master interfered, and spoke very loud to 
them in the Monsie language, and said, "It is enough." At 
this they stopped beating him, and after a short time he was 
able to get up and was conducted to an Indian hut or cabin, 
where he remained until the next day, being completely cov- 
ered with bruises. 

In a few days he was sold to a Delaware Indian family 
who lived on the south side of the Tioga River. They paid 
the sum of twenty dollars for him. Immediately his former 
master left the place and went west to Fort Niagara, where, 
in a drunken frolic with another Indian, he was stabbed and 

Young Parrish remained with the Delaware family on 
the Tioga River" during the winter and spring of 1779. 
During the winter he was very scantily clad, and his surler- 
ing from both cold and hunger was great, the winter being- 
long and severe. His food was the same as that of the In- 
dians and consisted of venison, wolf, dog, fox and muskrat, 
and some wild fowls. Very little corn was to be found at 
this time among the Indians, and salt was not to be had as 
there were no white people short of Niagara to whom they 
could apply for relief. During the winter he was compelled 
with two Indian boys (the snow was very deep) to go 
down to the river, a distance of thirty rods, and then throw 
of! their blankets and jump in the river through a hole cut in 
the ice, then put on their blankets and return to the cabin. 
This he was obliged to go through repeatedly in the coldest 

* "An Indian family of the Delaware tribe who resided near the villace on 
the south side of the Tioga River." — S. P. 


weather, which was done, the Indians told him, to make him 
tough so he might stand the cold weather. 

When the Spring opened and the warm weather came on, 
he with the Indians was accustomed to go hunting, fishing 
and digging ground-nuts to procure something to support 
themselves. They continued this manner of living until the 
middle of the summer, when he and three Indians went up 
the Tioga to a place called Chemung Narrows on a hunting 
trip for a few days. While encamped here near the river 
the Indians killed several deer. In three or four days after 
they arrived, the Indians got out of lead, and one evening 
as they were sitting by the fire, one of them remarked that 
he would get some tomorrow. Parrish thought it very 
strange that he should be able to obtain lead in one day 
when there were no white people of whom they could pro- 
cure it nearer than Niagara. However, the next morning 
the three Indians took their guns and went off as usual, as 
he supposed hunting. In the afternoon the Indian who 
spoke of getting lead returned with about a peck of lead ore 
tied up in his blanket ; dropped it before the fire, and di- 
rected Parrish to make up a large fire with dry wood, which 
he did. The Indian placed the ore on the top of the fire and 
scraped away the ashes under the fire so as to give a place 
for the lead to run into as it melted. Then with an iron 
ladle he dipped up the lead and poured it into pieces of bark 
as it melted, until the whole was separated from the dross. 
Farrish thought that he must have obtained from eight to 
ten pounds of pure lead. Three days after the Indians re- 
turned with him to Chemung. 

By this time Parrish had been a captive with the Indians 
for about one year, during which time he had seldom heard 
the English language spoken. He had acquired enough of 
the Indian language to understand their conversation very 
well and could speak so as to be understood by them. He 
remained at this place with the Indian family that had 
bought him until the last of August, 1779, at which time 
Gen. Sullivan was marching with his army into the Indian 
country to chastise them for their many enormities. The 
Indians were collecting a large force at Newtown, near El- 


mira, to attack Gen. Sullivan, and selected a point about four 
miles below Newtown, where they intended to make the 
contemplated stand and surprise him, if possible while he 
was advancing. They had placed the baggage, squaws and 
provisions about one mile back from where they were lying 
in wait for Sullivan ; had gathered together a large war 
party, among whom were some few whites, and they were 
very confident of success. Soon after the battle began the 
Indians found that they could not hold their position, as 
Sullivan was making an attempt to surround them, and 
they immediately dispatched a runner to the place where the 
squaws, baggage and provisions were left w T ith directions 
for them to pack up and retreat up the river to Painted Post, 
which they immediately did. Parrish and a number of 
young Indians were among the party. The Indians being 
hard pressed soon retreated from the battleground and next 
day overtook them at Painted Post. 

The party of Indians who had charge of Parrish imme- 
diately took up their march westward by way of Bath, Gene- 
seo, Tonawanda and so on to Fort Niagara, then a British 
post. Here they remained till late in the Fall, furnished 
with salt provision by the British, which the Indians being 
unaccustomed to, occasioned a great deal of disease and 

A short time after the whole of the Six Nations of In- 
dians were encamped on the plain around the Fort. While 
thus encamped they had a general drunken frolic, which re- 
sulted in the death of one Indian. Upon this the Indian 
law of retaliation was resorted to by the friends of the dead 
Indian, and in less than an hour five Indians were lying 
dead, before the chiefs could restrain their warriors. 

While at Fort Niagara with the Delaware family, Par- 
rish learned that the British were offering a guinea bounty 
for every Yankee scalp that was taken and brought in by 
the Indians. He was afterwards told that they offered this 
bounty for the purpose of getting the Indians to disperse in 
small war parties on the frontier of the State as they were 
becoming very troublesome at Fort Niagara. 

Parrish was with them in camp at this place about six 


weeks. At a certain time a number of the Indians belonging 
to the same family as his master got drunk in the evening. 
Two of the Indians were left alone with Parrish at the camp, 
and were sitting on the side of the fire opposite to him. 
They soon fell into conversation how they could procure 
some more rum. After a short time one of them observed 
to the other, they would kill the young Yankee and take his 
scalp to the Fort, and sell it and then they would be able to 
buy some more rum. The young Yankee understood all the 
conversation and put himself on his guard in case they 
should make an attempt against him. In a few minutes one 
of the Indians drew a long half-burned brand from the fire 
and hurled it at Parrish's head, but he being on the alert 
dodged the brand, sprang up and ran out into the bushes 
which surrounded the encampment. The Indians attempted 
to follow him, but being drunk and the night very dark 
Parrish escaped them, keeping away until the next morning 
and the Indians became sober, when he returned again to 
the camp. While he was with the Indians near Niagara, 
five died out of his master's family, including his wife. 

One day Parrish's Indian master took him into Fort Ni- 
agara, where he offered to sell him to the white people, none 
of whom appeared willing to purchase him. At length his 
master met with a large, fine, portly-looking Mohawk In- 
dian by the name of Capt. David Hill, who bought him from 
his Delaware master for the sum of $20, without any hesi- 
tation. Capt. Hill was then living on the plain immediately 
below and adjoining the Fort. He led Parrish awav and 
conducted him to his home or cabm, where having arrived 
Capt. Hill said to him in iLnglish, "This is your home; you 
must stay here." 

His reflections were not very pleasant on his change of 
masters, after becoming well acquainted with the Delaware 
language to be under the necessity of acquiring a new one ; 
the Mohawk differing entirely from the Delaware. Then, 
to make new acquaintances and friends after becoming at- 
tached as he did to his Delaware master.* The change of 
masters, however, proved to be very fortunate and happy. 

* "He had been very well treated by his Delaware protector."— S. P. 


Parrish resided in Capt. Hill's family five years and up- 
wards, during all of which time they furnished him with the 
necessary Indian clothing and an abundance of comfortable 
food. He passed all that time in traveling with the Indians 
and in hunting, fishing and working, but they never com- 
pelled him to do any hard work, or anything beyond his 
ability or endurance. 

In the month of November, 1780,* the chiefs of the Six 
Nations held a general council with the British at Fort Ni- 
agara. Capt. Hill took his prisoner into the midst of this 
council, and into the midst of the assembled chiefs, and in 
the most formal manner had him adopted into his family as 
a son. He placed a large belt of wampum around his neck, 
then an old chief took nim by the hand and made a long 
speech such as is customary among the Indians on similar 
occasions. He spoke with much dignity and solemnity, 
often interrupted by the other chiefs with exclamations of 
"Ma-ho-e," which is a mark of attention and approbation. 
After the speech was concluded the chiefs arose and came 
forward and shook hands with the adopted prisoner and the 
ceremony closed. His Indian father then came to him and 
asked him to return home. He remained here at Fort Niag- 
ara with him during the following winter. 

In May [ 1781 ] Capt. Hill and the Mohawk Indians re- 
moved to and made a settlement at a point higher up on the 
Niagara River at a place now known as Lewiston. Here 
Parrish lived among the Mohawks in the family of his In- 
dian father and mother until the close of the Revolutionary- 
War. During this time he was frequently with Capt. Hill 
traveling among other tribes and nations of Indians, in- 
variably receiving from his adopted father's family and 
other Indians among whom he sojourned, the greatest kind- 
ness ; his wants were attended to, and many acts of kind- 
ness were shown him, as well as many favors during his 

In September, 1784, a treaty of peace between the United 
States and the six nations of Indians was held at Fort Stan- 
wix, n ow Rome, Oneida Co., at which the Indians promised 

* S. Parrish's narrative says "November, 1779;" 1780 is right. 


to give up all prisoners captured and detained among them, 
belonging to or captured in the United States. There were 
at this time among the Six Nations ninety-three white pris- 
oners, Parrish among the number. On November 29, 1784, 
he left Lewiston accompanied by the Indians to be sur- 
rendered at Fort Stanwix. Immediately afterwards he set 
out on his return to his own family and friends, whom he 
had not heard from, or of, during his long captivity, but 
whom he at length found at Goshen, Orange Co., N. Y. He 
had heard the English language so rarely, and had been so 
totally unaccustomed to speak it himself that he could with 
difficulty make himself understood. He was destitute of 
education and was able to devote but very little time to 
school on his return home, receiving only nine months' 
schooling.* With this exception he was wholly self-taught 
and educated from his after-reading and intercourse with 
the world. 

In November, 1790, he was requested by Timothy Picker- 
ing, commissioner on the part of Congress to act as inter- 
preter between the Seneca Indians and the Government at a 
treaty held at that time at Tioga Point. He was called upon 
again by the same commissioner to act as interpreter at an- 
other treaty at Newtown Point (near Elmira), in July, 
J 79 1. This treaty was held with the Six Nations of In- 
dians. Here he gained a good deal of commendation and 
applause from the commissioner and the Indians for the 
very accurate and faithful manner in which he rendered the 
Indian language. In April, 1792, he was appointed by 
President Washington as a standing interpreter for the Six 
Nations of Indians, and was instructed to reside at Canan- 
darque under the direction and instruction of Gen. Israel 
Chapin, then agent to the Six Nations. f 

In November, 1794, another treaty was held with the Six 
Nations at Canandaigua, the Hon. Timothy Pickering pre- 
siding as commissioner on the part of the United States, 
where again he was the principal interpreter. This treaty 

* "About a year."— S. P. 

+ His salary was $200 per year. (Letter, Pickering to Parrish.) 


now remains as the governing treaty between the Six Na- 
tions and the United States to the present time, 1822. 

After serving as interpreter thirteen years, he was ap- 
pointed sub-agent and interpreter by the President of the 
United States, on the 15th of February, 1803.* These two 
appointments he held through all the successive administra- 
tions down to the second term of Gen. Jackson, transacting 
all kinds of business between the United States and the Six 
Nations, and also between the State of New York and the 
Indians. He also officiated as interpreter and was present at 
very many other treaties during his term of office. He was 
very anxious to civilize the Indians by inculcating among 
them habits of industry and instructing them how to culti- 
vate their lands and endeavoring to impress them with the 
use of property and the value of time. In his endeavors to 
effect this object, he has found a friendly disposition among 
the Oneidas and Tuscarora tribes, and among the Senecas 
residing at the Buffalo Reservation, except Red Jacket, to 
welcome missionaries and schoolmasters, and all instruction 
calculated to ameliorate their condition. Teachers and mis- 
sionaries meet with considerable encouragement among 
them, and the children of the above-named tribes are receiv- 
ing from schools very great benefit. Much good has already 
been accomplished and greater advancement been made in 
six years in husbandry than have been made in forty years 
before. They are tilling their land much better, making 
good fences and building more comfortable dwellings for 

The means that are placed in the hands of the agents by 
the Government enable them to furnish each tribe annually 
with all necessary farming utensils, and all implements of 

* The following is copied from the War Department records: 
To Jasper Parrish Esquire. 

Sir: You are hereby with the approbation of the President of the United 
States, appointed a Sub-Agent, to the Six Nations of Indians, residing within 
the territories of the said United States, now under the general superintend- 
ence of Callender Irvine Ksquire. For your government in discharging the 
various duties of this appointment, you will from time to time, be furnished 
with general instructions, and particular directions, as circumstances may call 
for, or render necessary. Your compensation will be a salary of Four hun- 
dred & fifty dollars, per annum, payable quarter Yearly. 

Given under my hind at the War Office of the United States this 15th day 
of February 1803. 

(L- S.) H. Dearborn. 


husbandry to enable them properly to till the land, and they 
are instructed how to use them. They are thus able to raise 
a considerable surplus of grain beyond what is needed for 
their own consumption, instead of being dependent upon the 
precarious results of the chase. 

During the time I* was prisoner among them for six- 
years and eight months, and for many years subsequent to 
the Revolutionary War, the use of the plough was entirely 
unknown to them, but they are now familiar with almost 
every essential farming implement. Notwithstanding this 
great advance toward improvement, and all the efforts made 
by the Government and citizens to Christianize the Six Na- 
tions, the noted Red Jacket has been and still is violently 
opposed to all innovations upon their old customs, and all 
changes in their condition. He says they were created In- 
dians, and Indians they should remain, and that he will 
never relinquish their ancient pagan customs and habits. 

Further Data on Jasper Parrish. The foregoing narrative, 
written fourteen years before the death of Jasper Parrish, is of 
course without allusion to his later years. His services as inter- 
preter merit a fuller record than the present editor can here make. 
It has been shown in preceding pages of this volume how often he 
was associated with Horatio Jones, at treaties and councils; and he 
shared with his fellow-interpreter the favor of the Senecas, marked 
by their gift to him of the mile square on the Niagara now known 
as the Parrish tract. Jasper Parrish bore a prominent part in the 
negotiations which culminated in the treaty held at Albany, August 
20, 1802, at which the Senecas sold to the State the tract a mile wide. 
extending from Buffalo Creek along the Niagara River to "Sted- 
man's farm," at Fort Schlosser. They received for this land $200 
down, $5300 to be paid later, and $500 worth of calico for their 
women ; also the right to go upon the Mile Strip to fish in the river, 
to cross the Niagara ferry free of charge, and to be exempt from 
tolls on roads and bridges. Embodied in this treaty were the grants 
to Jasper Parrish and Horatio Jones of a mile square, heretofore 
described. Jones does not appear to have attended this treaty at 
Albany. Parrish was the interpreter, and the next day (August 
21st) appeared before Justice James Kent to certify to the genuine- 

* The original MS. here changes from the third person to the first; evi- 
dently the writer concluded the narrative in Jasper Parrish's own words. 


ness of the Indian consents. March 14, 1803, Parrish, Farmer's 
Brother, Young King and Benjamin DeWitt certified that the 
Senecas had received the full amount stipulated in the treaty. 

Prior to this time Parrish had interpreted an address made by 
Saccaressa, chief of the Tuscaroras, to the acting Secretary of War; 
in which, speaking for the remnant of his people, the Tuscarora 
statesman (such he truly was) begged that the Tuscarora claim to 
lands on the Roanoke in North Carolina might be recognized, that 
they might be sold and the proceeds applied to the purchase of a 
tract in the neighborhood of their present residence near Lewiston.* 
A less important but characteristic service rendered to his Indian 
friends by Jasper Parrish is indicated by the following, copied ver- 
batim from the original :f 

Canandaigua, June 16th, 1803. 

The Bearer one of the cattaraugus Chiefs, is wishing to receive a map of 
their reservation, agreeahle to a promis from Joseph Ellicott Esqr, as he says, 
thay was to have a map of their reservation given to them. 

I am sir, your friend and humble servent 

Jasper Parrish. 

Benjamin Eu.icott Esqr. 

The letter is worth noting chiefly because it illustrates the atti- 
tude of helpfulness and friendliness which Jasper Parrish main- 
tained towards the Indians throughout his life. 

By a treaty entered into at Buffalo, September 12, 1815, the 
Senecas sold to the State all the islands in the Niagara River, within 
the jurisdiction of the United States, reserving to themselves hunt- 
ing and fishing privileges. For these islands the treaty stipulated 
that the Senecas should receive $1000 down, and an annuity of $500 
in perpetuity. The name of Red Jacket is the first appended to this 
agreement. Among others in the long list of Senecas and whites are 
those of Pollard, Little Billy and Young King, Captain Shongo, 
Horatio Jones's old friend Sharp Shins, Governor Daniel D. Tomp- 
kins, Gen. Peter B. Porter, Horatio Jones and Jasper Parrish. For 
fourteen years the Indians went to Canandaigua every June for their 
money; this proving expensive and troublesome an agreement was 
entered into by which they received their money annually in a draft 
payable at Buffalo. This agreement is called the Albany treaty of 
March 6, 1830. 

Jasper Parrish attended a council of the Six Nations chiefs at 
Buffalo, in December. 1823, regarding their purchase of lands from 
the Menomonees at Green Bay, Wis. The Indians decided to send 
a delegation the next spring to examine the country. Jasper Parrish 

* War Dept. Records, February 11, 1801. 

t Among the Holland Land Co.'s papers, in the possession of the Buffalo 
Historical Society. 


conducted their correspondence in the matter; his letters to the 
Hon. John C. Calhoun, Secretary of War, are preserved in that de- 

Jasper Parrish married in early life a daughter of General Ed- 
ward Paine of Aurora, N. Y., who in the early period of the settle- 
ment of Ohio, located and gave name to the village of Painesville. 
He died at Canandaigua, July 12, 1836, aged 69 years and 4 months. 
He left a family of six children, three sons and three daughters. 
The eldest of the daughters married Ebenezer S. Cobb, who was 
lost on the steamboat Erie, which burned near Dunkirk in 1841. 
The second daughter married William W. Gorham of Canandaigua, 
son of Nathaniel Gorham.* 

Stephen Parrish narrative in Orlando Allen's MS. 





I design to give a short account of the manner of paying 
annuities to the Iroquois or Six Nations Indians residing in 
New York, as I saw it nearly fifty years ago and for the 
twelve or fourteen succeeding years. . . . 

These annuities were in money, dry goods, agricultural 
implements, such as plows, chairs, axes, hoes, etc., a certain 
amount of blacksmithing and gunsmith work, together with 
sustenance, to a limited amount, usually consisting of pork 
and flour dealt out to them while assembled for the trans- 
action of their annual business with the United States. 

The money annuity to the Seneca Nation was interest on 
certain trust funds held for them by the United States aris- 
ing from the sale of lands : also from the State of New 
York for the cession to it of the islands in Niagara River, 
known as the "Grand Island annuity" ; and to the Cavugas, 
Onondagas, and Oneidas for the cession to the State of cer- 
tain lands by those nations respectively. 

The annuities in dry goods, implements, smithwork and 
provisions, were from the United States to the Six Nations 

•Extract from a paper read before the Buffalo Historical Society about i863. 
Hon. Millard Fillmore presiding. Now first published. 


in accordance with certain treaty stipulation made with 
them in April, 1792, and in September, 1794- The dry 
goods consisted of broadcloths of different colors, what was 
known in those days as Mackinaw Indian blankets, calicoes, 
and green worsted yarn for making belts, white beads, 
thread, needles, ribbons, etc. 

Blacksmiths and gunsmiths residing near the bands of 
Indians were to be served by them when designated by the 
agent. Their accounts properly verified by the chief of 
their bands, were rendered and paid by the agents at the 
time of paying the general annuities to the Indians, and 
these were due on the first day of June in each year. . . . 

At that period Captain Jasper Parrish of Canandaigua 
was the Government agent, title sub-agent of the New York- 
Indians, and Captain Horatio Jones of Leicester, Livingston 
County, was the interpreter. A part of the duties of these 
Government agents was to pay the annuities to the Indians, 
see they were properly distributed among the several bands, 
settle with the mechanics employed to repair their imple- 
ments of husbandry, guns, etc., be the mediums of communi- 
cation with the General and State governments, together 
with a general supervision of their business and interests 
particularly as between them as nations and the surrounding 

The United States also paid to some of the prominent 
chiefs, such as Cornplanter, Young King, Little Billy, De- 
stroy Town, Pollard, Strong, Governor Blacksnake and sev- 
eral others, considerable sums of money in the form of an- 
nuities. The State of New York also paid one individual 
annuity, and but one so far as I know, and that was an an- 
nuity of fifty dollars to the celebrated Cayuga chief, Fish 
Carrier, running to him and his heirs forever.* These an- 

Note by Mr. Allen. — Soon after the sale of their lands Fish Carrier, 
with a considerable number of his people, the Cayugas, emigrated to Canada 
and settled on Grand River, near the Mohawks. The annuity was regularly 
paid to him during his life and afterwards to his son, who assumed the name. 
until about 1840, when the latter, becoming alarmed at the report of war be- 
tween the United States and Great Urnain, applied to me, I having been his 
agent for several years, to procure the payment of the principal of his annuity 
which the State was ready to do. This I obtained; he came to Buffalo, re- 
ceived his money, returned to Canada, and died a few vears later. 


nuities were paid by the agents at the time of paying the 
national annuities. 

Parrish and Jones had been captains among the Indians 
for several years during the Revolution. The former among 
the Mohawks, the latter among the Senecas, and of course 
were familiar with the language of their respective captors, 
and in this respect as in all others in fact, were eminently 
qualified to act in their several official capacities. 

It is said that Captain Parrish spoke five of the Iroquois 
languages fluently. I have no personal knowledge as to the 
truth of this claim ; whenever I heard him address the In- 
dians it was always' in the Mohawk tongue. Captain Jones 
was considered an excellent interpreter of the Seneca lan- 
guage. He spoke it like a native, and for an uneducated 
man had a remarkable command of the English language. 
His selection of words to express his ideas was happy and 
his descriptions of scenes graphic. 

Parrish and Jones were both large, portly men, with gray 
hair and florid complexions, and as they moved about our 
streets would attract notice by their dignified carriage and 
gentlemanly bearing. 

When here in Buffalo they usually stopped at the Phoenix 
CofTee House, kept by Ralph Pomeroy, on the northeast 
corner of Main and Seneca streets, now the site of Brown's 
buildings. Sometimes Parrish stopped at the Mansion 
House, kept by Joseph Landon, on the south side of Crow, 
now Exchange Street, midway between Main and Wash- 
ington streets. 

At the appointed time in the early part of June Parrish 
and Jones would arrive in the stage from the East, and the 
Indians would gather from all quarters. Those living at 
Oneida and Onondaga were usually represented by a dele- 
gation of their chiefs and head men ; and those living nearer 
often coming in great numbers, chiefs, warriors, women and 
children, so that in the course of a day or two there would 
be a large assemblage besides those belonging to the Buffalo 
Creek Reservation. 

The councils on these occasions were held at a council 
house belonging to the Senecas, situated a few rods east of 


the bend in the road a little north of the red bridge across 
Buffalo Creek, on the now so-called Aurora plank road, 
then little more than an Indian trail; and here the money 
was divided per capita, and the dry goods and implements 
apportioned. The chiefs and head men had the numbers of 
their tribes represented by a corresponding number of 
notches on a stick. These were all to be examined carefully, 
to see that their aggregate did not exceed the known aggre- 
gate of the entire population so that there should be none 
left without his or her free proportion, especially of the an- 
nuity money. 

The chiefs and head men represented the tribes, the moth- 
ers the families. So the former was given the proportion 
belonging to their tribes, which by them was divided be- 
tween the families, the mothers receiving for themselves and 
their children, husbands, and adults without family for 
themselves. By the observance of these rules, rarely if ever, 
did mistakes occur. The dry goods and implements were 
divided more according to the necessities of families, regard 
being had to the more destitute and needy. To the mothers 
who were here upon the ground would be divided their pro- 
portions, as also to individuals without families, those re- 
siding at a distance received theirs from the hands of their 
representatives, on return of the latter to their homes. 

Merchants doing business in the neighborhood of the sev- 
eral bands of Indians, were much in the habit of trusting 
them, principally for dry goods, depending mainly upon 
these annuities for payment. Some of the mothers of fam- 
ilies would be entitled to receive fifty, sixty, seventy, eighty 
dollars, as it might be, depending, of course, upon the num- 
ber of their children. This would be known to the merchant 
and he would regulate the amount of his credits by the prob- 
able amount to be received by the mother of the family, but 
she, sharp woman, would not infrequently trade out the 
amount of her proportion of the coming annuity with dif- 
ferent merchants, each believing himself to be the sole cred- 

These merchants or their clerks were always upon the 
ground when the annuities were paid, sometimes in waiting 


clay after day. At length when the money was divided it 
would be discovered by them that there were more than one, 
and sometimes several claimants for the entire amount of 
the annuity money of a family. Then there would be lively 
times among them and probably not one of them would get 
a dime. There was no way of enforcing payment of claims 
against Indians, as they were not amenable to the laws, and 
unless they were honest and well disposed their debts re- 
mained unpaid. Some of the Indians and squaws were hon- 
est and paid their just debts, but many of them were far 

The councilings, annotations, overhauling of accounts, 
auditing claims, and other preparations for the final distri- 
bution of the annuities, would occupy many days. Indians 
are proverbially slow in all their deliberations, much talk 
and more smoking, before any definite conclusions are ar- 
rived at. During these days the young men would spend 
some of their time in their favorite game of ball, sometimes 
nation against nation, bets running high and one side or the 
other, both men and women, getting stripped of all their 
finery, their bets consisting of articles of clothing or silver 
trinkets. Often, however, their games were for mere 
sport.* . . . 

The great sport of the occasion was a foot race, gotten up 
for the close of the proceedings as a winding up. The mer- 
chants in town would make up a purse, consisting of various 
articles of dry goods, such as coat patterns, blankets, shawls, 
calico, etc., having as many prizes as contestants, each differ- 
ing in value, say from one to five dollars, distance to be run 
twelve miles, i. e., from where the liberty pole stands on Main 
Street, up Main Street one mile, up and down six times. 
Into this race would enter all who felt disposed and com- 
petent to contend, and these would generally consist of from 
fifteen to twenty-five of the best runners of the Six Nations. 
The runners were divested of all clothing except a shirt and 
breech-cloth and a belt around the loins. If wearing long 
hair a band around the head confined it closely, this band 

* Mr. Allen here described the game of lacrosse. 


not unfrequently consisting of some gay-colored handker- 
chief or ribbon. 

To the best of my recollection the time consumed in run- 
ning the twelve miles was about one hour; but I cannot state 
accurately. They would generally run in groups of three or 
four, strung along over a distance of one to two miles, the 
foremost ones being that distance ahead of the hindermo>t 
ones, towards the close of the race. 

There were some six or eight runners that for several 
years came out very near together, seeming to be closelv 
matched, both as to speed and bottom. There was, however, 
an Onondaga by the name of Sam George, who took the 
first prize for several years in succession. He is now an old 
man, head chief of the Onondaga Nation, and calls himself 
Colonel Sam George. He then lived on the Buffalo Creek- 
Reservation, but for many years past has lived with his 
people at Onondaga. 

The second in the race usually was a Seneca from Alle- 
gheny, named John Titus. He was a much smaller man 
than George, who was not obliged to put forth all of his 
powers to distance his competitors, and this seemed to be 
well understood. 

On one occasion Titus achieved by strategy, what he 
could not by speed, and that was by keeping close up to 
George until within a few steps of the goal, and then just 
before crossing the line, putting forth all of his powers, 
slipped by, leaving George no time to recover the lost race. 
as he probably could have done in ten strides. George was 
exceedingly mortified at the result and was careful not to be 
thus outwitted again. I think he was on no other occasion 
beaten in these races. 

During the time the Indians remained here the store of 
Hart & Lay, afterwards Hart & Cunningham, and then 
Hart & Hickox, was the headquarters of the agent and in- 
terpreter, and there a considerable part of their business was 
transacted. This naturally brought the Indians there in 
large numbers. The ground between Swan and North Di- 
vision streets on the east side of Main Street was then en- 
tirely vacant, with here and there a hirer oak tree still stand- 


ir.<r. On this ground the Indians were almost always to be 
seen in considerable numbers during their stay here. Capt. 
Jones spent much of his time at this store, being- very so- 
ciable and fond of chatting with his Indian friends, talking 
of the scenes of their boyhood days. 

The store in which I was employed was next door below 
Hart & Cunningham's and at such times, particularly nights, 
I would sit and listen to their conversation, and if any por- 
tion was not distinctly understood by the listeners as ex- 
pressed in the original, Capt. Jones would explain in Eng- 

On one of these occasions there was a very aged Indian 
present, and taking part in the conversation, whom Captain 
Jones informed us was in some way connected with his cap- 
ture, but precisely how I cannot now state, though I recol- 
lect distinctly his connecting him with that event. One of 
these stories was the brief account that Capt. Jones gave of 
his capture and some of the incidents connected with his 
residence among the Indians. This was on a summer night, 
whites and Indians indiscriminately mixed, sitting around 
on chairs, stools, floor and counters. I made notes of these 
some years ago with the aid of which and a pretty retentive 
memory, I give the story as I heard it. ::: . . . 

Unlike Captain Jones, who spent much of his time while 
here in Buffalo during these annuity-paying visits, convers- 
ing with the Indians, and who seemed never happier than 
when so engaged. Captain Parrish did not appear to hold 
much, if any, communication with them, apart from the 
business connected with his agency ; therefore, there was no 
opportunity afforded of gaining any information from him 
concerning his captivity. I have been told by one of his 
sons, the late Edward Parrish of Canandaigua, that when 
c.t home he would spend hours at a time in conversation with 
the Indians who called to see him, as they did very often, 
socially and on business. I have been told also that his In- 
dian mother, who resided in Canada after the Revolutionary 

* The story that Orlando Allen thus preserved has been utilized in the life 
of Horatio Tones by George H. Harris. A copy of Mr. Allen's original ver- 
sion is preserved by the Buffalo Historical Society. 

"« j . m i' »» .i ■ ■ m**i 


War, sometimes visited him at his home in Canandaigua, 
and seemed to look upon him with as much pride and affec- 
tion as though he had been of her own blood. When she be- 
came too old to visit him, he occasionally visited her at her 







PRIOR TO 1850. 

Being an Appendix to Volume Six, Buffalo 
Historical Society Publications. 

Buffalo. \. V 


The following list is submitted in continuation of the project 
entered upon in Vol. V. of the Buffalo Historical Society Publica- 
tions, namely, to publish a bibliography of the Niagara Region, in- 
cluding Buffalo. The list printed in 1902 was on the Upper Cana- 
dian Rebellion of 1837-38. The compiler is now enabled to add to 
that list only the following titles : 

[Head (Sir) Francis Bond.] Three Letters to Lord Brougham, 
on the execution in Upper Canada of the traitors Lount and 
Matthews. Bv a British subject. . . London. J. Murray 
[1838]. 8vo. pp. 18. 

These letters first appeared in the London (Eng.) Times 
June 6. 13 and 28, 1838. 
Leavitt, Thad. W. H. History of Leeds and Grenville, Ontario, 
from 1749 to 1879. . . . Toronto: Historical Publishing Co. 
1879. 4to., ill., pp. 208. 

Treats at length of the L'pper Canadian Rebellion on the St 
Mackenzie, William Lyon. An Almanack of Independence and 
Freedom for the Year i860, containing a plea for relief of Can- 
ada from a state of Colonial Vassalage, or irresponsible rule. 
. . . Toronto, i860. Svo. pp. 61. 

Indirectly related to our subject, but perhaps should be in- 
Mackenzie. William Lyon. A Rebellion Reminiscence. Flow Win. 
Lyon Mackenzie escaped. 

Canadian Antiquarian and Numismatic Journal, Vol. viii., 
No. 3. Montreal.. Jan., 1879. 
[McLeod, Alexander.] Review of the opinion of Judge Cowan, of 
the Supreme Court of the State of New York, in the case of 
Alexander McLeod. By a citizen of New York. Washington: 
Printed by Thomas Allen. 1841. Svo. pp. 28. 

Dedicated to Daniel Webster. 
[Sutherland. (Gen.) Th. J.] The Trial of General Th. J. Suther- 
land, kite of the Patriot Army, before a court martial convened 
at Toronto on the 13th day of March, A. D. 1838. By order of 
Sir Francis Bond Head. Lieutenant Governor of said Province, 
' K. C. B., &c, &c. On a charge of having, as a citizen of the 
United States, levied war in the Province of L T pper Canada 
against Her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain. &c. With his 
defence and other documents. Buffalo: Press of Oliver G. 
Steele. 1838. Svo. pp. S7. 



" ■ vmm 


The list of 1902 was a subject-list, and such no doubt will be 
those to follow, except that herewith presented. For it, the chrono- 
logical arrangement has seemed the natural one in view of the ob- 
ject aimed at, which is, to make a record of books and pamphlets 
published or printed in Buffalo during the earlier years of its exist- 
ence. The following list stops with and includes the year 1849; 
a seemingly arbitrary date, but for the selection of which there were 
numerous reasons. Not only is the middle of a century a natural 
halting-place; but from about 1850 the use of the steam press, the 
development of the municipal government and of corporate or other 
societies, and the general growth of the city resulted in a rapid in- 
crease of annual reports of organizations and other publications of 
a periodic type, while the development of public libraries made their 
collection and preservation fairly certain. Probably much that was 
printed in the pioneer years of the local press has been lost. The 
following list has been compiled from books preserved in the Buf- 
falo, Grosvenor and Historical Society libraries, with a few items 
from private sources. Many of them are contained in the Millard 
Fillmore and Dr. John C. Lord collections, both now in tKe keeping 
of the Historical Society. But for the scholarly tastes and habit of 
preserving books and pamphlets which characterized these two emi- 
nent Buffalonians, many an entry in the following list would un- 
doubtedly have been lost. It is the first list of this class of Buffalo 
publications that has been made ; the compiler will be pleased to 
learn of any additions to it which his readers may be able to 

Newspapers and periodicals are not included, with the exception 
of the Mental Elevator, the unique paper issued from the Seneca 
Mission Press, which is recorded under 1841, the year of its first 
issue. There is little need to review the history of the early 
periodic press of Buffalo, that work having already been well done: 
notably in the "Pearly History of the Press of Erie County." by 
Guy H. Salisbury, printed in Volume If.. Publications of the Buf- 
falo Historical Society. The inquirer on this subject may also con- 
sult George J. Bryan's ''Biographies, . . . also, Lecture on Jour- 
nalism" (Buffalo, 1886), the lecture on journalism having been pre- 
pared for the Buffalo Historical Society in 1876; "The Authors of 
Buffalo," by Frank H. Severance, Buffalo Historical Society Pub- 
lications, Vol. IV.; and the chapters on the press of Erie and Ni- 
agara counties in the various local histories. 

Incidentally, the following list contains data for a chronology of 
the principal printers of Buffalo from the pioneer Salisburys (S. II. 
and H. A.), who set up the first press here in 181 1, down tn 


Faxon & Stevens, Andrew F. Lee, T. J. Dudley, Jas. S. Leavitt, 
G. Reese & Co., A. M. Clapp & Co., F. W. Breed, Parmelee & 
Hadley, and — most notable of all — Jewett, Thomas & Co. All of 
these firms were printers and on occasion publishers, in the late 
'40's; and the last-mentioned house, with its much-vaunted "steam 
power press," may perhaps stand as typifying the more modern era 
of printing in Buffalo, into which the present survey does not 
carry us. 

The Salisburys, with numerous business changes, continued 
prominent in the printing business of Buffalo well into the ^o's. 
Buffalo's first book was published in 1812 by S. H. & H. A. Salis- 
bury. No other book or pamphlet is known to the present com- 
piler, bearing a Buffalo imprint, until we come to 1818, when we 
find the imprint of Carpenter & Salisbury. Again nothing is found 
until 1820, when the imprint is that of H. A. Salisbury. In 1821 
David M. Day (father of the late David F. Day) and H. A. Salis- 
bury are associated, but for some years thereafter each continues in 
the printing business, by himself. Smith H. Salisbury early pinned 
his faith to Black Rock, and in 1827 we find a pamphlet published 
there by him. Lewis G. Hoffman (1822) and D. P. Adams (1836), 
are the only other Black Rock publishers shown by our list. Mr. 
Adams was the father of Mr. William H. Adams, now a well- 
known resident of Buffalo. Smith H. Salisbury returned to Buf- 
falo, and in the '30's both he and H. A. Salisbury were continuing 
the family craft in Buffalo. Later on we find the firms of Salisbury, 
Manchester & Co., and Salisbury & Clapp. 

In the decade of the '20's, besides those named, the publishing 
business was ambitiously carried on in Buffalo by Lazell & Francis, 
and R. W. Haskins & Co., this firm later changing to Day, Follett & 
Haskins. In 1832, the year of Buffalo's municipal birth, we first 
find the imprint of Steele & Faxon. From that date down to the 
close of our review no names are more prominent in the local pub- 
lishing business than those of Charles Faxon and Oliver G. Steele. 
Many new names appear in the '30's ; they are recorded in the fol- 
lowing list and need not be restated here. Buffalo's pioneer Ger- 
man printer, George Zahm, printed pamphlets in English as early 
as 1840, but nothing has been found printed here in German, news- 
papers excepted, prior to 1843. Oliver G. Steele printed one book- 
in Dutch for a teacher of languages, in 1848. 

It is not ♦lie purpose of these notes to present a history of the 
publishing business in Buffalo, even during the earlier years, but 
merely to direct attention to the representative names in the fol- 
lowing list, many of them designating men honorably prominent in 


the community during the years when Buffalo's industrial founda- 
tions were being laid. 

In the early decades of the last century many books, well printed 
and bound, came from presses in small towns where now book- 
publishing has practically ceased. L his is especially true of school- 
books. Before the days of the publishers' trusts, concentration of 
capital, and monopoly in educational text-books, school-books were 
manufactured practically where needed. Often they were printed 
in New York, with title-page imprints for many localities and deal- 
ers. For example, Cobb's series of Juvenile Readers were pub- 
lished, in the '30's and '40's, at Rochester, N. Y., Pulaski, N. Y., 
Erie. Pa.. Cleveland, O., etc. The imprint of O. Spofford, Erie, Pa., 
appears on many books of this class, as early as 1841, but they 
were either printed, or the stereotype plates made, in New York. 
Similarly, Peter Parley's Arithmetic, "Buffalo, Oliver G. Steele. 
1833," is really a Boston publication, with a special title for the 
Buffalo trade; Coppock's "Pianist's Companion," published by J. D. 
Sheppard, Buffalo, N. Y., Steele's Press, 1835, is really a New York- 
made book. David Hoyt in Rochester put out many books of the 
same character. More genuinely local were such books as those 
printed in Utica by Grosh & Walker, and published by O. Hutchin- 
son. The "Treatise on Algebra," by George R. Perkins — the fa- 
mous compiler of almanacs — published by Hutchinson in 1842 is an 
excellent example of the good work done by country presses in 
this State more than sixty years ago. In Western New York, Can- 
andaigua, Batavia, Lockport, Warsaw, even in such ultra-rural com- 
munities as Boston in Eric County, prior to 1840, were the homes 
of well-trained printers, who could and did, manufacture very sub- 
stantial volumes of various degrees of typographical pretension and 
literary worth. No doubt they took their time to it; but the result 
in many cases is better than could be expected from the presses in 
those towns today. The causes of this decadence of the village 
press are too well known to need recital. The growth of the large 
cities and the expansion of the field of circulation for their news- 
papers: the extension of railway connections and the development 
of express and postal facilities so that well-nigh every hamlet in the 
State may have the New York City papers, even if only an unsatis- 
factory early edition, on the day of issue: the evolution of news 
service, through the various stages of the "patent inside" sheet, which 
came to the country editor ready printed on one side, leaving him 
only to print Ins local items and advertisements on the other side: 
and of the more modern plate service; have all conspired to bring 
about the decline of the country press and to rob the work of the 


country editor of its individuality. The hopelessness of competing with 
well-equipped city offices on work which is there done by improved 
machinery, displacing the ancient spectacled artist of the stick and 
rule; to say nothing of the thousand and one other forces which 
operate against the economical prosecution of the craft remote from 
centers of supply and distribution, have made the old-time master- 
printer of the country office well nigh extinct, and have driven the 
ambitious country editor into the city where he sinks his individual- 
ity in anonymous toil in "journalism." Rarely now does a country 
printing office attempt anything more ambitious than the most com- 
monplace poster and pamphlet. Here and there, it is true, in small 
towns exist establishments which assume to prosecute the art pre- 
servative with the mannerisms if not the sincerity and simplicity of 
its discoverers; but their product is chiefly designed for the delecta- 
tion of the dilletante in typographic esthetics, real or pretended, and 
sustains no real relation to the community where produced. 

Perhaps the most striking instance in our immediate lower-lake 
region of the ambitious but good work of the early rural press 
is afforded by Niagara, Out., — now popularly known as Niagara- 
on-the-Lake — where "The Life and Actions of Alexander the 
Great," Svo. 200 pages, by the Rev. J. Williams ; "The Life of 
Mahomed," Svo. 112 pages, by the Rev. Geo. Bush; Southey's 
''Life of Lord Nelson," 1st Canada edition, Svo. 140 pages; and 
''The Life of Lord Byron," Svo. 200 pages, by John Gait, were all 
published in 1831. Even as early as 1819, at Niagara, U. C.. Andrew 
Heron had printed "Magna Charta" and "The Bill of Rights," in a 
neat pamphlet, "with elucidatory notes." by B. Curwen. Esq. These 
were reprints, but in 1832 this Niagara corner of the then Canadian 
wilderness became a true publishing center by the original issuance 
of Thompson's "History of the Late War between Great Britain and 
the Lnited States of America," a duodecimo of 300 pages. But for 
that war bookmaking in Buffalo would no doubt have had an earlier 
and worthier development. M. Smith states in the preface of his 
"Geographical View of the British Possessions in North America." 
New York, 1813. that he had arranged to have the work published in 
Buffalo, but the war upset his plans. In 1812, residing in Canada, 
he had obtained permission from Lt. Gov. Gore to publish; but 
when war was declared. Smith, being a citizen of the Republic, re- 
fused to take the oath of allegiance to Great Britain. He obtained 
passports, but his manu-cripts were taken away from him before he 
left Canada, and he had afterward to rely on his rough notes. 

Perhaps the most important feature of the following li>t is the 
record of imprints of the Seneca Mission press, noted under the 


years 1841 to 1846. Several other publications, excluded from the 
list because not printed in Buffalo, but of interest in this connection 
to the bibliographer and student of Seneca linguistics, should be 
noted. Some of them are mentioned in Mr. Rowland's history of 
the Seneca Mission. (Ante, pp. 158-160.) As matter of record we 
give the following, necessarily omitting numerous accents: 
Christ's Sermon on the Mountain. Translated into the Seneca 
Tongue, by T. S. Harris and J. Young. New York. Printed for 
the American Tract Society. By D. Fanshaw. 1829. i6mo. pp. 
32 [16 duplicate numbering], 74. At p. 1 the following sub-title: 
"Gainoh ne nenodowohga neuwahnuhdah. By James Young. 
New York. Printed for the American Tract Society by D. Fan- 
shaw. 1829." 

Dinhsa'wahgwah gaya'doshah go'waha's goya'doh. Sgaoyadih do- 
wanandenyo. Nell Nadigehjihshohoh dodisdoagoh; Wasto'k ta- 
dinageh. 1836. i2mo. pp. 42. 

Translation : "Beginning book, Mrs. Wright she wrote. Mr. 
Jimerson he translated, the old men they printed, Boston [Mass.] 
they reside at." A spelling-book. 

The First Book for Indians Schools. Printed at the Mission Press, 
Cattaraugus Reservation, 1847. 161110. pp. 72. 

Easy word lessons, "The child's hymn about Jesus," etc. 

Gaa nah shoh neh de o waah' sao' nyoh gwah Na' wen ni yuh. Ho 
nont gah deh ho di' yado'nyoh. New York : American Tract 
Society. 1852. 121110. pp. 232. 

The third edition of the Seneca hymn-book. There is more 
separation of syllables than in most of the earlier imprints. 

Neh noya' nes ha'wahdenyoh Oi'wah geh odoh oh Nisah' 28, 1854. 
n. p. 121110. pp. 24. 

"Laws of the Seneca Nation, passed January 28. 1854." 
Printed by order of the Seneca Government, and translated by 
Nicholson H. Parker. Originally drawn up in English by a com- 
mittee appointed for that purpose by the Council. There are also 
numerous tracts composed by N. H. Parker, printed in 1S54. 

He ni ya wah syoh no'nah jih, tga wa na gwa oh neh ne ga yados 
hiyu neh. i2mo. pp. 64. H. M. Morgan, printer, Gowanda. N. Y. 

The American Bible Society in 1874 published the four Gospels 
in the Seneca (Asher Wright's translation), an edition still much 
used on the Reservations; but our review is designed only to cover 
Western New York and other related imprints of the early years. 

The enumeration of some of the annuals or periodic pamphlets in 
the following list is known to be incomplete. Probably also some 
editions of the early Niagara Falls guide-books are not noted; the 
most complete collection of this kind of Niagara literature, that of 
the Hon. Peter A. Porter, being boxed up and in storage when the 
list was compiled and thus inaccessible alike to owner and compiler. 
It is believed, however, that no works are omitted, though certain 
editions of some of them may be. F. H. S. 



PRIOR TO 1850. 


Granger. Erastus. and Red Jacket. Public speeches, delivered at 
the Village of Buffalo, on the 6th and 8th days of July, 1812, by 
Hon. Erastus Granger, Indian Agent, and Red Jacket, one of 
the principal chiefs and speakers of the Seneca Nation, respect- 
ing the part the Six Nations would take in the present war 
against Great Britain. Buffalo: Printed and sold by S. H. & 
H. A. Salisbury — sold also at the Canandaigua and Geneva 
Bookstores. 18 12. i6mo. pp. 31. 

The first book printed in Buffalo, and the only book or 
pamphlet known to the present compiler with a Buffalo im- 
print of earlier date than 1818. It is reproduced entire, in fac- 
simile, in Vol. IV., Buffalo Historical Society Publications. 
That society owns one of the two known copies. 

Fac-simile of title-page on p. 557. 


Claws and the Clauses. . . . Buffalo, 181S. 

Known only through a sale-catalogue entry, as above. 

[Thacher (Rev.) Samuel Cooper.] The Unity of God: a Sermon, 
delivered in America, September, 181 5. Third American edi- 
tion. Buffalo: Printed by Carpenter & Salisbury. 181S. i6mo. 
pp. 24. 

By Rev. Samuel Cooper Thacher of Boston. The first edition 
was printed in Boston, 1817; the preface to the second edition, 
(reprinted in the 3d) is dated Worcester, Mas<.. May, 1817. 
Why it was reprinted in Buffalo is not apparent. 

\ 82a 

Report in the Senate, of the Committee appointed to enquire and 
make report relative to the accounts of Daniel D. Tompkins 
with this State. March 9, 1S20. Buffalo: Printed by H. A. 
Salisbury. 1820. 8vo. pp. 24. 


Memorial, f Without title-page: a petition to the New York Leg- 
islature, signed by residents of the County of Niagara, asking 
that the terminus of the Erie Canal be fixed at the mouth of 
Buffalo Creek. Dated at end:] Niagara County, December, 
1820. Svo. pp. 8. 

Presumably printed in Buffalo, which is referred to as "this 
place." The memorialists, whose names are not printed, review 
the legislative action regarding the canal to date, and make a 
strong argument in favor of building the canal to Buffalo, and 
not stopping it, as they feared might be done, at Tonawanda. 


Moulton, Joseph W. An Address delivered at St. Paul's Church, 
Buffalo, on the anniversary celebration of the Niagara and Erie 
Society for promoting Agriculture and Domestic Manufactures, 
the 30th day of October, 1S21. By Joseph W. Moulton, Esq.. 
corresponding secretary. Buffalo : Printed by D. M. Day, and 
H. A. Salisbury, 182 1. Svo. pp. 36. 


Patching. Tallcl't. A Religious Convincement and Plea, for the 
Baptism and Communion of the Spirit, and that which is of 
Material Bread, Wine and Water rejected as Jewish Rites; both 
unprofitable, and the cause of great division among Christians. 
Also, some remarks on the abuse, use and misapplication of the 
Scriptures ; and the Ecclesiastical Succession refuted ; whereby 
the rite to ordain by the laying on of hands is lost ; besides not 
necessary to qualify a Gospel Minister. By Tallcut Patching. 
[Qnot. 7/.] Buffalo: Printed for the author, by H. A. Salis- 
bury. 1822. i2mo. pp. ix-457. 

Advertisement at end: "A copy of this book may be had, by 
applying to the author, in Boston, Erie County, N. Y. Com- 
munications by letter must be postpaid. Applicants shall be sup- 
plied as soon as possible. Remittance will be expected when the 
book is delivered. — Price $1." 

[Porter, (Gen.) Peter B.] Documents, relating to the Western 
Termination of the Erie Canal ; with Explanations and Re- 
marks. Published by direction of "the Black Rock Harbor 
Company." Black Rock: Printed by Lewis G. Hoffman. 1822. 
Svo. pp. 60. 

Fac-simile of title-page on p. 559. 
\ 823. 

Documents and brief remarks, in reply to the pamphlet written by 
General Porter, and published by direction of the Black Rock- 
Harbor Company, at Albany, in December, 1822. and at Buffalo 
in January. 1823. By the Buffalo Harbor Committee. Buffalo: 
Printed by David M. Day. 1823. Svo. pp. 47. 
Fac-simile of title-page on p. 561. 





At the Village of Buffalo, on the 6th and 8lh days 
of July, 181'2, 



Indian Agent, 


One of the Principal Chiefs and Speakers 
of the Se.vaca Nation, 


X® at* 



Printed and sold by S H & H A. SALISBURY 

— sold also at the Canandaigua and Geneva 





Harris. (Rev.) T. S. and Young, J. O en ad o geh tech' soah Koy 
a noh' soah, na na Nonoandowoh'gan Neucnooh'dea. Hymns, 
in the Seneca Language. By T. S. Harris and J. Young. Buf- 
falo: Printed by David M. Day. 1823. i6mo. pp. 32. 

Seneca and English on alternate pages. The representation 
of Seneca sounds by English syllables is only approximate, and 
not so true to the spoken speech as in the books printed by the 
Rev. Asher Wright, whose study of the language was much 
more thorough and scientific than that made by Messrs. Harris 
and Young. 

Fac-simile of title-page on p. 563. 

Todd, Lewis C. Compendium of Universalism, or the Articles of 
Union, Faith and Practice, of the Universalian Church in Chau- 
tauque, explained and confirmed with notes. By Lewis C. Todd. 
[Texts. 5 lines.] Buffalo: Printed by H. A. Salisbury. 1823. 
i2tno. pp. 71. 

Fac-simile of title-page on p. 565. 


The Apocryphal New Testament, being all the Gospels, Epistles, 
and other pieces now extant, attributed in the first four cen- 
turies to Jesus Christ, His Apostles and their Companions, and 
not included in the New Testament, by its compilers. Trans- 
lated from the Original Tongues and now first collected into 
one volume. From the London Edition. Buffalo: Printed by 
H. A. Salisbury. 1S24. 121110. pp. xi-346. 

Astronomical Calendar, or Western Almanac, for the Year of Our 
Lord 1824: . . . Calculated for the Meridian and Horizon of 
Buffalo. . . . Astronomical calculations by Loud & Wilmarth. 
. . . Buffalo: Published by Oliver Spofford. . . . H. A. 
Salisbury, printer. [1824.] i2mo. pp. 36. 

In this year was also published at Lewiston, where it was 
'"printed and sold, wholesale and retail, by Oliver Grace": ''The 
Niagara Almanac for 1824: (No. 1.) The Astronomical cal- 
culations are made for the Horizon of Niagara Falls. ... By 
Edward Giddins." i2mo. pp. 36. At the Sentinel office in 
Lewiston in tins year was published "A faithful and correct 
report of Several Trials, held at Lockport, before the Honour- 
able William B. Rochester, Circuit Judge for the Eighth Dis- 
trict, State of New York, for the alleged murder of John Jen- 
nings, in the memorable riot of Christmas Eve, 1822, from steno- 
graphic notes, by Francis Collins." 8vo. pp. 52; the fullest his- 
tory, no doubt, of the most famous murder trials in Western 
New York prior to that of the three Thayers. 

Holland Purchase. Minutes of the Holland Purchase Association, 
convened in Sheldon, upon 6th and 7th October, 1824, together 
with their circular and corresponding letter: and the revised 
constitution of the Baptist Domestic Missionary and Indian 




Western Termination 


as® ©Asr&i&s 


\Lxp\anations and Piemarks 








School Society, in the Holland Purchase Association. Buffalo, 
N. Y. Printed by Lazell and Francis. 1824. 8vo. pp. 16. 

The address of Lazell & Francis is given on the last page as 
"No. 5 Cheapside," Buffalo, at which place they published the 
Buffalo Emporium, "designed to be the repository of various 
knowledge — Political — Agricultural — Moral and Religious — 1< 1- 
gether with the earliest intelligence, Foreign and Domestick.'' 
The Emporium was printed weekly at $2 per year. 

\ 825. 

[Ball, S.] Buffalo in 1825 : containing historical and statistical 
sketches, illustrated with a map of the village and view of the 
harbor. Buffalo: Published by S. Ball. H. A. Salisbury, 
printer. 1825. 8vo. pp. 13, [ip; full page copper-plate: "View 
of Buffalo harbor," and folding map, "Ball's plan of the Village 
of Buffalo. Compiled, surveyed, drawn and engraved by and 
for the author, 1825." 

The first "history" of Buffalo, issued in dark blue paper cov- 
ers. One of the most-to-be-prized Buffalo books. 
Fac-simile of title-page on p. 567. 

[Columbian Spelling-Book. . . . Buffalo. 1825.] 

No copy seen. Lazell & Francis advertised it in this year: 
"Now in Press an edition of the Columbian Spelling-Book . . . 
arranged after the pronunciation of Walker and is calculated 10 
supercede the use of Webster's. Parents, guardians and in- 
structors of youth, are respectfully invited to call and examine 
the work." 

[Daboll's Arithmetic. . . . Buffalo. 1825.] 

No copy seen. Lazell & Francis in an advertisement of this 
year, announce that they have just completed the work. 

Pickering, David. A Discourse, delivered at the Universalis! 
Church, in the City of Hudson. N. Y. December 27. 1825. By 
David Pickering. Published by request. From the second 
Hudson edition. Buffalo. Printed by H. A. Salisbury. 1825. 
8vo. pp. 55. 

[Three Thayers.] An Interesting Narrative of the Murder of John 
Love, comprising an account of the detection, and trial, oi the 
murderers, (three brothers,) hanged at Buffalo, June 17. 1825. 
Buffalo: Printed and published by Lazell and Francis. 1825. 
i6mo. pp. 16. 

Grotesque cut of gallows with three bodies, three coffins un- 

[Three Thayers.] Trial of Isaac, Israel. Jr., and Nelson Thayer, 
for the murder of John Love, before the Court of Oyer and 
Terminer, held at Buffalo, X. Y., on the 21st, 22d and 23d oi 
April. 1825; with their Sentence and Confession. Reported by 
a member of the Bar. Printed, published, and sold by, Lazell & 
Francis, No. 5 Cheapside, Buffalo, — at $5 a hundred", 75 cts. a 







Tamptitat written Tvj General T?ortoT 5 








dozen, and 12 1-2 cents single. [Buffalo.] 1825. i2mo. pp. 34, 
[2, ads]. 

On the last page of this pamphlet is an advertisement in part 
as follows: "Lazell & Francis have just completed a good 
edition of Daboll's Arithmetic; and they have now in press an 
edition of the Columbian Spelling-Book." No copy of either 
work has been seen by the compiler. 

[Three Thayers.] Trial of Israel Thayer, Jr., Isaac Thayer, and 
Nelson Thayer, for the murder of John Love, at the Court of 
Oyer and Terminer of Erie County, at the Court House in Buf- 
falo, on the 21st, 22d and 23d days of April, 1825; before his 
Honor, Reuben H. Walworth, Circuit Judge for the Fourth 
Circuit. Including the testimony, arguments of counsel, with 
the substance of the charge to the jury, the sentence of the cul- 
prits, and their subsequent confession of the crime. Reported 
for the publisher, by James Sheldon, counsellor. [Copy right 
secured.] Buffalo: Printed and published by H. A. Salisbury. 
1825. 8vo. pp. 43 [1]. 

Same, "second edition, enlarged," Buffalo : Published by 
Simeon Newbury. H. A. Salisbury, printer. 1825. 8vo. pp. 48. 

[Three Thayers.] The Life, Condemnation, Dying Address and 
Trial of the Three Thayers, who were executed for the murder 
of John Love, at Buffalo, N. Y., June 17th, 1825. Buffalo: 
Printed for the publisher. 1825. 8vo. pp. 15. 

Another pamphlet, to be regarded as a second edition of the 
above, is entitled ''The Life, Condemnation, Dying Address and 
Trial of the three Thayers. [Crude cuts of three coffins.] Who 
were executed for the murder of John Love, at Buffalo, N. Y., 
June 17th, 1S25. Second edition. Boston: Printed by John G. 
Scobie, for the publisher." 8vo. pp. 16. This was Boston, Erie 
Co., N. Y., where several books were printed in the '20's. Still 
another contemporary publication on this cheerful subject was : 
"The Dying Address of the Three Thayers, Who were executed 
for the Murder of John Love, at Buffalo, N. Y., June 17th, 
1825," a folio, the second page headed : "A Sketch of the Life, 
Condemnation, and Death of the Three Thayers, who were 
hanged at Buffalo, on the 17th of June, 1825, for the Murder of 
John Love." The first page bears a rude cut of a gallows with 
three suspended figures, the second page has three coffins. The 
narrative is the same as that contained in "The Life, Condemna- 
tion," etc., and the sheet was presumably printed either in Buf- 
falo or the town of Boston, Erie Co. 

In this year at Tuscarora village, was issued the first edition 
of David Cusick's "Sketches of Ancient History of the Six Na- 
tions," etc., one of the scarcest imprints of the Niagara district. 
Though dated at Tuscarora, it was probably printed at Lewiston. 


Acts of Incorporation and Ordinances, of the Village of Buffalo. 
Buffalo: Printed by Day & Follett. 1826. 8vo. pp. 25. 




^f ono^iv^oYfoh'gau Xcuetiocftv'dfca. 










Butler, Frederick, A. M. A History of the United States of 
America, with a Geographical Appendix, and a chronological 
table of contents. For the use of families and schools. By 
Frederick Butler, A. M. Printed by Lazell & Francis, Buffalo, 
N. Y. 1826. i2ino. pp. 420. 

The book was manufactured in Buffalo, but the title was 
registered in "the District of Connecticut," which fact finds ex- 
planation in the following note : "The editors offer as an 
apology for the long list of Errata, in this work, that the Author 
resides at Wethersfield, Conn. ; a distance of more than 400 
miles from Buffalo ; which rendered it impossible for him to 
examine and correct the proof sheets ; and the Printers were 
not accustomed to read his writing." There are many and 
strange errors in the book ; but, place and date considered, it 
was an ambitious and creditable piece of work. 

Casey, John. Letters, addressed to several philanthropic states- 
men, and clergymen; vindicating Civilized and Christian Gov- 
ernment, in contradistinction to the civilized and Anti-Christian 
Institutions ; to which is subjoined an appendix. By John 
Casey, agent for promoting the establishment of Peace Societies. 
[Qaot. 5/.] Buffalo: Printed by Lazell & Francis. 1826. 
i2mo. pp. iv-144. 

"This Book (agreeably to the Author's proposals) is not to 
be sold, but gratuitously circulated by the Publisher and his 
generous Subscribers, as a free-will offering among all people." 
— Prefatory note. 

Farmer's Calendar or Western Almanac, for the Year of Our Lord 
1826. . . . Calculated for the meridian of Buffalo, Erie County, 
New York. . . . Astronomical calculations by Oliver Loud. 
. . . Buffalo. Published by R. W. Haskins & Co. [1826.] 
i2mo. pp. 36. 

Loud's calculations were the basis of various almanacs, e. g., 
the Western Almanac published at Rochester in 1826, 1827; in 
other years and elsewhere. 

Robinson, John (D. D.) History of England abridged, by John 
Robinson, D. D. Buffalo, N. Y. Published by Lazell & Francis. 
1826. [Engraved title followed by title-page in type:] 

Robinson, John (D. D.). Hume and Smollett abridged, and con- 
tinued to the accession of George IV. By John Robinson, D. D. 
Buffalo, N. Y. Re-published by Lazell and Francis. 1826. Svo. 
PP. 352. 

Fac-simile of title-page on p. 571. 

Rules of the Court of Common Pleas for Erie County. Adopted 
February Term, 1825, Buffalo: Printed by H. A. Salisbury. 
1826. Svo. pp. 16. 

\ 827. 

Casey, John. Universal Peace; being a rational and scriptural 
vindication, of the establishment of permasent and universal 
Peace; upon the immovable basis of Christian Principles. In 









»♦ But we desire tohear of (hee what thou thinkest : for as concerning 
thissect.we know thai every vrhereit is spoken against." — Acts xxviu'J22 

'" But this 1 confess unto thee, that after the vay which theycall hor 
esy, so worship I the God of my fathers, believing aU things which are 
written to the law and the prophets." — Acts xxiv. 14. 

Printed by B. A. Salisbury. 




two volumes. Vol: I. Compiled and published, by John Casey; 
Author of Letters, vindicating civilized and Christian Govern- 
ment, etc. [Quot. 4 1.] Black Rock: Printed by Smith H. 
Salisbury 1827. Vol. I, i2mo. pp. 216. 

Apparently completed in one volume, by using smaller type 
than at first contemplated. 

Eddy, (Rev.) A. D. A discourse, delivered at the dedication of the 
Brick Church, in Buffalo, N. Y., March 28, 1827. By A. D. 
Eddy, pastor of the First Congregational Church, in Canan- 
daigua. Buffalo : Printed by Day, Follett & Haskins. 1827. 
8vo. pp. 25. 

Fac-simile of title-page on p. 573. 

Everett, (Rev.) L. S. A Review, of a pamphlet, entitled, Univer- 
salism, or, the Rich Man and -Lazarus; a sermon, by Thomas 
Lounsbury, A. B., pastor of the First Presbyterian congregation 
in Ovid. By L. S. Everett, pastor of the First Universalist So- 
ciety in Buffalo, N. Y. In two parts. . . . Third Edition. 
Black Rock: Printed by S. H. Salisbury. 1827. 8vo. pp. 24. 

[Holland Purchase.] Proceedings of the Meeting held at Lockport. 
on the 2d and 3d of January, 1827; and of the Convention of 
Delegates from the several counties on the Holland Purchase, 
held at Buffalo, on the 7th and 8th of February, 1827, to con- 
sider the relations subsisting between the Holland Company and 
the Settlers on said Purchase, and to propose some remedy by 
which the condition of the Settlers may be alleviated. Buffalo: 
Printed by Day & Follett. 1827. 8vo. pp. 23. 

Hyde, (Rev.) Jaeez B. A Review of the Minutes and Proceedings 
of the Presbytery of Buffalo, at their special session in that vil- 
lage, October 16, 17 and 18, 1827; for the trial of the Rev. Jabez 
B. Hyde, on charges preferred against him by Rev. T. S. Harris, 
Missionary among the Seneca Indians. To which is added an 
appendix, containing documents referred to in the trial, and ad- 
ditional notes. [Quot. 2 1] Buffalo: H. A. Salisbury, Printer. 
1827. 8vo. pp. 73- 

For note on this work see ante, this volume, p. 273. 

\ 828. 

A Directory for the Village of Buffalo, containing the names and 
residence of the heads of families and householders, in said vil- 
lage, on the first of January, 1828. To which is added a sketch 
of the history of the village, from 1801 to 1828. Buffalo: Pub- 
lished by L. P. Crary. Day, Follett & Haskins, Printers. 1828. 
i6mo. pp. 55 [advts., 5}. Folding map of Buffalo, dated January 
1, 1828. 

Buffalo's first directory. The second did not appear until 
1832. No Buffalo Directories were issued in the vears 1829, "30, 
'3i, '33, '34, '43, '45 or '46. 

Fac-simile of title-page on p. 575. 






mssoHicAS ahi> ssa^ibssca^ sh&tcheb. 





BUFPA&0 : 






1829. / 

Prospectus and internal regulations of the Western Literary and 
Scientifick Academy, at Buffalo, N. Y. Buffalo: Printed by 
Day, Follett & Haskins. 1829. 8vo. pp. 21, [2]. 


[Holland Purchase.] An Address to the Landholders and Inhab- 
itants of the Holland Purchase, on the subject of the Holland 
Land Company's title, and remonstrating against the proceedings 
of a County Convention, held at Buffalo, nth Feb., 1830. Buf- 
falo: Printed by Day, Follett & Haskins. 1830. 8vo. pp. 16. 

[Holland Purchase.] Report of a County Convention of Delegates, 
from the several towns in the County of Erie, held at the Court 
House, in Buffalo, on the eleventh of February, Eighteen Hun- 
dred and Thirty, for the purpose of inquiring into the title of the 
Holland Land Company to the lands claimed by them in this 
State. Buffalo : Republican Press : S. H. Salisbury. 1830. 
8vo. pp. 22. 


An Act to incorporate the City of Buffalo, passed April 20, 1832. 
[Cut: N. Y. coat of arms.] Buffalo: Printed by David M. Day. 
1832. 8vo. pp. 41. 

[Almanac] The Farmer's Almanack, for the Year of Our Lord 
1832; . . . Adapted to the Meridian of Buffalo, Erie Co., N. Y. 
. . . Astronomical calculations by the successor of Oliver 
Loud. . . . Buffalo: R. W. Haskins. [1832.] i2mo. pp. 24. 

The "Buffalo Bookstore" of R. W. Haskins at this date was 
at No. 204 Main Street (old numbering). 

[Almanac] Steele & Faxon's Buffalo Almanac for the Year of 
Our Lord 1832: being bissextile or leap year; and (till July 
4th) the fifty-sixth of American Independence. Calculated for 
the Horizon and Meridian of Buffalo, Erie Co. (N. Y.), but 
will serve for any of the adjoining counties of this State, the 
Province of Upper Canada, or eastern part of Ohio. Contain- 
ing, besides the usual Astronomical Observations, a variety of 
useful and entertaining matter. Buffalo: Printed and sold by 
Steele & Faxon, 214 Main Street. Great allowance made to 
those who purchase by the quantity. 121110. pp. [24]. 

A Directory for the City of Buffalo; containing the names and 
residence of the heads of families and householders, in said city. 
on the first of July, 1832. To which is added a sketch of tlie 
history of the village, from 1801 to 1832. Buffalo: Published by 
L. P. Crary. Steele & Faxon, printers. 1832. 121110. pp. 122. 
[Advts., 8 />/>.] 

The second Buffalo Directory, published in the year of in- 
corporation as a city. 

[Fillmore, Millard.] An Examination of the Question, "Is it 
right to require any Religious Test as a Qualification to be a 


witness in a Court of Justice?" By Juridicus. Buffalo: 
Printed by Charles Faxon. 1832. 8vo. pp. 16. 

"Juridicus" was Millard Fillmore, and the contents of this 
pamphlet first appeared as a series of papers in the Buffalo 
Patriot, during the winter of '31-32. 

Remington (Rev.) David. A sermon, preached at the funeral of 
Deacon Asa Field ; who died at Cayuga Creek, Erie County, 
N. Y. December 6. 1831. Aged 74. By Rev. James Remington. 
Buffalo : Printed by Steele & Faxon. 1832. 8vo. pp. 14. 

White, Seneca. Ki noh shuh, nr wen ne tin, na da wi seM nyo 
qurh. nas hr ne a nent ho yot dub, gr non, no noh ka. do shoo 
WL, da ku, skr a, noh da wen nyer a, seh ne use has he na, tik 
ne, skr a. By Seneca White. Printed at the Republican Press. 
1832. 241T10. pp. 45. 

A book of hymns in the Seneca, but without accents. An 
approximate translation of the title is : "Songs to praise God. 
in the language of the Senecas. Buffalo, the year 1832." 
Fac-simile herewith. 

Ki noh shuh, nr wen ne un, 
na da wi seM nyo qurh. 
nas hr ne a nent ho yot dub, 
gr non, no noh ka. do shoo wl, 
da ku, skr. a, noh da wen nyer a, 
seh ne use has he na, tik ne, skr a. 






Williams, Ara. The Inquirer's Guide to Gospel Truth; or Doc- 
trinal Methodism defended against the assaults of its enemies, 
by Scriptural proofs and rational arguments. By Ara Williams, 
Minister of the Methodist Episcopal Church. [Quot. 2 I.] Buf- 
falo: Printed by Steele & Faxon, for Rev. J. Marsh. 1832. 
i2mo. pp. 324. 

i 833. 

Applebee, Mary. A Narrative of the Wreck of the Schooner New 
Connecticut, on Lake Erie, Sept. 4th, 1833. Together with an 
account of the miraculous preservation of Mrs. Alary Applebee, 
[who was] confined in the cabin five days ! the schooner being 
for the greater part of the time immersed in water. Buffalo : 
[. . . 1833?] 8vo. pp. 14. Cut of vessel in middle of title-page. 
Bracketed portions of title as given above, conjectured, the 
only copy seen being torn. Mrs. Applebee dates her narrative 
"Aurora, Oct. 1, 1833," and the pamphlet was no doubt printed 
soon after. Her adventure is one of the most remarkable in the 
annals of the lakes. 

Laws and ordinances of the Common Council of the City of Buf- 
falo, re-enacted July 19, 1833. Published by order of the Com- 
mon Council. Buffalo: Printed by David M. Day. 1833. 8vo. 
PP- 32. 

Taylor, C. B. A Universal History of the United States of 
America, embracing the whole period, from the earliest discov- 
eries, down to the present time. Giving a description of the 
Western Country, its soil, settlements, increase of population, 
&c. In three parts. By C. B. Taylor. Buffalo, N. Y. Published 
by Ezra Strong. Stereotyped by James Conner. 1833. i2mo. 
PP- 534» vi. Twenty-three woodcuts, all preceding the title-page. 
It is probable that the plates were made in New York, but 
the work was issued in Buffalo in the year named, substantially 
bound in sheep. The woodcuts, among them ''Buffalo, N. Y., 
burned by the British, Dec. 30th, 1813," are curios. 


[Almanac] Steele's Buffalo Almanac for the Year of Our Lord 
1834. . . . i2mo. pp. 24. 

Only copy seen with incomplete title-page. 

By-Laws of the Medical Society of the County of Erie: together 
with the Laws of the State of New York, relative to the Medical 
Profession, and System of Medical Ethics. Published for the 
Society. Buffalo: Charles Faxon, printer. M. DCCC XXXIV. 
8vo. pp. 41. 

[Holland Purchase.] An Appeal to the People of the State of New 
York; being a Report of the Executive Committee of a Con- 
vention of Delegates from the several counties within the Hol- 
land Purchase, held at Buffalo the I9th-20th February, 1834. 
Buffalo: Charles Faxon, printer. 1834. 8vo. pp. "2. 





S.SCn. •• !"»••. 




Martyn, (Rev.) J. H. A Narrative of the origin and progress of 
the First Free Congregational Church, in Buffalo, New York : 
with an account of their late protracted meeting. By J. H. 
Martyn, pastor of said church. Buffalo: Printed by H. A. 
Salisbury. 1834. 8vo. pp. 16. 

Ingraham, Joseph Wentworth. A Manual for the use of visiters 
[sic] to the Falls of Niagara: intended as an epitome of, and 
temporary substitute for, a larger and more extended work, 
relative to this most stupendous Wonder of the World. By Jo- 
seph Wentworth Ingraham. [Quot. 4 L] Buffalo: Printed for 
the author, by Charles Faxon. Sold by O. G. Steele, T. Butler, 
and A. W. Wilgus. 1834. i6mo. pp. 72. 

The first guide-book to Niagara Falls was published in 1834, 
though for many years the travelers' hand-books and tour-books 
had contained a good deal relative to the Niagara region, both 
historical and descriptive. Horatio A. Parsons published a Ni- 
agara guide in this year, and claimed it was the first book of the 
kind. Ingraham's book appeared in July, and was the outcome 
of studies he had begun in 1833. It was a thoroughly original 
work, not the least useful feature being a list of 135 works which 
he had consulted, ranging in date from 1660 to 1833 — the first 
bibliography of the Niagara region. He contemplated a larger 
work, which it does not appear was ever published. On the 
paper covers of his Manual he gave additional data and cor- 
rected many errors in the work due to haste. Some copies con- 
tain an inserted leaf facing the title-page, bearing a "Postscript — 
Eureka!" dated Niagara Falls, July 17, 1834, in which Mr. 
Ingraham reports the first exploration of the Cave of the Winds 
— to which he gave that name — on July 15th, by Geo. W. Sim? 
and B. II. White. "Yesterday Mr. Sims again entered it, with 
Messrs. J. R. Snyder and C. R. Howe; and today (reader, do 
you not congratulate me?) I had myself the great gratification of 
gaining access to this 'locus foetus furcntibus austris' accom- 
panied and assisted (for no one could do it alone) by Messrs. 
Sims and Snyder, and S. Whitney, son of Gen. W. . . . The 
possibility of entering this cavern with safety, having now been 
satisfactorily settled. Judge Porter is having a path cut down to 
it." Ingraham is best known as a lecturer and writer on Pales- 
tine, illustrator of the geography of the Bible, etc. In the "ad- 
vertisement" of the Niagara "Manual," dated "Niagara Falls, 
July 1, 1834," Mr. Ingraham says: "I would have had this little 
tract printed on better paper, if it could have been procured in 
this vicinity; but it may add some interest to the book, in the 
eyes of visitors, to be informed, that the paper on which it is 
printed, was manufactured at the Falls; and the waters of the 
Niagara, therefore, are intimately blended with its every fibre." 

Seaver. James E. and Wright. (Rev.) Asher. The Interesting 
Narrative of Mary Jemison, who lived nearly seventy-eight years 
among the Indians. [Buffalo, 1834.] i2mo. pp. 36. 

Only copy known (library of present compiler) lacks title- 
page, but has display heading as above on p. 1. The narrative is 








mww AW* sr> ^ 8 

MARCH 28, 1827. 


Pastor of the First Ccngpregationo) Church, In CaDandaigvs 





Seavers, much abbreviated from the original edition (Canan- 
daigua, 1824). Mr. Wright adds about half a page, on Mary 
Jemison's removal from Gardcati to the Buffalo Creek Reserva- 
tion, her conversion to Christianity, death and burial, September. 
1833. This abridgement by Mr. Wright, apparently the rarest 
of all the editions, was reprinted, with wonderful woodcuts, by 
Miller & Butterfield, Rochester, 1840. 

\ 835. 

An Act to Incorporate the City of Buffalo, passed Apr. 20, 1832. 
Buffalo, H. A. Salisbury, 1835. Svo. pp. 34. 

Laws and Ordinances of the Common Council. . . . Buffalo, H. A. 
Salisbury, 1835. ^> vo - PP- 37- 

A Directory for the City of Buffalo; containing the names and 
residence of the heads of families and householders, in said city, 
on the first of June, 1835. L. P. Crary, publisher. Buffalo : 
Charles Faxon, printer. 1835. I2tno. pp. 139. [Advts. 16.J 

Buffalo's third Directory. As usual in old publications the 
advertisements are one of the most interesting and historically 
valuable features. 

Parsons, Horatio A. A Guide to Travelers visiting the Falls of 
Niagara, containing much interesting and important information 
respecting the Falls and vicinity, accompanied by maps. By 
Horatio A. Parsons, A. M. Second edition greatly enlarged. 
Buffalo : Published by Oliver G. Steele. Charles Faxon, 
printer. 1835. 181110. pp. 96. Two maps on one folding sheet. 

No copy of the first edition of this work, if indeed there is 
an earlier one, known to the present compiler. In the present 
edition the "Advertisement" states that it was first published in 
1834; if so. it may contest with Ingraham's Manual for priority 
in this field of literature. Parsons says: "The plan of pub- 
lishing such a manual was formed eight years ago, and most of 
the materials were then collected and arranged ; but for various 
reasons it was not published till the year 1834. though it was the 
first book of the kind that had ever been published respecting the 
Falls. Most of the first edition was sold in the course of three 
months last season." The effort to forestall any claim to priority 
that might be made by or for Ingraham, is obvious. 

Sheltox, (Rev.) William. The High Influence of Noble Minds 
and Liberal Institutions. A discourse, delivered at the first 
meeting of the Young Men's Association, on the 18th of March. 
i$35- [Quot. //.] By William Shelton, A. M. Rector of St. 
Paul's Church, Buffalo. Buffalo: Charles Faxon, printer. 1S35. 
i2mo. pp. 24. 

[SheltOxV. (Rev.) William. ] Address delivered before a large 
assembly of Citizens of Buffalo, convened for the purpose of 
promoting the Interests of Temperance. Buffalo: Printed by 
H. A. Salisbury. 1S35. 121110. pp. 12. 

This publication, tne address which it contains, by the rector 
of St. Paul's, and the public meeting which it records, stand for 












FROM 1801 TO 1828. 


Dijr, Folleu'lc Haskini, Printer*. 




an early — perhaps the earliest — general movement to promote 
the cause of temperance in Erie County and Buffalo. The ad- 
dress was originally given on February 10, 1835. On March 3d 
a committee consisting of Thos. C. Love, N. P. Sprague, Vy'm. 
Ketchum, S. G. Austin, J. C. Meeks, A. Eaton and D. Bowen 
was named, at a citizens' meeting. They induced Mr. (he was 
not then "Dr.") Shelton to repeat the address and announced 
their purpose "to publish and distribute a copy thereof to every 
family in the County of Erie." 

i 836* 

Annual report of the Sailors' and Boatmen's Friend Society, pre- 
sented June 9, 1836; with an account of the formation of the 
American Bethel Society, and a statement of the plan of Bethel 
operations upon the inland waters. Buffalo, N. Y. T. & M. 
Butler. 1836. 8vo. pp. 24. 

The president of the Sailors' and Boatmen's Friend Society 
at this date was Heman B. Potter, who succeeded Hiram Pratt, 
Orlando Allen being treasurer and the Rev. Stephen Peet, cor- 
responding secretary. 

Articles of Agreement and Association, of the Michigan City Land 
Company. Buffalo: Printed for the Company. Day, Stagg & 
Cadwallader, Prs. 1836. 121110. pp. 12. 

Samuel Wilkeson was the only Buffalonian whose name ap- 
pears as a stockholder. 

[Black Rock.] A concise view of Black Rock, including a map and 
schedule of property, belonging to the Niagara City Association. 
with a description of and boundaries of the same, and the ar- 
ticles of agreement, forms and regulations of the Niagara City 
Association, and the Black Rock Land and Railway Company. 
Black Rock. 1836. i6mo. pp. 92. 

Large folding map (24 by 34 in.) of "the Village of Black 
Rock as surveyed and drawn by Henry Lovejoy for the Black 
Rock Land & Rail Road Co. May 1836," etc. It locates old Fort 
Adams, the river batteries and other points connected with the 
War of 1812. Of great value in many respects. Some copies 
appear to have been bound up without the map. An exceedingly 
scarce volume. 

Colman, (Rev.) Henry. A sermon at the dedication of the Inde- 
pendent Congregational Church, in Meadville, Penn. August 
20, 1836. By Henry Colman. Buffalo : Press of Oliver G. 
Steele. 1836. 8vo. pp. 27. 

[Chapin, Cyrenius.] Chapin's Review of Armstrong's Notices of 
the War of 1812. Black Rock: D. P. Adams, printer — Advo- 
cate office. 1836. 8vo. pp. v-50. 

Constitution and By-Laws of the Young Men's Association of the 
City of Buffalo. Buffalo: Press of Oliver G. Steele, 1830 
i2mo. pp. 22. 

A Directory for the City of Buffalo ; containing the names and 


residence of the heads of families and householders, in said city, 
on the fii>t of May, 1836. L. P. Crary, publisher. Buffalo : 
Charles Faxon, printer. 1836. i2mo. pp. 162, [advts. 28]. 

Among other features it contains a chronological list of the 
principal events of the War of 1812 on the Niagara Frontier, the 
Constitution of the Young Men's Association, and an illustration 
and description of a monument to Com. Perry which it was pro- 
posed to erect in Buffalo, of white marble, 100 feet high sur- 
mounted by a statue of Perry fifteen feet in height. This project 
reached the stage of committees, and apparently stuck there. 

[Erie Canal.] Review of the Pamphlet of "Oswego," against the 
intended enlargement of the Erie Canal. By Equal Rights. Buf- 
falo: Printed by Day, Stagg & Cadwallader. 1836. 8vo. pp. 21. 
Page 3, in the only copy seen (B. H. S. library), is blank, but 
the text is complete, reading from page 2 to 4. 

Eyre, John. The Beauties of America. By John Eyre [Quot. j/.] 
Buffalo: Printed for the author [Steele's Press]. 1836. i2mo. 
pp. iv-72. 

The introduction dated "Shelby, Aug. 27, 1836." The body 
of the book is a series of letters, August, 1834, to December, 
1836, including several dated at Batavia, Royalton, Newark, 
Manchester (Niagara Falls), Buffalo, etc. A long account of 
Niagara Falls is given, mainly from Father Hennepin and "The 
Book of Niagara Falls." The author saw strange things in 
Buffalo, e. g., "a young woman with an uncommon affliction in 
one leg. ... It was considerably larger in circumference than 
my body with my clothes included and as I understood meas- 
ured round a yard and a quarter." (p. 66.) Eyre was the au- 
thor of a well known volume of "Travels," etc.. New York, 1851. 

Hawley, Seth C. An Address delivered before the Young Men's 
Association of the City of Buffalo, on the evening of March 22, 
1836. By Seth C. Hawley, President of the Association. Buf- 
falo : Press of Oliver G. Steele. 1836. 8vo. pp. 20. 

Parsons, Horatio A. The Book of Niagara Falls. By Horatio A. 
Parsons, A. M. Third edition, carefully revised and enlarged. 
Accompanied by maps. Buffalo: Oliver G. Steele. 1836. i6mo. 
pp. in [1]. 

Two maps on one folding sheet : "Map of Niagara River 
and parts adjacent," and "Map of Niagara Falls and Vicinity," 
both by H. A. Parsons. 

[Rathbun, Benj.] Deeds of Assignment. Benjamin Rathbun, to 
Hiram Pratt, Lewis F. Allen. Joseph Clary, Thomas C. Love 
and Millard Fillmore. Recorded in Erie County Clerk's Office, 
August 2d, 1836. . . . [Buffalo, 1836.] i2tno. pp. 17. 

[Rathbun, Benj.] Plan of an Association of the creditors of B. 
Rathbun. . . . Daily Commercial Advertiser — Extra. Press of 
Salisbury, Manchester & Co. Buffalo, Nov. 1. 1836. 8vo. pp. 20. 

Steele's Western Guide Book, and Emigrant's Directory, containing 
different routes through the States of New York, Ohio. Indiana. 


Illinois and Michigan, with short description of the Climate, 
Soil, Productions, Prospects, &c. Fifth Edition. Greatly im- 
proved and enlarged. Buffalo: Published by Oliver G. Steele. 

1836. i6mo. pp. 108. 

No other edition of this well-made little volume has been 
seen by the compiler. 


An Act to incorporate the City of Buffalo, passed April 20, 1832. 
Buffalo: Press of Day, Stagg & Cadwallader, Printers to the 
Corporation. 1837. 8vo. pp. 8, 34, [Laws and Ordinances:] 
40, vi. 

The Act of Incorporation, and By-Laws of the Mechanics' Society 
of Buffalo. Passed April, 1836. Buffalo: Press of Oliver G. 
Steele. 1837. i2tno. pp. 12. 

A Catalogue of Books in the Library of the Young Men's Associa- 
tion of the City of Buffalo. Founded 22d February, 1836. In- 
corporated March 3d, 1837. Buffalo : Press of Oliver G. Steele. 

1837. 8vo. pp. 42. Last two pages wrongly numbered. 

Childs, (Rev.) Ward. Five Sermons on Sanctification. By Rev. 
Ward Childs, Pastor of the Church at Strykersville. Published 
by request of said church. Buffalo : Printed at the Spectator 
office. 1837. 8vo. pp. 32. 

Constitution and By-Laws of the Apprentices' Society to which is 
annexed a catalogue of books comprising their library. Buffalo : 
Printed by David L. Wood. 1837. i6mo. pp. 17. 
The library numbered 435 volumes. 

Davis, Robert. The Canadian Farmer's Travels in the United 
States of America, in which remarks are made on the Arbitrary 
Colonial Policy practiced in Canada, and the free and equal 
rights and happy effects of the liberal institutions and astonish- 
ing enterprise of the United States. By Robert Davis. Buffalo: 
Printed for the Author. [Steele's Press.] 1837. i2mo. pp. 
107, [1]. 

A Directory for the City of Buffalo ; containing the names and 
residence of the heads of families, householders, and other in- 
habitants, in said city, on the 1st of May, 1837. Published by 
. Mrs. Sarah (widow of the late L. P.) Crary. Buffalo: Printed 
by Charles Faxon. 1837. i2mo. pp. 143, [advts. 19]. 
Mrs. Crary was Buffalo's first woman publisher. 

[Erie Canal.] Proceedings of the Convention, upon the subject of 
an immediate enlargement of the Erie Canal; held at the court- 
house in Rochester, on the 18th and 19th days of January, 1837. 
Buffalo: Charles Faxon, printer. 1837. 8vo. pp. 28. 

Irving, on Lake Erie. Buffalo: Charles Faxon, printer. 1837. 
i2mo. pp. 43. 

A cover-title onlv. 


[Rathbun, Benj.] In Chancery, before the Chancellor. Hiram 
Pratt, Joseph Clary and Lewis F. Allen, Complainants, vs. Ben- 
jamin Rathbun and his Creditors, Defendants. . . . Buffalo, 
1837- Sm. 4to. pp. [99]. 

Contains the petition of the complainants, the deed of assign- 
ment, and schedules of property, etc. 

Rector, (Rev.) N. D. A Short Account of the Life, Experience, 
Call to the Ministry, and Exclusion of N. D. Rector. To which 
is added, some proceedings of the benevolent associations of the 
day, from their own records. . . . Boston, (Erie Co.). Pub- 
lished by the Author. Day, Slagg & Cadwallader, Prs. Buffalo. 

1837. 8vo. pp. 67. 

Steele's Western Almanac for the Year of Our Lord 1837: being 
the first year after Leap Year; and of American Independence 
till July 4th, the sixty-first. Calculated for the Meridian of 
Western New York. . . . Astronomical calculations by Wil- 
liam W. M'Louth. Buffalo: Published by T. & M. Butler. 
1836. i2mo. pp. 24. 

[Young Men's Association.] First Annual Report of the Executive 
Committee of the Young Men's Association of the City of Buf- 
falo. Reported and adopted Feb. 8, 1837. Buffalo: Press of 
Oliver G. Steele. 1837. 8vo. pp. 13. 


By-Laws of Red Jacket Fire Company. [No. 6. Portrait of Red 
Jacket.] Buffalo: Steele's Press. 1838. i6mo. pp. 8. 

Clay, Henry. Speech of the Hon. Henry Clay. Buffalo, March 
23, 1838. 8vo. pp. 22. 

Buffalo Co)nmercial Advertiser Extra. The speech was on 
the banking system, delivered in the U. S. Senate, Feb. 19, 1838. 

A Directory for the City of Buffalo; containing the names and 
residence of the heads of families and householders, in said city, 
on the , first day of May, 1838. Leonard P. Crary, publisher. 
Buffalo: Printed by Charles Faxon. 1838. i2mo. pp. 150. 
[Advts. 18.] 

"The publication of the Buffalo Directory is not a source of 
profit to its author; all works which have preceded the present 
volume have been an actual loss." — Publisher's Introduction. 

The Independent Treasury: Abstract of a bill to impose additional 
duties, as depositaries, upon certain public officers, &c. Together 
with the speech of the Hon. bilas Wright, Jr., of the Senate, in 
support of the bill ; also, the report of the Committee of Ways 
and Means of the House of Representatives, on the Currency. 
Buffalo: Printed by Charles Faxon, No. 156, Main Street. 

1838. Svo. pp. 59. 

A Buffalo Daily Star, Extra. 

Lord, (Rev.) John C. Errors in Theory, Practice and Doctrine. 
A Sermon, delivered before the Synod' of Genesee, at their an- 


' nual meeting at Buffalo, October 10, 1838. By John C. Lord, 
A. M. Pastor of the Pearl-Street Church, Buffalo. Buffalo: 
Press of Day & Steele. 1838. 8vo. pp. 24. 

Lord, (Rev.) John C. The Popular Objections of Infidelity, stated 
and answered in a series of lectures addressed to the Young 
Men of Buffalo. By John C. Lord, A. M., Pastor of the Pearl 
Street Presbyterian Church. Buffalo: Published by Steele & 
Peck. 1838. i6mo. pp. 223. 

Pierce, Maris B. Address on the present condition and prospects 
of the aboriginal inhabitants of North America, with particular 
reference to the Seneca Nation. By M. B. Pierce, a Chief of the 
Seneca Nation, and a member of Dartmouth College. [Buffalo:] 
Steele's Press. 1838. 8vo. pp. 16. 

Remington, William A. [The Battle of Black Rock, Jan. 12, 
1838. By William A. Remington.] 

A long poem, reprinted, with notes, in Cyrus K. Reming- 
ton's "Souvenir and Historical Sketch," etc., q. v. No copy of 
original known. 

Report of the Trustees and Managers of the Society established in 
the City of Buffalo, for the relief of Orphan and Destitute Chil- 
dren, as read in the First Presbyterian Church, Dec. 27, 1837 ; 
together with official documents illustrating the past history and 
present condition of the asylum founded by said society. Buf- 
falo : Press of Oliver G. Steele. 1838. 8vo. pp. 30. 

Rules for the Government of the Sunday School of Trinity Church. 
Buffalo. Buffalo: Stagg & Cadwallader, City Printers. 1838. 
i2mo. pp. 12. 

Statement of the Financial Transactions of the Banking Firm of 
Truscott, Green & Co., of Toronto, in connection with Green, 
Brown & Co. of New York; and Brown, Buckland & Co. of 
Buffalo. Buffalo, July 1838. Buffalo: 183S. Svo. pp. 28. 

Steele's Western Almanack, for the Year of Our Lord 1838. . . . 
[Cut of lake vessel.] Astronomical calculations by William W. 
M'Louth. Buffalo: Published by Steele & Peck. Steele's 
Press. l2mo. pp. 24. 

[Upper Canada Rebellion.] The Trial of General Th. J. Sutherland, 
late of the Patriot Army, before a Court Martial convened at 
Toronto on the 13th day of March. A. D. 1838 ... on the 
charge of having, as a citizen of the United States, levied war in 
the Province of Upper Canada against Her Majesty the Queen 
of Great Britain, &c. With his Defence, and other documents. 
Buffalo: Press of Oliver G. Steele. 1838. Svo. pp. 87. 

[Y. M. A.] Second Annual Report of the Executive Committee 
of the Young Men's Association, of the City of Buffalo, with the 
by-laws, list of officers, and act of incorporation. Buffalo: 
Press of Oliver G. Steele. 1S38. Svo. pp. 23. 



[Buffalo Baptist Association. . . . Report. 1839. 8vo.] 
Fragment only seen, Buffalo Public Library. 

Charter of the City of Buffalo : with the several amendments : to 
which are added the Laws and Ordinances of the City of Buf- 
falo. Revised, Jan. 1839. Published by order of the Common 
Council. Buffalo: Press of Thomas & Co. No. 165 Main St. 
1839. 8vo. pp. 93. 

Laws and Ordinances of the City of Buffalo. Revised, Jan. 1839. 
Published by order of the Common Council. Buffalo: Press of 
Thomas & Co. No. 165 Main Street. 1839. 8vo. pp. 103. 

De Veaux, S. The Falls of Niagara, or Tourist's Guide to this 
Wonder of Nature, including notices of the Whirlpool, islands, 
&c. And a complete Guide thro' the Canadas. Embellished 
with engravings. By S. De Veaux. Buffalo : William B. 
Hayden. Press of Thomas & Co. 1839. i6mo. pp. 168 [1]. 

Front, "Map of Niagara River" ; full-page views : "Niagara 
Falls from the American side, near the Ferry staircase"; "Burn- 
ing of the Steamboat Caroline" ; "Niagara Falls, from Canada 
near the Clifton -House"; "View of Brock's Monument, Queens- 
ton Heights." 

[Directory.] For 1839-40. The Buffalo City Directory; contain- 
ing a list of the names, residence and occupation of the heads 
of families, householders, &c. on the first of May, 1839. Faxon & 
Graves and A. W. Wilgus, publishers. Buffalo: Printed by 
Faxon & Graves. 1839. i2tno. pp. 144. [Advts. 12.] 

Grimes, J. Stanley. A New System of Phrenology. By J. Stanley 
Grimes. President of the Western Phrenological Society, at Buf- 
falo. \Quot. 3 1.] Buffalo: Oliver G. Steele. New York- 
Wiley & Putnam. 1839. i2mo. pp. 320. 

Front, diagram, lithographic plates, and small cuts in text. 

Haskins, Rowell WTllson. History and Progress of Phrenology. 
. . . Buffalo 1839. 

Not seen by compiler; title from British Museum catalogue. 

Lord, (Rev.) John C. "Pride, fulness of Bread, and abundance of 
Idleness. The Prominent Causes of the Present Pecuniary Dis- 
tress of the Country. A sermon, delivered at the Pearl Street 
Church, on Sabbath, October 27, 1839. By John C. Lord, A. M., 
pastor of said church. Buffalo: Press of Thomas & Co. No. 
165 Main Street. 1839. 8vo. pp. 20. 

Nichols, Thomas L. Address delivered at Niagara Falls, on the 
evening of the twenty-ninth of December, 1838. the anniversary 
of the burning of the Caroline, by Thomas L. Nichols. Buffalo: 
Printed by Charles Faxon. 1830. Svo. pp. 14. 
A Mercury & Buffalonian Extra. 

Remington. (Rev.) David. A Sermon occasioned by the death of 
Henry Snyder, who died at Lancaster, N. Y., January 6, 1839. 


Aged 20 years and 10 months. By Rev. James Remington. Buf- 
falo: Press of Thomas & Co. No. 165 Main Street. 1839. 8vo. 
PP- M- 
A summary declaration of the faith and practice of the Washington 
street Baptist Church of Christ, in Buffalo, N. Y. Buffalo: 
Press of Thomas & Co. 1839. i6mo. pp. 15. 

[Y. M. A.] Third Annual Report of the Executive Committee 
of the Young Men's Association of the City of Buffalo. With 
the by-laws, list of officers, and act of incorporation. Buffalo : 
Press of Thomas & Co. No. 165 Main Street. 1839. 8vo. pp. 24. 

[Nichols, Thomas L.] Vindication of the so-called "Clique."' 
Published by order of the Executive Committee. Buffalo. 1839. 
i2mo. pp. 24. 


Anecdotes of the Emperour Napoleon, and His Times. From the 
most approved French authorities. Edited by an American. 
Buffalo: A. W. Wilgus, 203 Main Street. 1840. i2mo. pp. 

Probably the work of R. W. Haskins. 

[Chautauqua Co. Schools.] First Annual Report of the Chautauqua 
County Common School Institute, held at a meeting of the So- 
ciety in Fredonia, January 1, 1840. By B. J. Seward, Chairman 
of the Executive Committee. Buffalo : Printed at Steele's 
Press. 1840. 8vo. pp. 24. 

[Directory.] For 1840. Buffalo City Directory; containing a list 
of the names, residence and occupation of the heads of families 
householders, &c, on the first of May, 1840. Faxon & Grave*, 
publishers. Horatio N. Walker, compiler. Buffalo: Faxon & 
Graves, printers. 1840. 121110. pp. 178, [advts. 16]. 

[Harrison Glee Club.] A new collection of songs, glees and 
catches. Arranged and sung, by the Harrison Glee Club. Buf- 
falo: Published by the club. Press of Thomas & Co. 1840. 
i6mo. pp. 36. 

The members of the Harrison Glee Club were: George W. 
Houghton, Thomas B. Chase, James .11. Kimberk-y, William A. 
Remington. William Fiske. Lambert S. Reynolds, John S. Put- 
nam, Calvin F. S. Thomas. Some of the songs (original) are 
of local character, e. g. "Come Lockport Whigs.'' sung by the 
club at a Whig concert at Lockport, beginning : 

Come, Lockport Whips, give us your paws, and tell us how you do; 
We hail from sister Buffalo, to sing Whig songs with you. 
We'll hear you sing, or hear you speak, or shouts of triumph send 
With you in cheers of victory, to Harry of North Bend; 
A brave old gentleman is he. 

Our future President. 

Hosmek, George W. An address delivered before the Erie County 
Common School Education Society, at Buffalo. N. Y., February 
3, 1840. By George W. Hosmer. Buffalo: Printed at Steele's 
Press. 1840. 8vo. pp. 23. 


Hymns for the use of Sabbath Schools. Published by the Buffalo 
Sabbath School Teachers Association. [Quot. 2 /.] Buffalo: 
Steele's Press. 1840. 24mo. pp. 24. 

The schools at that time connected with the association were 
the First Presbyterian. Washington Street Baptist, Methodist 
Episcopal, Pearl Street, Park, Protestant Methodist, Bethel, 
Elk Street, Erie Street, South Division Street, Union on Goodell 
Street, Cold Spring, Black Rock, Black Rock lower village, and 

[I. O. O. F.] Charter, Constitution, By-Laws and Rules of Niagara 
Lodge, Number 25, of the I. O. O. F. Adopted the 26th of De- 
cember, 1839. Buffalo: George Zahm, German and English 
printer. 1840. i2mo. pp. 24. 

Legend of the Whirlpool. [Quot. 2 I.] Buffalo: Press of Thomas 
& Co. 1840. i6mo. pp. 24. Front, folding map of Niagara Falls, 
and guide table. 

Contains a prose description of the Whirlpool, a poem, the 
"Legend," of 46 8-line stanzas, a part of which was published in 
the United States Magazine, Oct. 1839; and four pages of notes. 

Nichols, Thomas L. Journal in Jail, kept during a four months' 
imprisonment for libel, in the jail of Erie County. [Cut, prison 
bars.] By Thomas L. Nichols. Buffalo: A. Dinsmore. 1840. 
i2mo. pp. 248. 

For some account of this book and its author, see Buf. Hist. 
Soc. Pubs. Vol. IV, p. 371. Also, "Bibliography of Upper Canada 
Rebellion," Buf. Hist. Soc. Pubs., Vol. V. p. 476. Nichols was 
the author of several books, an incomplete list of which is given 
in Sabin. 

[Schools.] Third Annual Report of the Superintendent of Com- 
mon Schools, of the City of Buffalo. For 1839. Filed February 
1, 1840. Buffalo: Printed at Steele's Press. 1840. 8vo. pp. 
12, [1]. 

Report made by O. G. Steele. 

Steele's Book of Niagara Falls. Seventh edition, carefully revised 
and improved. Illustrated by maps of the Falls and immediate 
vicinity, and of the Niagara River, from Lake Erie to Lake On- 
tario, and six new views. Buffalo: Oliver G. Steele. 1840. 
i6mo. pp. 109, [1]. 

Lithographed illustrations and two maps on folded sheet. A 
note on last page tells of the blowing up of Brock's monument 
"by some as yet unknown miscreants on the night of the 17th 
April 1840." 

[Y. M. A.] Fourth Annual Report of the Executive Committee 
of the Young Men's Association of the City of Buffalo. Buf- 
falo: Press of Thomas & Co., No. 165 Main Street. 1840. 8vo. 
pp. 14. 



Allyn, William G. Allyn's Exchange Tables, designed to furnish 
the public with an accurate set of calculations for computing 
Profit and Loss. Interest and Exchange. ... By William G. 
Allyn. . . . Buffalo: Faxon & Read, and Robt. D. Foy. 1841. 
Roy. 8vo. pp. 180. 

An Appeal to the Citizens of Buffalo, and of the County of Erie, in 
behalf of new and more efficient means of medical relief for the 
Sick Poor. Buffalo: Press of Thomas & Co. 165 Main Street. 
1841. 8vo. pp. 24. 

Clinton, George W. Address of George W. Clinton, Esq., deliv- 
ered before the Young Men's Temperance Society of Buffalo, 
March, 6th, 1841. Buffalo: Printed by Frechette & Scheffer, 
No. 9, Ellicott-Square. 1841. 8vo. pp. 10. 

A "Morning Times — Extra." "The meeting convened in the 
Eagle St. Theatre upon the occasion on which the preceding ad- 
dress was delivered (in pursuance of a request of the society) 
was one of the largest and most enthusiastic ever held in this 
city. The large edifice was fuller than upon any former occa- 
sion, notwithstanding a snow storm almost unprecedented here, 
was raging at the time, and nearly a hundred ladies were in at- 
tendance." "About a hundred names" were added to "the 

Confessions of Major McKellory, and John Johnson, together with 
a sketch of their lives, and the letters addressed to Mrs. Otis, 
and the sister of McKellory. Also, the Sentence of Death, pro- 
nounced by Judge Dayton. Buffalo: Printed for the publisher. 
1841. 8vo. pp. 12. 

The story of a brutal murder in the town of Concord, Erie 
Co., N. Y. Johnson, a negro, who was hanged for killing his 
wife, in Buffalo, stated in his confession that he was on the 
Washington when she burned in Lake Erie, and also on the 
Caroline, when she was set afire at Schlosser's in December, '37. 
He escaped, and is credited with saving the life of Mr. Wells, 
owner of the Caroline. 

Constitution and Bye-Laws of the Young Men's Temperance So- 
ciety of the City of Buffalo, organized Thursday. February 18th. 
1841. Buffalo: Printed by Frechette & Scheffer. No. 9, Ellicott- 
Square. 1841. 8vo. pp. S. 

[I. O. O. F.] Constitution and By-Laws of Tehoseroron Lodge 
Number 48 I. O of O. F. of the State of New York, held in the 
City of Buffalo, by authority of a charter from the Grand Lodge 
of the State of New York. Instituted Dec. 28, 1840. Buffalo: 
Printed af Steele's Press. 1841. i2mo. pp. 24. 

De Veaux, Samuel. The Travellers' Own Book, to Saratoga 
Springs, Niagara Falls and Canada, containing routes, distances, 
conveyances, expenses, use of mineral waters, baths, description 
of scenery, etc. A complete guide, for the valetudinarian and 
for the tourist, seeking for pleasure and amusement. With 


maps and engravings. By S. Dc Veaux. [Quot. 2 1.\ Buffalo: 
Faxon & Read. 1841. 161110. pp. 258. 

Folding map, "Niagara Falls and adjoining shores," opp. 
title-page; "Map of Saratoga," opp. p. 51 ; 4 full-page views, 
and small woodcuts in text. 

[Directory.] 1841. Crary's Directory for the City of Buffalo. The 
65th year of American Independence. Containing a list of 
banks, insurance offices, associations, societies, &c, &c. With 
the names, residence and occupation of the heads of families, 
householders, &c, on the first of June, 1841. Faxon & Read, 
publishers. C. W. Graham, compiler. Buffalo : Faxon & 
Graves, printers. 1841. i2mo. pp. 195. [1, advts. 4.] 

Pp- 37-7 l in the body of the book are also advertisements. 

Flint, Austin (M. D.) An Address delivered before the Buffalo 
Young Men's Temperance Society, Thursday evening, April 1, 
1841. By Austin Flint, M. D. To which are added the Consti- 
tution of the Society, and a list of the members. Buffalo: Press 
of Thomas & Co.. 165 Main-Street. 1841. 8vo. pp. 40. 

Frost, P., cd. The Western Juvenile Harp. Designed for Sabbath 
and other Scnools. Selected and arranged by P. Frost. Buf- 
falo: Salisbury & Clapp, Printers, Exchange Buildings. 1841. 
32mo. oblong, pp. 48. 

FIaskins. R[oswf.ll] W[illson] [Astronomy for schools]. Buf- 
falo, A. W. Wilgus, 1841. 

Not seen by compiler; mentioned in British Museum cata- 

Hymns for the use of Sabbath Schools. Published by the Buffalo 
Sabbath School Teachers Association. [Quot. 2 /.] Second 
edition, improved. Buffalo: Steele's Press. 1841. 24mo. pp. 24. 

[Marvin, Fe Grand.] Expose of the 'Scene at the Court .House,' 
in Buffalo, January 18. 1839. on the trial, at the Erie Circuit, of 
the cause Edward Kellogg & Co. vs. O. H. Dibble & Co. With 
an Appendix, touching an indictment of P. B. at the Erie Oyer 
and Terminer, in October, 1834. Buffalo: Press of Robt. D. 
Foy. 159 Main Street. 1S41. 8vo. pp. 96. Folding diagrams of 
streets and lots. opp. p. 55. 

One of Le Grand Marvin's eccentric pamphlets. The "P. B." 
mentioned in the title was Philander Bennett, indicted for al- 
leged false swearing in a suit brought by Asa Marvin against 
Bennett and William Williams for an alleged deficiency in a 
block of land sold by Bennett to Asa Marvin, between Water, 
Le Couteulx and Fly streets, and westerly line of outer lot No. 1 
in the city of Buffalo, the statement being illustrated by dia- 
grams. The cause of Kellogg & Co. vs. Dibble & Co. was to re- 
cover the amount ot\a promissory note. Not the least interest- 
ing feature of the work is the list of names of the jurors, and 
the witnesses, 24 for the plaintiff and 17 for the defendant. 

Schism the Offspring of Error, illustrated in Historical Sketches 
of the Presbyterian Church of Warsaw, Genesee Co., N. Y. By 


a committee of the church. [Quot. 3 I.] Buffalo: Press of 
Robt. D.; Main St. 1841. 8vo. pp. 26. 

[Schools.] Fourth Annual Report of the Superintendent of Com- 
mon Schools of the City of Buffalo, for 1840. Filed March, 
1841. Buffalo: Press of Thomas & Co. 165 Main-Street. 1841. 
8vo. pp. 8. 

Made by Silas Kingsley, who had been Superintendent for 
but a few weeks at the date of the report, March 12, 1841. 

[Seneca Mission Press.] Ne Jaguh'nigo'ages'gwathah. . . . The 
Mental Elevator. lUiffalo Creek Reservation. . . . 1841. 8vo. 
Size of printed page, 6 by 31-2 in.; pagination continuous 
throughout the parts, 144 pp. in all. 

The unique journal, prepared and printed chiefly in Seneca, 
by the Rev. Ashcr Wright. No. 1 was issued Nov. 30, 1841, and 
the succeeding numbers as follow: Nov. 30 and Dec. 28, 1841 ; 
Mch. 2, Apr. 27, July 12, Dec. 29, 1842; Apr. 22, 1843; Mch. 21, 
and Apr. 1, 1845, all to this date printed at the Mission House 
on the Buffalo Creek Reservation. The succeeding issues were 
published at Cattaraugus: June 3, Nov. 17, Dec. 24 and 31, 
1&46; Nov. 9, Dec. f 4 , and 22, 1848; Jan. 27, 1849 (misprinted 
1848) ; April 15, 1850. The last number contains laws of the 
Senecas, passed 1847-48, and a calendar for 1850. In the earlier 
numbers appear chaps. 1-9 of Genesis, parts of Exodus, the 
epistle of James, and miscellaneous articles in Seneca and Eng- 
lish. Beginning with the issue of Dec. 29, 1842, the paper had 

a headpiece, engraved by Van Duzee, showing a pulpit 

and open Bible, a church, and two small landscapes, one with an 
Indian hunting, the other with white men pointing to a village 
with spire-crowned church. 

[Steele, Oliver G.] Report of the select committee of the Common 
Council, on the subject of the Harbour and Business of the City 
of Buffalo, Made t.» the Common Council June 1, 1841. Buffalo: 
Printed at Steele's Press. 1841. 8vo. pp. 16. 

Report written by O. G. Steele; signed by R. Sears, O. G. 
Steele and E. G. Spaulding. An admirable sketch of the early 
years of lake commerce and the growth of Buffalo harbor busi- 

Strong. Nathaniki. T. Appeal to the Christian Community on the 
condition and prospects of the New York Indians, in answer to 
a book, entitled I he Case of the New York Indians, and other 
publications of the Society of Friends. By Nathaniel T. Strong. 
a chief of the Seneca tribe. Buffalo: Press of Thomas & Co. 
No. 165 Main- Street. 1841. 8vo. pp. 63. 

[Y. M. A.] Fifth Annual Report of the Executive Committee of 
the Young Men's Association of the City of Buffalo. Steele's 
Press. Buffalo: 1 S 4 r . 8vo. pp. 16. 


[Directory.] 1842. Walker's Buffalo City Directory, containing a 
list of civil, naval ami military officers, religious, benevolent and 


philanthropic societies, local and miscellaneous statistics, &c, 
&c. In the County of Erie, with the names, residence and occu- 
pation of the business population, heads of families, &c. in the 
City of Buffalo, on the ist of June, 1842. [Quot. 3 I.] By Hora- 
tio N. Walker. Population — 1825 . . . 2,412. 1830 . . . 6,353. 
/ 1840 . . . 18,222. Buffalo: Steele's Press. 1842. i2mo. pp. 
220, [1, advts. 50, 4]. 

A great advance over its predecessors. Xo Directory was 
issued in the following year. 

Haskins, R[os\vell] W[illson] (A. M.). A Popular Essay upon 
.Comets. By R. W. Haskins, A. M. Author of "Astronomy for 
Schools." [Quot. 3 /.] Buffalo: A. W. Wilgus. 1842. i2mo. 
PP- 24. 

Hymns for the use of Sabbath Schools, published by the Buffalo 
Sabbath School Teachers Association. [Quot. 2 1.] Fifth edi- 
tion, improved. Buffalo : Press of Salisbury & Clapp. 1842. 
241x10. pp. 32. 

The Old Faith and the Good Way, an Expose of the Doctrine and 
Discipline of the Presbyterian Church explaining the difference 
between the doctrines of the Old and New School. By a com- 
mittee of the late Caledonia Presbytery, now constituting the 
Presbyteries of Steuben and Wyoming. Containing a statement 
— 1. Of the doctrines they hold, 2. The state of their churches. 
3. The more efficient supervision of them by Presbytery. Buf- 
falo: Press of Robt. D. Foy, 159 Main-St. 1842. 8vo. pp. 24. 

Pictorial Guide to the Falls of Niagara: A Manual for Visiters 
[sic], giving an account of this stupendous natural wonder; and 
all the objects of curiosity in its vicinity; with every historical 
incident of interest: and also full directions for visiting the 
cataract and its neighboring scenes. Illustrated by numerous 
maps, charts, and engravings, from original surveys and designs. 
The illustrations designed and engraved by J. W. Orr. Buffalo : 
Press of Salisbury and Clapp. 1842. i6mo. pp. 2^2. 

[Schools. 1 Fifth Annual Report of the Superintendent of Common 
Schools, of the City of Buffalo. For 1841. Filed February r, 
1842. Buffalo: Printed at Steele's Press. 1842. Svo. pp. 10, [2]. 

[Seneca Mission Press.] Go wana gwa' ih sat hah Yon de'yas Dah' 
gwah. A spelling-book in the Seneca language : with English 
definitions. Buffalo-Creek Reservation, Mission Press. 1842. 
Svo. pp. 112. 

In its way one of the most interesting and scholarly works, 
as it is one of the rarest, ever published in Buffalo. Following 
the title-page is an "explanation for English readers," eight 
pages, in which the system of spelling Seneca is explained. The 
author, the Rev. Asher Wright, says: "It is not to be supposed 
that with our imperfect knowledge of Seneca, we have discov- 
ered and marked accurately all the peculiarities of the language. 
It is sometimes also very difficult to decide on the correct usage, 
where there are differences of pronunciation among the Indians. 
In such cases we have sought for the pure Seneca in contradis- 


tinction from the idioms of Mohawk, Cayuga, Onondaga, &c, and 
for Seneca as spoken by the old men. whose habits were formed 
previous to the introduction of English ideas, and modifications 
of ideas, among the people." It contains "the definition of sev- 
eral hundred Seneca words and a tolerably complete explana- 
tion of the grammatical principles of the language except the 
verb. In respect to verbs no complete analysis has yet been ef- 
fected; nor is there much reason to expect the accomplishment 
of this object until some competent Seneca scholar shall become 
a universal grammarian." The author speaks of the difficulty 
occasioned through lack of type with proper accents, and lack 
of money to procure it. The alphabet, with the sounds of the 
letters explained, fills p. 9; pp. 10-112 are progressive lessons, 
advancing from words of one syllable to the construction of 
sentences, and an exposition of the grammar of the language. 
The Seneca title as printed above does not show all the accents 
of the original. 

The West Vindicated. A review (in part) of the address of General 
James Tallmadge, before the American Institute, Oct. 26, 1841. 
By a Western New Yorker. Steele's Press, Buffalo. 1842. 8vo. 
pp. 24. 

By an ardent champion of the Erie Canal, who vigorously 
maintains that its commerce was not declining. Valuable for its 

Wilgus' Farmers' Almanack, for the year of our Lord 1842 . . . 
calculated for the meridian of Buffalo, New York. . . . Astro- 
nomical calculations by George R. Perkins, A. M., of Utica. Buf- 
falo: Published by A. W. Wilgus. 1842. i2mo. pp. [24]. 

[Young Men's Association.] By-Laws, &c, of the Young Men's As- 
sociation of the City of Buffalo. March, 1842. 8vo. pp. 12. 

Press of Salisbury & Clapp. Only copy seen lacking title-page. 

[Y. M. A.] Sixth Annual Report of the Executive Committee of 
the Young Men's Association of the City of Buffalo. Buffalo: 
Press of Salisbury & Clapp. 1842. 8vo. pp. 16. 

[Young Men's Bible Society.] Second Annual Report, of the Young 
Men's Bible Society of the City of Buffalo. With the Constitu- 
tion, list of officers, &c. Buffalo: Printed by Robt. D. Foy,— 159 
Main Street. 1842. 8vo. pp. 16. 

J 843. 

[American Bethel Society.] Seventh annual report of the American 
Bethel Society, presented at the annual meeting held in the City 
of Buffalo, June 7th, 1843. Buffalo : Press of Robt. D. Foy, 159 
Main-Street. 1843. 8vo. pp. 28. 

[Buffalo Baptist Association.] Minutes of the twenty-eighth anni- 
versary of the Buffalo, formerly Holland Purchase Baptist As- 
sociation, held with the Baptist Church in Hamburgh, on the 
13th and 14th of September, 1843. Buffalo: Printed by A. W. 
Wilgus. 1843. 8vo. pp. 12-h 


Incomplete copy, Buffalo Public Library. The Minutes for 
1844 were printed by Edwin Hough at Springvillc. 

By-Laws and Ordinances of the City of Buffalo. Enacted, 1843. 
Published by order of the Common Council. Buffalo: Press of 
George Zahm. 1843. 8vo. pp. 62. 

Free Almanack, for the Year 1843. • • • [Buffalo:] Steele's Press. 
i2mo. pp. 24. 

G[rabau], J A. A. Unterweisungs-Buchlein fur die deutsche 
Yugend in ihrer Muttersprache, von einem wohlmeinenden 
Freunde dcr Yugend. Buffalo, Gedruckt und zu haben bei Geo. 
Zahm. 1843. i6mo. pp. 98+. 

So far as known, the first book printed in Buffalo in German. 
The only copy seen, owned by Rev. John N. Grabau of Buffalo, 
is incomplete, but apparently lacks only one or two pages at the 

A broadside, or poster, printed by Zahm in 1843 : "Programm 
der Feierlichkeiten bei der Einweihung der Evangelisch-Luther- 
ischen Kirche zu Buffalo, den 25ten Mav, 1843," etc., is owned 
by Rev. J. A. W. Kirsch, Buffalo.^ 

Harvey, (Dr.) Charles W. Popular Directions for the manage- 
ment and preservation of the teeth. By Dr. Charles W. Harvey, 
dentist. Buffalo: Printed by A. 3VI. Clapp. 1843. i6mo. pp. 24. 

Haskins, R[oswell] W[illson] (A. M.j. New England and the 
West. By R. W. Haskins, A. M. Reprinted from the Boston 
(Mass.) Atlas. Buffalo: A. \V. Wilgus. 1843. 8vo. pp. 36. 

A series of eight letters, written from Buffalo in October and 
November, 1842. They discuss the commerce and commercial 
prospects of Buffalo, give statistics of the commerce of the town, 
1815-1827, others from the census of 1840, and, more fully, for 
1841. The author made an intelligent study of the mutual rela- 
tions of East and West, and ventured some interesting predic- 
tions as to the future of Buffalo. 

Hopkins, (Rev.) A. T. The American Patriot. A discourse deliv- 
ered on the day of the Annual Thanksgiving, December 8, 1842, 
before the united congregations of the First and Park Churches, 
in the City of Buffalo. By A. T. Hopkins, pastor of the First 
Presbyterian Church. Buffalo : A. M. Clapp, printer. 1843. 
8vo. pp. 20. 

H[ulett] T[iiomas] G. Every Man his Own Guid" to the Falls of 
Niagara, or the whole story in few words. By T. G. H., a resi- 
dent at the Falls. Third edition, enlarged and embellished with 
engravings. To which is added a chronological table, containing 
the principal events of the late War between the L T nited States 
and Great Britain. Also, a Legend of the Manitou Rock, at the 
Whirlpool: The Recession of Niagara Falls, by Professor 
Lyell. Buffalo: Printed by Faxon & Co. 1843. l6mo. pp. 58, 
[4]. 48. 

Two maps, one folding, 4 woodcuts. The "Legend of the 
Manitou Rock," with full title-page, was also issued separately. 


Lord, (Rev.) John G, (D. DJ. The Doctrine and Order of the 

Presbyterian Church or the points of difference between the Old 
and New School. A sermon by Rev. John C. Lord, D. D. Pub- 
lished by request of the session of the First Old School Presby- 
terian Church in Buffalo, and the Presbytery of Wyoming. Buf- 
falo : Press of Robt. D. Foy, 159 Main-street. 1843. 8vo. pp. 24. 

Revised Charter of the City of Buffalo: Passed April 17, 1843, 
published by order of the Common Council. To which are added 
the Laws and Ordinances. Buffalo : Press of George Zahm. 
1843. 8vo. pp. 80. 

S[mith], S. C. A Legend of the Manitou Rock. [Quot. 2 /.] By 
S. C. S. Containing also Professor LyelTs lecture upon the Re- 
cession of Niagara Falls. Printed by Faxon & Co. 1843. i6mo. 
pp. 48. 

[Schools.] Sixth Annual Report of the Superintendent of Common 
Schools, of the City of Buffalo. For 1842. Filed February 1, 
1843. Buffalo: Printed at Steele's Press. 1843. 8vo. pp. 10, [1]. 
Report made by S. Caldwell, Superintendent. 

[Seneca Mission Press.] Gaa nah shoh ne De o waah' sao'nyoh 
gwah na' wen ne' yuh . . . [rest of title missing in only known 
copies]. [Buffalo: Seneca Mission Press: 1843.] i6mo. pp. v. 
[1], 136. 

The above fragmentary title from a copy found in the corner- 
stone of the old building at the Thomas Orphan Asylum on the 
Cattaraugus Reservation, erected 1S55, torn down 1901. The 
book, with other examples of the Mission Press, has been re- 
deposited in the box of the cornerstone of the new building. The 
only other known copy (Buf. Hist. Soc.) lacks the title-page. 
'"To English readers." pp. iii-v., is a key to the vowel sounds in 
the Seneca, with an anecdote of Old White Chief; pp. 7-124, in 
hymns in Seneca, and doxologies ; pp. 123-136, index, analytical 
and explanatory, in English. Mrs. Asher Wright, in a note 
found with the Thomas Orphan Asylum copy, says this is the 
second edition of the Seneca Hymn Book. 

Smith, (Rev.) S[tephen] R. Historical Sketches and Incidents, il- 
lustrative of the establishment and progress of Universalism it: 
the State of New York. By S. R. Smith. Buffalo: Steele's 
Press. 1843. i6mo. pp. 248, [2]. 

By the Rev. Stephen R. Smith, for many years pastor of the 
Universalist Church in Buffalo. This work was followed by an- 
other volume of similar title, designated "second series," in 
1848, q. v. 

Wait, Benjamin. Letters from Van Dieman's (sic) Land, written 
during four years' imprisonment for political offenses in Upper 
Canada. By Benjamin Wait. [Quot. 2 L] Embodying, also, let- 
ters descriptive of personal appeals in behalf of her husband, and 
his fellow prisoners ... by Mrs. B. Wait. Buffalo: A. W. 
Wilgus. 1843. i6mo. pp. vi., 356. Front, post, folding map of 
Van Dienifn's Land. 


See "Bibliography of Upper Canada Rebellion," Buf. Hist. 
Soc. Pubs., Vol. V., p. 492. 

Wilkeson, (Hon.) Samuel. The subject of a Work House for the 
County of Erie discussed and considered. By Honorable Samuel 
Wilkeson. Buffalo: A. M. Clapp, printer, Exchange Buildings. 
1843. 8vo. pp. 26. 

Papers that originally appeared in the Buffalo Commercial 
Advertiser. Prefatory note by H. W. Rogers. 

[Y. M. A.] Seventh Annual Report of the Executive Committee of 
the Young Men's Association of the City of Buffalo. Buffalo: 
Press of C. F. S. Thomas, No. 146 Main-Street. 1843. 8vo. pp. 15. 

\ 844. 

Bush, (Mrs.) Mary A. Hymns original and selected for maternal 
meetings. [Quot. 4 I.] By Mrs. Mary A. Bush. Buffalo: Press 
of A. M. Clapp. 1844. i6mo. pp. 128. 

[Directory.] 1844. Walker's Buffalo City Directory, containing a 
list of civil and military officers, religious, benevolent and phil- 
anthropic societies, local and miscellaneous statistics. With the 
names, residence and occupation, of the business population, 
heads of families, &c, in the City of Buffalo. Lat. 42 50' — Lon. 
79 22'. [Quot. 3 /.] By Horatio N. Walker. Population, Aug. 
1st, 1844 — 26.503. Buffalo: Lee & Thorp's Press. 1844. i2mo. 
pp. 236, [r, advts 14, index 2, calendar 2]. 

The next Buffalo Directory issued was for 1847. 

Haskins, R[os\vell] \V[illson] (A. M.). The Arts, Sciences, and 
Civilization, anterior to Greece and Rome. (Read before the 
Young Men's Association, Buffalo, Feb. 12, 1844.) By R. W. 
Haskins, A. M. [Quot. 2 1] Buffalo: A. W. Wilgus, 1844. 
8vo. pp. 32. 

Hayes, George E. Organization and Diseases of the Teeth : with 
familiar directions for preserving their health and beauty. [Quot. 
2 I.] By Geo. E. Hayes, dentist, corner of Main and South Di- 
vision Streets. Buffalo : Steele's Press. 1844. i6mo. pp. 80. 

H[ulett], T[homas] G. Every Man his Own Guide to the Falls of 
Niagara, or the whole story in few words. Enlarged and embel- 
lished with engravings. To which is added a chronological table, 
containing the principal events of the late war between the United 
States and Great Britain. By T. G. H., a resident at the Falls. 
Fourth edition. Buffalo: Printed by Faxon & Co. 1844. i6mo 
pp. 128. 

[I. O. O. F.] Constitution, By-Laws and Rules of Buffalo Lodge, 
No. 37, I. O. of O. F. Chartered, May 6, 1840. By-laws and rules 
as amended and adopted Jan. 2. 1844. [Motto and cut, three links 
and eye.] Buffalo : Printed by Lee & Thorp. 1844. i6mo. 
pp. 28. 

Schools of Buffalo. Second semi-annual exhibition in singing at the 
Park Church. Saturday evening, June 22, 1844, at 7 o'clock. 


Francis Hazelton. Teacher. [Buffalo, 1844. Thos. Newell, 
printer, 171 Main-Street.] i6mo. pp. 8. 

[Schools.] Seventh Annual Report of the Superintendent of Com- 
mon Schools, of the City of Buffalo, for 1843. Filed February r, 
1844. Buffalo: Printed at Zahm's Press. 1844. 8vo. pp. 16, [2]. 

[Seneca Mission Press.] Extracts from the Revised Statutes of the 

State of, New York, volume I, part T, chapter xx, title viii. Of 

the prevention and punishment of immorality ami disorderly 

practices. [Buffalo: Seneca Mission Press.] 1844. i6mo. pp. 16. 

Wholly in English. 

Steele's Almanack for the year 1844 . . . [cut, sheaf of wheat.] 
Astronomical calculations by Geo. R. Perkins, Professor of Ma- 
thematics, Utica, N. Y. Sold by O. G. Steele, 206 Main Street, 
Buffalo. Steele's Press. i2mo. pp. 24. 

Steele's Niagara Falls Port-folio, containing eight new views of 
Niagara Falls taken from the most striking points. Also, a fac- 
simile of a view taken by Father Hennepin in 1678. Lithographed 
by Hall & Mooney. Buffalo: Steele's Press. 1844. 
No text. The views are 5 by 7 inches in size. 

[Trial of Rev. Asa T. Hopkins.] Introduction containing the cor- 
respondence between the Sessions of Mr. Hopkins's and Dr. 
Lord's Churches. Also the letter of Dr. Lord to the Committee 
on Investigation. . . . n. p. [1844.] 8vo. pp. 9. 

Issued without title-page, as an appendix to some other publi- 

Trial of the Rev. Asa T. Hopkins, Pastor of the First Presbyterian 
Church, Buffalo, before a special meeting of the Buffalo Presby- 
tery; Commencing October 22, and ending October 31, 1844. 
. . . [Buffalo, 1844.] 8vo. pp. 39. 

"First published in the Buffalo Daily Gazette, for which it was 
specially reported."' 

[Y. M. A.] Eighth Annual Report of the Executive Committee of 
the Young Men's Association of the City of Buffalo. Buffalo: 
Press of C. F. S. Thomas. No. 146 Main-st. 1844. 8vo. pp. 16. 


[American Bethel Society.] Ninth Annual Report of the American 
Bethel Society, presented at the annual meeting held in the City 
of Buffalo, Wednesday. June 4, 1845. Buffalo: Press of Charles 
E. Young. 1845. 8vo. pp. 2S. 

''Bristol's Free Almanac for 1845. Astronomical calculations made 
expressly for this Almanac, by George R. Perkins, A. M., of 
Utica, which are guaranteed to be as perfect and complete as any 
published in the United States. Buffalo : Thomas, General Job 
Printer, Exchange Buildings, Main Street. [1845.] 8vo. pp. 32. 
Bristol's Free Almanac for 1843 was published at Batavia by 
Lucas Seaver. 


Claims of Reuben B. Heacock, on the Government of the United 
States, for property destroyed by the enemy, in the Late War. 
Buffalo: Printed by Manchester & Brayman. 1845. 8vo. pp. 20. 

Clinton, Georc.e W. Address, delivered by George W. Clinton, 
D. P. C. R., at the dedication of Erie Tent, No. 30, I. O. of R. in 
the City of Buffalo, Friday, October 24, 1845. Mercy and Truth 
are met together. [Quot. 2/.] Buffalo: Press of C. E. Young 
1845. & vo - PP- 16. 

[De Veaux, Samuel.] The Travellers' Own Book, to Saratoga 
Springs. Niagara Falls & Canada . . . By S. De Veaux. [Quot. 
2 /.] Fifth edition. Buffalo: Faxon & Co. 1845. i6mo. pp. 251. 
Folding map of Niagara Falls, one of Saratoga, woodcuts. 

Das Evangel ium St. Matthai, von D. Martin Luther, in das Teutscht 
ubersetzt. Nach clem Wittembergischen Druck von 1545 abge- 
druckt, als ein christlich Lesebiichlein fur diejenigen kleinen 
Schul-kinder. welche die christliche Schul-Fibel durchgelesen 
haben, und genug darin geubt sind. Buffalo, Druck und Verlag 
von Georg Zahm, 1845. 241110. pp. 160. 

Only copy seen, in possession of Rev. John N. Grabau of 

Inventory of Assets of the City Bank of Buffalo, to be sold at auc- 
tion at the Merchants' Exchange in the City of Buffalo, on 
Wednesday, the 12th Day of November. 1845. . . . Buffalo. 
1845. 8vo. pp. 32. 

An interesting reminder of the financial reverses of an early 
Buffalo institution. The copy of this publication owned by the 
Buffalo Historical Society formerly belonged to Albert S. Merrill. 
and it was his hand, no doubt, that added in pencil, throughout 
the pamphlet, the amount realized on the various items of assets 
at the auction. In the list of discounted notes and bills appears 
the following: "Daniel Webster, acceptance of draft of D. F, 
Webster, payable at the Phoenix Bank. N. Y.. to his own order ; 
due and protested 4th August, 1839, $2,000." This sold to T. M. 
Burt for S200. Another Webster draft for $1250 sold to Mr. Burt 
for $100. 

[Mosher, (Rev.) E.] Awful Disclosure! Murderers exposed: 
Death-bed confession; Death-bed confession and renunciation of 
the Right Rev. Bishop McMurray, Bishop of St. Mary*s Roman 
Catholic Church, Montreal. Canada, who died Aug. nth, 1845. 
[Quot. 2/.] . . . Printed for and published by Rev. E. Mosher. 
Buffalo, N. Y. 1845. 8vo. pp. 32. 

New York Form Book, and Interest Tables ; containing complete 
forms for the transaction of all the routine of business between 
man and man, requiring the execution of papers, together with 
the statutory provisions relating thereto; also complete interest 
tables, discount tables, scantling and timber measure, cubical con- 
tents of square timber, &c, &c. Buffalo: Oliver G. Steele. 1S45. 
121110. pp. 132, 53. 

Peck's Tourist Companion to Niagara Falls. Saratoga Springs, the 
Lakes, Canada, etc. Containing, in addition to full directions for 


visiting the cataract and vicinity, the springs, etc., full tables of 
routes and distances from Niagara Falls to the principal places in 
the United States and Canada. Illustrated by numerous engrav- 
ings, maps and charts, from original designs and surveys. Buf- 
falo : William B. & Charles E. Peck. 1845. i6mo. pp. 194. 
Valued for its fine maps, engraved by Carson, Albany. 

[Schools.] Eighth Annual Report of the Superintendent of Com- 
mon Schools, of the City of Buffalo. For 1844. Filed Feb- 
ruary 1, 1845. Buffalo: Printed by Clapp & M'Credie, Ex- 
change Buildings, 4th story. 1845. 8vo. pp. 17, [3]. 
Elias S. Hawley, Superintendent. 

[Walker, (Hon.) Jesse.] Fort Niagara, a tale of the Niagara 
Frontier. Buffalo. Steele's Press. 1845. i6mo. pp. 156. 

The author, Judge Jesse Walker, speaks in a prefatory note of 
a "series of little books proposed to be published under the gen- 
eral title of 'Tales of the Niagara Frontier'." None were issued 
except the "Fort Niagara" and "Queenston," q. v. Written for 
children, they combine fact and fiction in a mildly instructive and 
diverting fashion. 

[Walker, (Hon.) Jesse.] Queenston, a Tale of the Niagara Fron- 
tier. Buffalo: Steele's Press. 1845. i6mo. pp. 151. 

Sometimes bound up with his "Fort Niagara," the "Queenston" 
being Part I, the "Fort Niagara" Part II. 

W'heeler, Clark. The Apiarian's Directory: or, practical remarks 
on the economical, advantageous, easy, and profitable manage- 
ment of bees : to accompany and explain the New York hive. 
By Clark Wheeler, Little Valley, Cattaraugus County, N. Y. 
[Cuts, 3 bees.] Buffalo: Press of Charles E. Young. 1845. 
i6mo. pp. 64. Folding sheet of diagrams. 

[Y. M. A.] Ninth Annual Report of the Executive Committee, of 
the Young Men's Association, of the City of Buffalo. Buffalo: 
Printed by Clapp & M'Credie, Exchange Buildings, 4th story. 
1845. 7vo. pp. 12. 

Allyn's Exchange Tables, designed to furnish . . . calculations for 
computing Profit and Loss, Interest and Exchange. ... By 
William G. Allyn. . . . Buffalo. Faxon & Co. 1846. Roy. 8vo. 
pp. 180. 

Identical, except for imprint, with the work as issued in 1841. 

Articles of Association of the Buffalo Copper Mine Company, en- 
tered into at Buffalo, April 27, 1846. Butralo. Clapp & M'Credie, 
printers. 1846. 8vo. pp. 8. 

Barton, James L. Lake Commerce. Letter to the Hon. Robert 
M'Clelland, chairman of the Committee on Commerce, in the 
United States' House of Representatives in relation to the value 
nnd importance of the commerce of the Great Western Lakes. 
By James L. Barton. Buffalo : Press of Jewett, Thomas & Co. 
Commercial Advertiser office. 1846. 8vo. pp. 34. Folding table. 


This reached at least a third edition, "with additional notes," 
in 1846. 

Bristol's Free Almanac for 1846. . . . Buffalo. . . . 8vo. pp. 32. 
Only copy seen with torn title-page. 

[Buffalo Baptist Association.] Minutes of the thirty-first annual 
session of the Buffalo Baptist Association, held with the Baptist 
Church in Auroia, on the 8th, 9th and 10th of September, 1846. 
Buffalo: A. W. Wilgus, printer. 1846. 8vo. pp. 16. 

The Minutes for 1847 were printed by Edwin Hough at 

[Buffalo Orphan Asylum.] Tenth annual report of the Board of 
Trustees of the Buffalo Orphan Asylum. Submitted at the an- 
nual meeting, June 9, 1846. Buffalo: Press of C. E. Young. 
1846. i2mo. pp. 12. 

Clinton, (Hon.) George W. Constitution and By-Laws of the Buf- 
falo Horticultural Society together with the Reports of the Ex- 
hibitions during the season of 1845. To which is appended, the 
address at the Annual Fair oy Hon. G. W. Clinton. Published 
by direction of the Society. Buffalo: Press of Jewett, Thomas & 
Co. Commercial Advertiser Office. 1846. 8vo. pp. 16. [1], 13. 

Clinton, (Hon.) George W. An Address delivered before the Buf- 
falo Horticultural Society at its first annual fair. Wednesday, 
September 3, 1845. By George W. Clinton. Published by direc- 
tion of the Society. Buffalo : Press of Jewett, Thomas &: Co. 
Commercial Advertiser Office. 1846. 8vo. pp. 13. 

[Clinton, ( Hon.) George W.] Sketches of Niagara Falls and 
River. By Cousin George. Illustrated with numerous engrav- 
ings and correct maps. Buffalo: Published by Wm. B. & Chas. 
E. Peck. Exchange Buildings, Main-Street. 1846. Sq. i2ino. 
pp. 142, [1], Six full-page views of Niagara on tinted paper, 
small cuts in text. 

Written by George W. Clinton. Though published by the 
Pecks, the book was printed by Jewett, Thomas & Co. 

Correspondence relative to the necessity and importance of estab- 
lishing a Workhouse in the County of Erie. Published by order 
of the Board of Supervisors. Buffalo: Printed by Charles E. 
Young. 1846. 8vo. pp. 2(3. 

Haskins, R[os\vell] W[illson] (A. .V. ). An Exposition of a book 
published by D. Appleton & Co.. called Hazlitt's Translation of 
Guizot's History of Civilization. By R. W. Haskins. A. M. 
[Quot.2l.] Buffalo: Steele's Press. 1846. 8vo. pp. 55. 

Houghton, Jac6b. The Mineral Region of Lake Superior: com- 
prising its early history, those parts of Dr. Douglass Houghton's 
Reports of 1841 and '42, relating to the Mineralogy of the Dis- 
trict; . . . accompanied by die corrected map of the Mineral 
Agency Office, and a Chart of Lake Superior. By Jacob Hough- 
ton, Jr. Buffalo: Oliver G. Steele. 1846. i6mo. pp. 191. Two 
maps on one large folding sheet. 


Lord, (Rev.) John C. (D. D.). The Progress of Civilization and 
Government. A lecture delivered by the Rev. J. C. Lord, D. D., 
before the Young Men's Association of Buffalo, Dec. 14 1846. 
8vo. pp. 8. 

A "Commercial Advertiser — Extra." 

McLeod, Donald. History of Wiskonsan, from its first discovery to 
the present period. Including a geological and topographical de- 
scription of the territory with a correct catalogue of all its plants. 
By Donald McLeod, Buffalo. Steele's Press. 1846. i2ino. pp. 

Four plates of ancient mounds and monuments, lithographed 
by Hall & Mooney. 

Proceedings of the G. C. of M. M. P. of U. S. A. Held at the City 
of Buffalo, July 20, 21, 23 & 24, 1846. [Cover title only.] 8vo. 
pp. 11. 

In this convention of the Grand Council of the Mechanics' 
Mutual Protection Society of the United States, we have the fore- 
runner of organized labor as at present known. 

Reynolds, (Dr.) H. H. Observations on the best means of pre- 
serving the health, beauty and durability of the teeth. Also, the 
influence of decaying teeth upon the stomach, lungs and nervous 
system. By Dr. H. H. Reynolds, surgeon dentist, No. 159 Main- 
street, up stairs. Second edition. Buffalo — Faxon & Stevens. 
1846. i6mo. pp. 48. 

[Schools.] Ninth Annual Report of the Superintendent of Common 
Schools, of the City Buffalo. For 1845. Filed February 1, 1846. 
Buffalo: Printed at Steele's Press. 1846. 8vo. pp. 16, [3]. 
O. G. Steele, Superintendent. 

Steele's Book of Niagara Falls, ninth edition, carefully revised and 
improved. Illustrated by a new series of maps and plates. Buf- 
falo : Oliver G. Steele. 1846. i6mo. pp. 95. 

Folding frontispiece with two Niagara maps; four page en- 
gravings and one folding view, after Hennepin. The Preface 
says: "The 'Book' was prepared in 1834, by a gentleman who 
had resided lor many years at the Falls. . . . Eight editions 
have been printed and sold, the present one being the ninth, and 
has been thoroughly and carefully corrected, and many portions 
of it re-written." Parsons' book is evidently regarded as the first 
edition of this work. 

Todd, (Rev.) William. A Sermon on Foreign Missions. By Rev. 
Win. Todd, formerly missionary of the A. B. C. F. M. at Madura. 
Southern India. Buffalo: Robt. D. Foy, printer, Merchants' 
"Exchange. 1846. Svo. pp. 24. 

[University of Buffalo.] Annual Circular of the Medical Depart- 
ment of the University of Buffalo, October, 1S46. Buffalo: 
Jewett, Thomas & Co. Printers, Office of Buffalo Medical Jour- 
nal. 1846. Svo. pp. [11]. 

The first publication of the University of Buffalo, which was 
granted its charter by the Legislature of 1846. On the cover is a 


cut of the "Medical College of the University of Buffalo," as it 
then was. 

[Y. M. A.] Tenth Annual Report of the Executive Committee of the 
Young Men's Association, of the City of Buffalo. Buffalo: 
Clapp & M'Credie, printers. 1846. 8vo. pp. 32. 

Includes a catalogue of books added to the library, 1845-6, and 
list of members. 


Barton, James L. Commerce of the Lakes. A brief sketch of the 
Commerce of the great Northern and Western Lakes for a series 
of years ; to which is added, an account of the business done 
through Buffalo on the Erie Canal, for the years 1845 and 1846; 
also, remarks as to the True Canal Policy of the State of New 
York. By James L. Barton. Buffalo : Press of Jewett, 
Thomas & Co. Commercial Advertiser office. 1847. 8vo. pp. 80. 
Folding table. 

Beardslev, Charles E. The Victims of Tyranny. A Tale, by 
Chas. E. Beardsley, Esq. [Quot. 5 /.] In two volumes. Buf- 
falo: Published by D. June, 275 Main Street. 1847. Press of 
C. E. Young. i6mo. pp. 250, 235. 

This work, says the preface, "though assuming the character 
of a fiction, is founded on fact." It is a highly-wrought romance 
of the War of 1812, the scene being laid for the most part on the 
Niagara frontier. 

[Buffalo Harbor.] Report of the Harbor Committee in relation to 
an Increase in Harbor Facilities at the City of Buffalo. Ap- 
proved at a general meeting, held Aug. 21, 1847, and adopted by 
the Common Council. Aug. 24, 1847. Buffalo: Jewett, Thomas & 
Co., printers, Commercial Advertiser Buildings. 1847. 8vo. pp. 
54 Map. 

The map, which is usually lacking, is of great interest. It 
shows Buffalo and Black Rock harbors, and the proposed harbor 
and canal improvements which were approved at the public meet- 
ing of Aug. 21. 1847, and later by the Common Council. It 
shows, as proposed at that date, hot only the ship canal running 
southerly from Buffalo River, which has since been built, but a 
ship canal 300 feet wide, running from the river northerly 9850 
feet, intersecting the Erie Canal opposite Fort Porter; it shows 
the proposed extension of the Main and Hamburgh Canal, the 
shore line of Lake Erie, along the harbor front, as it was in 1816, 
and in 1847: and other data seldom to be found. 

[Directory.] 1847 • - 1848. The Commercial Advertiser Directory 
for the City of Buffalo: containing a sketch of the rise and prog- 
ress of the City, a list of the civil and military officers, societies, 
local and miscellaneous statistics, &c. With the names, residence 
and occupation of the business population, heads of families, &c. ; 
appended to which is an advertising directory, containing the 
business cards of many of the prominent establishments in the 
city. Embellished with a correct map of the city, and a view of 


Buffalo Harbor in 1825. Published by Jewett, Thomas & Co. and 
T. S. Cutting, Commercial Advertiser Office. 1847. 8vo. pp. iv., 
67, 179, [advts.] 52. 

The Duty of the Present Generation to evangelize the World: an 
Appeal from the missionaries at the Sandwich Islands to their 
friends in the United States. Second edition. Buffalo: Press 
of Charles Faxon. 1847. 121110. pp. 75. 

[Schools.] Tenth Annual Report of the Superintendent of Common 
Schools of the City of Buffalo, for 1846. Filed February 1, 1847. 
Buffalo : Press of Jewett, Thomas & Co., Commercial Advertiser 
Office. 1846. [sic, 1847.] 8vo, pp. 17, [2]. 
Daniel Bowen, Superintendent. 

Smith, (Rev.) S. R. The Old Paths. A discourse delivered in the 
Universalist Church, in Buffalo, N. Y. Sundav morning, Dec. 6. 
1846. By S. R. Smith. Published by request. Buffalo: An- 
drew F. Lee, printer. 1847. 8vo. pp. 23. 

Town, Salem (LL.D.). The Fourth Reader : or Exercises in Read- 
ing and Speaking. Designed for the higher classes, in our public 
and private schools. [Revised edition.] By Salem Town, LL. D. 
Buffalo: Phinney & Co. Portland: Sanborn & Carter. [1847.] 
i2mo. pp. 408. 

Stereotyped at Portland, Me., but either printed in Buffalo or 
given a Buffalo imprint on the Portland press, for Phinney & Co. 

[Y. M. A.] Eleventh Annual Report of the Executive Committee of 
the Young Men's Association of the City of Buffalo. Buffalo : 
Steam press of Jewett, Thomas & Co. Office of the Commercial 
Advertiser. 1847. 8vo. pp. 15. 


Album of the Table Rock, Niagara Falls and sketches of the Falls 
and Scenery Adjacent. Buffalo: Steam press of Jewett. 
Thomas & Co. 1848. 121110. pp. 85, 22. 

The first of these volumes, which were issued, with slight 
variations, for several years. 

Barton, James L. Address on the Early Reminiscences of Western 
New York and the Lake Region of Country. Delivered before 
the Young Men's Association of Buffalo, February 16, 1848. By 
James L. Barton. Buffalo : Steam press of Jewett, Thomas & 
Co. Commercial Advertiser Office. 1848. 8vo. pp. 69. Slip of 

Breed's Western Almanac, for the Year of Our Lord 1848. . . . 
[Cut of globe, shipping, etc.] Calculated for the meridian of 
Buffalo. ... By George R. Perkins. A. M., Professor of Ma- 
thematics in New York State Normal School. Buffalo: Pub- 
lished by F. W. Breed, 188 Main Street. i2mo. pp. 36. 

Bristol's Sarsaparilla Almanac, for 1848 : being bissextile or leap 
year: — a nd the 72nd-73rd year of American Independence. [Cut.] 


Calculations by Horace Martin. Buffalo: printed for gratuitous 
circulation by C C. Bristol, [1848]. i2mo. pp. 64. 

Contains an illustrated "sketch of Indian warfare." 

The Buffalo Almanac for the year 184S. Calculated for the meridian 
of Buffalo, N. Y. . . . Buffalo: Printed and published by Ansel 
Warren, at the Courier office, 190 Washington-st. 1848. i2mo. 
PP. 34- 

[Buffalo Baptist Association.] Minutes of the thirty-third annual 
session of the Buffalo Baptist Association : held with the Baptist 
Church in Springville, on the thirteenth and fourteenth days of 
September, 1848. Buffalo: A. M. Clapp & Co.'s steam press. 
1848. 8vo. pp. 12. 

The Minutes for 1849 were printed by Edwin Hough at 

[Buffalo Horticultural Society.! Annual Report of the Buffalo Hor- 
ticultural Society for the Year 1847: to which is added the ad- 
dress of Lewis F. Allen, delivered before the Society September 
30th, 1847: together with a list of officers, ladies' committees, list 
of contriljutors, etc. Published by direction of the society. Buf- 
falo : Steam press of Jewett, Thomas & Co. Commercial Ad- 
vertiser Buildings. 1848. 8vo. pp. 40. 

Burtis, (Rev.) Arthur. "The Death of the Righteous." A sermon, 
preached at Tonawanda, July 29, 1848, at the funeral of Mrs. 
Rebecca Vandervoort. By Arthur Burtis. Buffalo: George 
Reese & Co., printers, 165 Main Street. 1848. 8vo. pp. 28. 

By-Laws and Ordinances of the City of Buffalo. Published by order 
of the Common Council. Buffalo : A. M. Clapp & Co., Printers. 
1848. 8vo. pp. 62. 

[Directory.] 1848 . . 1849. Buffalo City Directory, containing a 
list of the civil and military officers, societies, local and miscel- 
laneous statistics, &c, with the names, residence and occupation 
of the business population, heads of families, &c. Appended to 
which is an advertising department, containing the business cards 
of many of the prominent establishments in the city. Population 
in 1848, 40,521. By Thomas S. Cutting. Buffalo: G. Reese & 
Co., printers. 165 Main Street. 1848. 8vo. pp. 324. 72. 

In this year Buffalo had two Directories by rival publishers. 
A feature of Cutting's was "Early Reminiscences of Buffalo, and 
the Navigation of Lake Erie," pp. 5-13. 

[Directory.] 1848 . . 1849. The Commercial Advertiser Directory 
for the City of Buffalo: containing, in addition to the usual mat- 
ter, a sketch of the Early History of Buffalo, by Hon. George W. 
Clinton. Embellished with a new and correct map. Jewe't, 
Thomas & Co., publishers. Commercial Advertiser Buildings, 
1848. 8vo. pp. 266, [2], (advts.) 24. 

Judge Clinton's "Sketch of the History of Buffalo," pp. 9-35. 
graphic and valuable. 

Dudley's Almanac for 1848. . . . Calculations by Geo. R. Perkins 
A.M., Professor of Mathematics in the New York State Norm:.l 


School. Eighth edition. Buffalo, N. Y. : Published by T. J. 
Dudley, 105 Main Street. i2mo. pp. 30. 

Foote, Thomas M. National Characteristics. An address delivered 
before the literary societies of Hamilton College. July 24, 1848. 
By Thomas M. Foote. Published by request. Buffalo: Steam 
press of Jewett, Thomas & Co. Commercial Advertiser Build- 
ings. 1848. 3vo. pp. 38. 

Gildersleeve, (Rev.) B. The Mediatorial Probation. A review of a 
sermon delivered at the installation of Rev. Charles Rich, as pas^ 
tor of the North Presbyterian Church, Buffalo. New York, by 
Rev. G. W. Heacock, pastor of La Fayette Street Church, Buf- 
falo. . . . By the Rev. B. Gildersleeve, of Richmond, Va. Buf- 
falo : Printed by Seaver and Foy, No. 190 Washington Street 
at the Courier office, 1848. i6mo. pp. 16. 

[Guide.] 1848. The Niagara Falls Guide. With full instructions 
to direct the traveller to all the points of interest at the Falls and 
vicinity. With a map and engravings. Buffalo: Published by 
A. Burke. 1848. i6mo. pp. 100. Folding map of Niagara Falls, 

Heacock, (Rev.) G. W. The Mediatorial Probation. A sermon de- 
livered at the installation of Rev. Charles Rich, as pastor of the 
North Presbyterian Church, Buffalo, N. Y. By Rev. G. W. 
Heacock. pastor of La Fayette Street Church. Buffalo : Faxon's 
Press. 1848. 8vo. pp. 20. 

HiCKOK, (Rev.) Laurens P. (D. D.). A Wise Self-Reliance secures 
Success. An Address delivered before the Young Men's Associa- 
tion of the City of Buffalo. December 27, 1847. By Rev. Laurens 
P. Hickok, D. D. Professor of Christian Theology in Auburn 
Seminary. Buffalo: Steam Press of Jewett, Thomas &: Co., 
Commercial Advertiser Buildings. 1848. 8vo. pp. 24. 

Hosmer, (Rev.) George W. A Discourse on the life and character 
of John Quincy Adams delivered in the Unitarian Church, Feb- 
ruary' 27, 1848. By George W. Hosmer. Buffalo : Steam press 
of Jewett, Thomas & Co. Commercial Advertiser Buildings. 
1848. 8vo. pp. 24. 

Hyde, (Rev.) Jauez B[ackus]. God in History: or the accomplish- 
ment of His purposes as declared by his servants the Prophets, 
exemplified in the Civil and Ecclesiastical History of the World. 
By Rev. Jabez B. Hyde, first received missionary among the 
Seneca Indians. [Quot. 2 /.] Buffalo: Steam press of Jewett, 
Thomas & Co. Commercial Advertiser Buildings. 1848. 8vo. 
pp. 96. 

Issuetl in parts of 32 pp. each. Three ''series" were projected : 
"The first commencing with the first century, and going forward 
to A. D. 324, the overthrow of Polytheism. The second, from 
A. D. 324, to the close of the 8th. century, the full revelation of 
the man of sin. The third, from the latter, to the Reformation." 
On the wrappers of the first three numbers the author stated: 
"The two first [series] are written. This is an experiment ; and 
on the success of the first three numbers will determine whether 


the work will proceed." No continuation of it is known to the 
compiler except the pamphlet containing Mr. Hyde's "Review of 
Professor Stuart's Commentary on Revelations." issued in 1849. 

The Indian Reservation Sulphur Springs, near Buffalo. N. Y. With 
an account of its analysis, medicinal properties, and the diseases 
for which it is applicable. Together with directions for its use, 
and some remarks on mineral waters in general. Buffalo : An- 
drew F. Lee. printer. 1848. 321110. pp. 30. 

This was republished, with some additional matter, by Mur- 
ray & Rockwell, Buffalo, i860; 8vo. pp. 19. 

Lord, (Rev.) John C. (D. D.). A Funeral Discourse upon the death 
of George Sprague. By John C. Lord, D. D. Published by re- 
quest. Buffalo: Steam press of Jewett, Thomas & Co. Com- 
mercial Advertiser Buildings, 1848. 8vo. pp. 15. 

Lord, (Rev.) John C. (D. D.). A Great Man fallen in Israel. A 
sermon on the d<\atn of Rev. Norris Bull, D. D., at Lewiston, 
N. Y., December 9, 1847, by John C. Lord, D. D.. Pastor of the 
First (Old School) Presbyterian Church of Buffalo. Buffalo: 
Printed by R. I). Foy & Co., Courier office. 1848. 8vo. pp. 22. 

Lord, (Rev.) John C. (D. I).). "The Valiant Man. " A discourse on 
the death of the Hon. Samuel Wilkeson of Buffalo. By John C. 
Lord, D. D. Pastor of the First Old School Presbyterian Church 
of the City of Buffalo. Buffalo: Steam press of Jewett, 
Thomas & Co. Commercial Advertiser Buildings. 1S48. 8vo. 
pp. 46. 

An appendix contains extracts on the subject of negro coloni- 
zation, quoted from articles on slavery and the elevation of the 
blacks, written by Judge Wilkeson for the Commercial Adver- 

Marsh, Robert. Seven Years of my Life, or a Narrative of a Pa- 
triot Exile. Who together with eighty-two American Citizens 
were illegally tried for rebellion in Upper Canada in 1838, and 
transported to Van Dieman's [sic] Land, comprising a true ac- 
count of our outrageous treatment. . . . By Robert Marsh 
[Quot. J I.] Buffalo: Faxon & Stevens. 1848. i2mo. pp. 207. 
Woodcut. "Burning of the steam boat Caroline," op. p. 8. 

For fac-simile of title-page and note on Robert Marsh, see 
"Bibliography of Upper Canada Rebellion," Buf. Hist. Soc. 
Pubs., Vol. V.. pp. 469, 471, 472. 

Morrox. A. (M. D.) An examination of the arguments against the 
existence of a Supreme Intelligence, founded upon the laws of 
Nature; the eternity of Matter; and the doctrine of Chance. In 
two lectures. Addressed to every Saint and Sinner into whose 
hands it may fall. By A. Morron, M. D. Buffalo: A. M. 
Clapp & Co.'s power press. 1848. 8vo. pp. 32. 

[National Free Soil Convention.] Oliver Dyer's Phonographic Re- 
port of the Proceedings of the National Free Soil Convention at 
Buffalo, N. Y. August 9th and 10th, 184S. Copyright secured 
according to law. Published by G. H. Derby & Co. 164 Main 


Street, Buffalo. . . . Steam press of Jewett, Thomas & Co. 
. . . [1848.] 8vo. pp. 32. 

[National Free Soil Convention.] Buffalo Republic . . . Extra. 
Official Proceedings of the National Free Soil Convention, as- 
sembled at Buffalo, N. Y., August 9th and 10th, 1848. 8vo. pp. 32. 
Includes two pages of Free Soil Songs, "composed and sung 
at the Buffalo Convention ... by Messrs. Hutchinson, Jewell, 
Bates and Foster, of Massachusetts." Here is a sample stanza 
from the "Salt River Chorus" : 

"We've all come on to Buffalo. 
To 'tend the great Convention, 
To join the friends of liberty, 
And stop the slave extension." 

Proceedings of the New York State Fair and of the Pomological 
Convention, held at Buffalo, Sept. 1848. Reported by Oliver 
Dyer, phonographist. Published by Jewett, Thomas & Co. [Buf- 
falo. 1848.] 8vo. pp. 48. 

Quintus, J. De Hollander in Amerika. Leerwijze der Engelsche 
Taal, door H. P. ; ten dienste mijner landgenooten ter drukking 
overgegeven door J. Quintus, onderwijzer in de Engelsche, Hol- 
landsche en Fransche talen. Te Buffalo, N. Y., bij O. G. Steele, 
206 Main Straat. 1848. i2mo. pp. 77, [3J. 

A Dutch-English reading book. Quintus was a teacher of 
Dutch and French. 

Revised Charter of the City of Buffalo, passed April 17, 1843. Pub- 
lished by order of the Common Council : To which are added 
the Laws and Ordinances. Buffalo: A. M. Clapp & Co.'s steam 
press. 1848. 8vo. pp. 83. 

Schoolcraft, Henry R. The Indian in his Wigwam, or Character- 
istics of the Red Race of America. From original notes and 
manuscripts. By Henry R. Schoolcraft. [is /.] Buffalo: 
Derby & Hewson, Publishers. Auburn — Derby, Miller & Co. 
1848. 8vo. pp. 416. 

[Schools.] Eleventh Annual Report of the Superintendent of Com- 
mon Schools of the City of Buffalo; for 1847. Filed February r, 
1848. Buffalo: A. M. Clapp & Co. Printers, Morning Express 
office. 1848. 8vo. pp. 16. 

Elias S. Hawley, Superintendent. 

Schuyler, (Rev.) Montgomery. An Appeal to the Congregation of 
St. John's Churcn, Buffalo, delivered Sunday Nov. 12, 1848. By 
Montgomery Schuyler, rector. Buffalo : Steam press of Jewett. 
Thomas & Co. Commercial Advertiser Buildings. 1848. 8vo. 
PP- 15- 

The appeal was for funds to complete payment of the church. 

Smith, (Rev.) S. R. Historical Sketches and Incidents, illustrative 
of the establishment and progress of Universalism, in the State 
of New York. Second series. By S. R. Smith. Buffalo: James 
S. Leavitt, publisher. 1848. i6mo. pp. 246, [2]. 


Like its predecessor, published in 1843 (q. v.) this little volume 
is a valuable collection of facts relating to the growth of Univer- 
salism; less doctrinal or sectarian than historical, and with the 
earlier volume constitutes a work of decided value. 

[Sunderland, Byron.] Prelacy Discussed, or a Book for Batavians. 
By B. Sunderland. [Quot. 1 /.] Buffalo: Press of C. Faxon. 
1848. 8vo. pp. 184. 

[Y. M. A.] Twelfth Annual Report of the Executive Committee of 
the Young Men's Association of the City of Buffalo. Buffalo : 
A. M. Clapp & Co. Printers, Morning Express office. 1848. 8vo. 
PP. 37- 


An Act to incorporate the Buffalo Water Works Company. Passed 
March 15, 1849. [Buffalo, 1849.] 8vo. pp. 8. 

Alcott, William A. Familiar Letters to Young Men on various 
subjects. Designed as a companion to the Young Man's Guide. 
By Wm. A. Alcott. Buffalo: Geo. H. Derby & Co. 1849. 

[Almanac] The Franklin Almanac, for 1849, [Port. Benj. Franklin] 
. . . Calculations by Samuel H. Wright. Buffalo : Publisaed 
[sic] by Parmelce & Hadley. No. 119 Main-Street. i2mo. pp. 
23, [9]. 

Parmelee & Hadley kept the ''Buffalo Lamp Store,"' where they 
sold solar lamps, camphene lamps, girandoles and "'a variety of 
patterns for burning Porter's composition burning fluid"; all of 
which is reminiscent of the days before kerosene. 

Bible against Slaveholders. Slaves bought and sold ! Read and ex- 
amine. The Slavery question examined. By a Friend of Free- 
dom, and the perpetuity of the Union. Buffalo : printed and sold 
at the Republic office. 1849. 8vo. pp. 8. 

Breed's Western Almanac, for the Year of Our Lord 1849. . . . 
By George R. Perkins. A. M. Professor of Mathematics in New 
York State Normal School. Buffalo: Published by F. W. Breed. 
188 Main Street. i2mo. pp. 36. 

Bryan, George J. Life of George P. Barker, with sketches of some 
of his celebrated speeches ; the proceedings of the Bar of Erie 
County on the occasion of his death : and the funeral sermon of 
John C. Lord, D. D. By George J. Bryan. Buffalo : Oliver G. 
Steele. 1849. i2mo. pp. viii-215. 

The Central Presbyterian Church, of the City of Buffalo: Contain- 
ing a register of its officers and members, a brief notice of its 
history, the confession of faith, covenant and stated meetings of 
the church, etc.. etc.. together with the Shorter Catechism. Com- 
piled by members of the Session. Buffalo: Press of Charles 
Faxon. 1849. i6mo. pp. 72. 

In 1852, after the Society took possession of its new church 
building, a page descriptive of it was printed and inserted in 
copies of the above work, following p. 8. 


Coventry, C. B. (M. D.) Epidemic Cholera: Its History, Causes, 
Pathology and Treatment. By C. B. Coventry, M. D. Buffalo: 
Geo. H. Derby & Co., publishers. 1849. i2mo. pp. 119. 

Dr. Coventry was professor of physiology and medical juris- 
prudence in the University of Buffalo. When the cholera ap- 
peared in this country in 183 1 he was appointed by the Common 
Council of Utica, where he resided, to visit Albany and New 
York to investigate the disease; and in the winter of '47-'48 he 
visited Europe with ins+mctions from the medical faculties of the 
University of Buffalo and the college at Geneva, to more fully ac- 
quaint himself with its pathology, causes and treatment. The 
fruits of his study are embodied in this volume. 

Davis, A. Antiquities of America, the first inhabitants of Central 
America, and the Discovery of New England by the North- 
men, five hundred years before Columbus. ... By A. Davis 
. . . 21st edition, with important additions. Buffalo : Jewett, 
Thomas & Co., stereotypers and printers, 1849. 8vo. pp. 32. 

It is probable that most, perhaps all of the previous editions 
were published elsewhere. 

[Directory.] 1849 . . 1850. The Commercial Advertiser Directory 
for the City of Buffalo. Embellished with a new and correct 
map. Buffalo: Jewett, Thomas & Co. Publishers, Commercial 
Advertiser Buildings. 1849. 8vo. pp. xiii-368. 

Hyde, (Rev.) Jabez B[ackus]. God in History: or the accomplish- 
ment of His purposes, as declared by his servants the Prophets, 
exemplified in the civil and ecclesiastical history of the World, 
preceded by a review of Professor Stuart's commentary on Reve- 
lations. By Rev. Jabez B. Hyde, First received missionary among 
the Seneca Indians. [Quot. 2 1.] Buffalo: Printed by George 
Reese & Co. 159 Main Street. 1849. 8vo. pp. 104. 
For comment on this work, see ante p. 274. 

Lord, (Rev.) John C. (D. D.) A Funeral Discourse, delivered on 
the occasion of the death of Gen. George P. Barker, at the North 
Presbyterian Church, on the 31st day of January. 1848; by John 
C. Lord, D. D. Buffalo: Oliver G. Steele. 1849. i2mo. pp. 
215, 1. 

Macauley, Thomas Babington. Essays and Reviews; or Scenes 
and. Characters : Being a selection of the most eloquent passages 
from the writings of Thomas Babington Macauley. Author of 
"History of England." New American Edition. Buffalo : 
George H. Derby and Co. 1849. i6mo. pp. 214. 

[Schools.] Ordinances for the regulation of the Public Schools, of 
the City of Buffalo. Enacted April 27, 1839. Re-enacted and 
amended, January 23, 1849. Buffalo: A. M. Clapp & Co., print- 
ers. 1849. 8vo. pp. 16. 

[Schools.] Twelfth Annual Report of the Superintendent of Public 
Schools of the City of Buffalo, for 1848. Filed February 1, 1849. 
8vo. pp. 27, [1]. 

Although falling just out of the scope of the present list, it 


may be noted that the annual report for 1849, published in 1850, 
is of exceptional historical value, as it contains views of six of 
the Public School buildings, as they appeared at that date. The 
second illustrated report was issued in 1856, with lithographic 
views of the Central School and some twenty of the district 

Turner, 0[rsamus]. Pioneer History of the Holland Purchase of 
Western New York : Embracing some account of the ancient 
remains; a brief history of our immediate predecessors, the Con- 
federated Iroquois, their system of government, wars, etc. — A 
synopsis of Colonial History: Some notices of the Border Wars 
of the Revolution: and a history of Pioneer Settlement under 
the auspices of the Holland Company; including Reminiscences 
of the Wa v of 1S12; the origin, progress and completion of the 
Erie Canal, etc., etc.. etc. By O. Turner. Buffalo: Published 
by Jewett. Thomas & Co. : Geo. H. Derby & Co. 1849. 8vo. 
pp. xvi, 666. Portraits, maps and views. 

[University of Buffalo.] Annual Announcement of the Medical De- 
partment of the University of Buffalo, June. 1849. Buffalo : 
Steam press of Jewett, Thomas & Co. Office of Buffalo Medical 
Journal. 1849. 8vo. pp. 16. Front. 

The frontispiece is a most interesting "View of the Medical 
College, and the Hospital of the Sisters of Charity," the college 
building being that which stood at the southwest corner of Main 
and Virginia streets, torn down in 189 — . It was built 1848-49. 

White, James P. (M. D.) Remarks on the construction of obstetri- 
cal forceps, with a description of an instrument employed bv 
James P. White, M. D. . . . [Buffalo, 1849.] 8vo. pp. 7. Cuts. 
Reprint from Buffalo Medical Journal, May, 1849. 

[Y. M. A.] Thirteenth Annual Report of the Executive Committee 
of the Young Men's Association of the City of Buffalo. Buffalo : 
Steam Press of Jewett, Thomas & Co. Commercial Advertiser 
Buildings. 1849. 8vo. pp. 40. 



SEPTEMBER 30, 1902. 

The new building of the Buffalo Historical Society (described in 
the Appendix to Vol. V. of these Publications) was dedicated to its 
present uses on Tuesday evening, September 30, 1902. Despite a 
heavy rain the attendance was large. President Andrew Langdon 
being in Europe, Vice-President George A. Stringer presided and 
made the following address of welcome : 

Members of the Buffalo Historical Society, Ladies and Gentlemen: 

It is my high privilege and very agreeable duty this evening, to 
extend a most cordial welcome to you all on behalf of the Board of 
Managers of the Buffalo Historical Society, in this new and beauti- 
ful building, and these attractive rooms. 

We count your presence here as an augury of good. We read in 
it the strong assurance of your sympathy with us in our great work. 
We feel that we may depend on your cooperation in our plans for 
the future, which will be upon broader lines and with a wider scope 
than heretofore. Having thus enlisted your concurrence in our high 
endeavors for the common good, we regard it as a gracious earnest 
of the years to come. 

Early in 1862— just forty years ago— in the second year of the 
great Civil War; this Society was founded by a few thoughtful, pub- 
lic-spirited, and highly-esteemed men in this community, among 
whom were the late Millard Fillmore, Lewis F. Allen, Orsamus H. 
Marshall. Rev. Dr. Hosmer, Edward S. Rich. Henry W. Rogers. Dr 
Charles Winnc, Dr. James P. White, George W. Clinton, William 
Dorsheimer, Albert L. Baker, Rev. Dr. Lord, Oliver G. Steele, Geo. 
A. Babcock, and some others, who believed that the records and 
relics of our history should be carefully preserved. The first in- 




formal gathering was held at the law office of Marshall & Harvey, 
March 25th, and a committee appointed to report a plan of organiza- 
tion. On Tuesday evening, April 15, 1862, a second public meeting 
was held in the rooms of the Buffalo Medical Association, No. 7 
South Division Street, at which time the constitution and by-laws, 
presented by the committee, were adopted. The first president of 
the Society was Mr. Fillmore, and the records show that the first 
meeting at which he was elected and presided as its official head was 
on the 20th of May in the year previously mentioned. Immediately 
after the organization William Dorsheimer offered the use of his of- 
fice, No. 7 Court Street, as a place of meeting for the executive com- 
mittee and of deposits for the books and papers of the Society. 

From this small and comparatively humble beginning the Buffalo 
Historical Society has by slow stages reached its present proud posi- 
tion, with its valuable treasures housed in this magnificent building, 
the creation of a well-known Buffalo architect, and one of the finest 
of its class in the country. 

We are the possessors of a library of some 12.000 volumes, which 
includes the Lord and Fillmore collections; also several thousand 
pamphlets, many of which are of rare value. In 1895 our library was 
registered with the University of the State of New York, thus en- 
abling us to provide a library and publication fund, and thereby ex- 
tending the sphere of our influence. 

We have a gallery of portraits, as well as a large collection of 
photographs of uncommon interest, inasmuch as they largely repre- 
sent many of the builders and makers of this fair city, through whose 
united efforts its foundations were laid deep and strong. To this col- 
lection additions by gift arc constantly being made. 

As you pass through our rooms this evening [ would especially 
direct your attention to the beautiful Lincoln Memorial room which 
is in itself an object lesson; also, just outside, the collection of Civil 
War relics presented by the Grand Army Posts of Buffalo several 
years ago. They are precious mementoes of that fearful struggle 
which deluged the land with blood; historic objects for our youth 
especially to view and study, valued reminders through the years to 
come of the sacrifices which were made by our volunteers for the 
common good of our common country. 

Our coin and medal collection — for the most part the gift of the 
late Dr. James — is of very great and increasing value, and worthy of 
all the study one can give to it. Our museum is rich in its counties^ 
treasures of a past time, and the entire evening would be all too short 
were I to particularize its features in detail, there is so much of in- 
terest on every hand. 

It may not be amiss, however, for me to allude in passing to two 
widely diverse collections which attract much attention, one being 
the fine exhibit of Egyptian antiquities presented by the late Dr. Jo- 
seph C. Greene, a member of our Board of Managers at the time of 
his death, and an ex-president of the Society, and the other, to our 
extremely valuable display of Indian relics mementoes of a once 
powerful people who are now fast fading away. 

Another branch of our work which has been quietly carried on 
and which may be unknown to many of you is that of vital statistics. 
From the year 181 1 up to 1882, covering a period of nearly three- 


quarters of a century, every published record of death or of marriage 
has been entered in volumes specially prepared for that purpose. [ 
need hardly remind the legal fraternity of the immense value such a 
record may be to them as well as to others, and we wish to make its 
existence widely known. 

This Society will not round its first half-century for a full decade 
to come. Meantime we shall strive to push our work along his- 
torical, genealogical and educational lines. Our single aim is your 
advantage. The sufficient reward for our most zealous efforts will be 
your approval. In this connection it gives me pleasure to announce, 
that with the concurrence of a majority of the Board of Manage- 
ment this building will be opened on Sunday afternoon, October 5th. 
and every Sunday afternoon thereafter until further notice, from two 
until five o'clock, during which time a short, instructive talk will be 
given, which will be an incentive to the young, and full of suggestion 
to those of maturer years. 

My hearers, we hold as a sacred trust to be zealously guarded the 
treasured memories of the Past, a trust to be handed down to those 
who shall come after us. The life of a city is in the past and in the 
future. The record of her sons and daughters is in our keeping. 
The vigorous minds, the skilful hands, the generous hearts; the wis- 
dom, the integrity, the self-sacrifice, that have advanced the city's 
interests would be well nigh forgotten were it not for this Historical 
Society. We should well nigh forget, indeed, that we had a history ; 
we should almost lose the sense of our identity. Therefore, it is 
that we would plead for a more lively and awakened interest in this 
Society; for a far larger membership; for generous gifts, for a 
greater civic pride. Thus it will become possible to aid the Buffalo 
Historical Society in attaining such an eminence that it shall stand 
unrivalled in the State. 

My friends, if there be anywhere here below the element of per- 
petuity, it is here, and in such a place as this, where the memory of 
what past generations have said or accomplished is ever before us ; 
where the inspiration of their lives and actions is a continual incen- 
tive to us who are in the strenuous activities of the present, but who. 
ere many years shall have parsed, will "be numbered among the silent 
host, the great majority." Enshrined within these walls they will 
have enduring fame, a memory perpetual. 

In closing, permit me again to extend to you all a hearty and most 
cordial welcome to this noble building and the objects to which it is 
devoted, and to congratulate you, as well as ourselves, upon the 
bright prospect of increased usefulness which lies open before this 
Society, so that in future days we may look back upon this night 
with the utmost pleasure and satisfaction. 

Mr. Reuben Gold Thwaites, secretary of the Wisconsin Historical 
Society, addressed the audience on "The Functions of an Historical 
Society." It is regretted that his scholarly paper is not available for 
publication. The next speaker was the Hon. Daniel N. Lockwood. 
chairman of the New York State Board of Managers for the Pan- 
American Exposition, whose theme was "The Buffalo Historical So- 
cietv and the State of New York." Mr. Lockwood said : 


Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen: 

Your committee having in charge the dedication of this building 
to the Buffalo Historical Society, very kindly requested me, as the 
President of the Board of Managers of the State of New York to 
the Pan-American Exposition and under whose charge and super- 
vision this beautiful building was erected, to give a brief history of 
its construction and its use during our occupancy. 

When it became an assured fact that the citizens of Buffalo, dur- 
ing the summer of 1901, would give an exposition of the mechanical, 
industrial and educational development of this and the South and 
North American countries, the Empire State at once took up the 
work, determined to stand second to no other State or country. The 
Legislature of the State of New York, by the act of March 1, 1899, 
appropriated *he sum of $300,000, $50,000 of which was to be used 
in the erection of a building for the use of the citizens of New York 
during the Pan-American Exposition, also authorizing the Governor 
to appoint a board of nine managers to build the building and con- 
duct and manage the exhibits on behalf of the State. This act also 
contained a clause prohibiting the Board of Managers from contract- 
ing or expending any part of said appropriation until there had been 
paid into the Treasury of the Pan-American Exposition Company by 
its stockholders, the sum of $800,000 in cash. I mention this last 
clause that it may be fully understood why this building was not 
fully completed upon the opening of the Exposition, May 1, 1901. 

During the summer of 1899, the suggestion was made by some of 
our citizens that it would be a proper thing to have the building thus 
to be erected by the State, a permanent structure, and that after the 
close of the Exposition it should be transferred to a permanent own- 
ership. The officers and members of the Buffalo Historical Society 
desired a permanent home and they at once went to work with 
energy and a fixed purpose to bring about such a result and with the 
aid of an enlightened public sentiment — largely created by them — • 
secured from the Legislature the amended act of March 14, 1900, by 
which $100,000 instead of $50,000 was to be used in the erection of 
the building, and by the same act the City of Buffalo was directed to 
pay over to the State Treasurer the sum of $25,000 to be used for 
such building; also the Buffalo Historical Society was authorized to 
take from its overflowing treasury the sum of $25,000 and pay the 
same to the State Treasurer, thus giving to the New York State 
Board of Managers the sum of $150,000 with which to erect a per- 
manent building upon the park lands adjacent to the Exposition 
grounds, which building when erected, should be for the exclusive 
use of the State during the Exposition, and upon the close of the 
Exposition should be transferred to the Buffalo Historical Society 
for its exclusive use and permanent home. 

The Beard of Managers, as soon as the law had been complied 
with by the Pan-American Exposition Company, met at Albany and 
perfected their organization. This was on the 7th day of March, 
1900. The Board of Park Commissioners thereafter promptly desig- 
nated the site upon which the building should be erected. The Board 
of Managers at once called upon the leading architects of the State 
for plans. These were duly received and then what little trouble we 
had, commenced. The honorable gentlemen composing the Park 


Board waited upon us and suggested (to put it mildly) — that as the 
building was to stand upon park lands, it was their right to select 
the plans for the building. The Board of Managers showed them 
all the plans and they made their selection. The Historical Society 
politely, but firmly, insisted that as the building would be theirs for 
all time as soon as the Exposition was over, that they should select 
the plans.* They saw them all and made their selection. The Board 
of Managers being required by law to select and approve of a plan 
for the building, made their selection, and strange to say, three dif- 
ferent plans had been selected. Under these conditions the Board 
of Managers decided to select a well-known and distinguished archi- 
tect of New York City, send him the three plans selected and without 
giving him any information of the selections that had been made or 
the names of any of the architects, let him decide which in fact was 
the best plan. This course was followed and the plan of one of Buf- 
falo's competing architects was selected, that of Mr. George Cary. 
It is but just to say that to his architectural genius and skill the citi- 
zens of Buffalo in general and the Buffalo Historical Society, are in- 
debted for this beautiful building. Grand and substantial in all its 
architectural lines and proportions, it will stand here for all time as 
a monument to his intelligence and fidelity, as well as a reminder of 
the wonderful, beautiful and instructive Pan-American Exposition 
of 1901. 

As soon as the specifications could be prepared, bids were asked 
for for its construction and on the receipt of the bids, it was found, 
much to our sorrow and disappointment as well as to yours, that it 
could not be built of marble for the sum of $150,000, but to be built 
for that sum must be constructed either of brick or limestone. This 
was the full amount available in the hands of the State Board of 
Managers for the construction of the building. This fact was re- 
ported to the Historical Society at once and to the great credit, praise 
and honor of its officers and members, they promptly unlocked their 
big safe and directed the State Board of Managers to go ahead at 
once and build of marble and that the difference between brick and 
marble they would assume and pay. The contract was thereupon 
and on the 2nd day of July, 1900, made with Messrs. Charles Ber- 
rick's Sons for the construction of the building. Their work was 
well done; the material was the best of its kind and the workman- 
ship of the highest standard. There were no strikes and no extra 
charges. Such is the history of the construction of the building. 
The building was substantially completed and opened to the public 
in June. 

It was formally turned over to the Pan-American Exposition 
Company on the 6th day of August, 1901, and from that day to the 
close of the Exposition, it was an open house, dispensing hospitality 
to all who came within its doors. Thousands came every day to ex- 
amine and admire it. Societies and organizations from all over the 
country held their meetings in this hall daily. Distinguished men 
and women within these walls have been welcomed to the hospitality 

* Mr. Lockwood, as his audience no doubt understood at the time, was in- 
dulging in a pleasantry. The Historical Society Board were invited to signify 
their preference as to the plans, and did so; but insistence was obviously be- 
yond their prerogative. 


of the State of New York. Governors, their wives and their friends, 
representatives from Canada, South and North America and from 
Europe have been within these walls as the guests of the State of 
New York, and here on the 5th day of September, 1901, the State 
of New York, through its Board of Managers, had the honor and 
pleasure of giving a formal luncheon to the President of the United 
States, foreign Ambassadors, members of the Cabinet, senators and 
many other distinguished men. It was the one function that made 
this building thereafter the objective point of every visitor to the 
Exposition. It was the last formal luncheon attended by the Presi- 
dent of the United States. The pleasure of that day was forever 
blotted out by the awful crime of the tomorrow. It made the build- 
ing historical. William McKinley, the honored and beloved Presi- 
dent of the United States, in full vigor of his manhood, the man who 
had gone step by step from the ranks to the highest and proudest 
position in the world, whose life, always pure, honorable and pa- 
triotic, full of courage and hope, animated with the single purpose 
of his Country's best welfare, was marked for the bullet of the cow- 
ardly assassin. He died as he had lived, full of love, full of kindness, 
full of courage and without fear. He was our most honored guest. 
Here the name of William McKinley must ever stand first, and of 
him, his life and his death, you can always say in the words of the 

"To live with fame the gods allow to many; but to die with equal lustre is 
a blessing Heaven selects from all her choicest boons of fate, and with a sparing 
hand on few bestows." 

An interesting feature of the evening's exercises was the unveil- 
ing of tne statue of Abraham Lincoln, a gift to the Society from the 
Lincoln Birthday Association.* The audience repaired to the central 
court, where the statue stands. Mr. Joseph P. Dudley, president of. 
the Lincoln Birthday Association, made a brief address of presenta- 
tion. The flag which draped the statue was withdrawn by Miss 
Florence Francis (a relative of Julius E. Francis, founder of the As- 
sociation), to the strains of "America," by the orchestra. Senator 
Henry W. Hill made the address of acceptance in behalf of the His- 
torical Society. Air. Hill said : 

Vice-President Stringer, Major Dudley, President of the Lincoln 
Birthday Association, Ladies and Gentlemen: 

In behalf of the Buffalo Historical Society, I am authorized to ac- 
cept this bronze statue of Abraham Lincoln and the Memorial Col- 
lection of the late Julius E. Francis, presented by you, Major Dudley. 
in behalf of the Lincoln Birthday Association to this Society for its 
custody and preservation. In doing so, I cannot refrain from allud- 
ing to the services which Mr. Francis and your Association have 
rendered to perpetuate in memory the exemplary life and sublimely 
patriotic struggle of Abraham Lincoln to preserve the Union. 

Mr. Francis may not have been a disciple of Carlyle, who affirmed 

* For description and illustration of the statue, see Vol. V., Buffalo His- 
torical Society Publications. 


that hero-worship is the cornerstone of all society ; yet, in his devo- 
tion, he spared neither time nor treasure to exalt the life and heroic 
services of Abraham Lincoln. Of the forty years he was engaged in 
pharmacy in this city, the latter half of that time was largely occu- 
pied by him in collecting relics of the Civil War, in securing auto- 
graphs of its soldiers and sailors with their military record, in ar- 
ranging and holding Lincoln Birthday anniversary exercises, and 
building up, inspiring and equipping an association that would con- 
tinue his work after him. lie visited Gettysburg and other battle- 
fields, attended encampments of Civil War veterans and other Na- 
tional assemblages, and inspected public and departmental archives 
at Washington. In 1873, Mr. Francis and fifty other prominent citi- 
zens of Buffalo, representing all the states and territories of the 
Union, memorialized the 43rd Congress to make February 12th a 
legal holiday. This was supplemented by an alternate memorial, 
signed by fifty young men in the public schools of Buffalo, between 
the ages of fourteen and nineteen years, also representing the various 
states and territories. We are pleased that many of these gentlemen 
are present on this occasion and that they have lived to see February 
12th made a legal holiday. 

At the first Lincoln Birthday celebration held at St. James Hall 
in this city on February 12, 1S74, Hon. N. K. Hall presided and our 
esteemed historian. J. X. Larned, delivered the address, and the ex- 
ercises consisted also of readings, poems, patriotic music and the 
distribution of sixty thousand beautifully engraved cards to the pu- 
pils in the public schools of this city, all at the expense of Mr. 
Francis. Twenty thousand dollars were expended by Mr. Francis in 
his twenty years' service of devotion. 

In 1877 he incorporated the Lincoln Birthday Association, and its 
first trustees were such well-known men as Pascal P. Pratt, Fred- 
erick L. Danforth. J. R. Brownell, Joseph P. Dudley, Orrin P. Rams- 
dell, Julius E. Francis. William C. Francis, S. Cary Adams and 
George Meacham. The present officers and trustees are Major Jo- 
seph P. Dudley, president; G. Barrett Rich, vice-president; Fred- 
erick W. Danforth, secretary and treasurer; Hon. James Ash, Frank 
L. Danforth, C. Townsend Wilson, William E. Danforth, George C. 
Meacham and Guilford R. Francis. These gentlemen and others, 
who from time to time have comprised the Lincoln Birthday Associa- 
tion, for a quarter of a century, have freely given their time and at- 
tention to its affairs. This involved a supervisory control of the 
valuable historic memorial collections, the administration of the trust 
funds bequeathed by Mr. Francis and the distribution of memorial 
literature, commemorative of the public services of President Lin- 

Before this Society had made plans for its permanent Home, 
President Andrew Langdon had conferred with your trustees in re- 
lation to the assumption on the part of this Society, of the custody 
of the Francis Memorial Collection and the execution of the trust 
provisions of Mr. Francis' will. When it was decided to erect this 
fire-proof building for the ultimate uses of the Buffalo Historical 
Society, your trustees, in accordance with the wishes of Mr. Francis, 
expressed in his will, that "a room be constructed in a fire-proof 
building for the preservation of his memorial collection," suggested 


that this building be so planned as to provide such a room. President 
Andrew Langdon laid the matter before the Board of Managers of 
this Society, who were unanimously in favor of the suggestion. Such 
a room has been provided on the second floor of the building, and is 
to be known as the Lincoln Memorial Room. In addition to this, 
your trustees offered the further suggestion, that the main central 
hall of this building be so planned as to admit of the placing therein 
of a bronze statue of Mr. Lincoln, to be procured out of the trust 
funds left by Mr. Francis and the residue of such funds to be given to 
the Buffalo Historical Society in consideration of its providing such 
memorial room and assuming the custody of the memorial collection 
and such bronze statue, in perpetuity. 

A committee on the part of your Association, consisting of Major 
Dudley, G. Barrett Rich, and Mr. Frederick W. Danforth, was ap- 
pointed to confer with a committee on the part of the Buffalo His- 
torical Society, consisting of President Langdon, whose esthetic taste 
and wide knowledge of the works of art especially fitted him to serve 
„jLr".-~~cn a committee, Mr. Frank H. Severance, secretary of the Buf- 
falo Historical Society, and myself. It is but fair to say that Mr. 
Danforth and Mr. Langdon performed the largest part of the work 
of the joint committee. They secured the services of the well-known 
sculptor, Charles H. Niehaus, who had designed the statue of Mr. 
Lincoln, at Muskegon, Michigan, of which this statue is a replica, 
except in some of its details. It was cast by the Gorham Manufac- 
turing Company of Providence, and is regarded by critics as a work 
of art. It represents Mr. Lincoln in a sitting posture, with legs 
crossed and document in hand, looking directly into the unknown 
future, as though he were meditating upon what grounds under the 
Constitution to justify the Emancipation Proclamation. It will also 
suggest many other trying moments in his eventful life. It is need- 
less to say that the memory of his life work could not be more en- 
duringly perpetuated. The present and future generations will be up- 
lifted, as they reflect upon the noble life, symbolized in this imposing 

The memorial collection, which you have presented and which 
may be seen in the Lincoln Memorial Room, is of great historic 
value. The elaborately inlaid case is made of pieces of wood taken 
from Faneuil Hall, Independence Hall, the Charter oak, the frigate 
"Constitution," the Old South Church and other historic temples 
dedicated to civil and religious liberty. The Soldiers' and Sailors' 
case contains seventy-six battlefield trophies and upwards of^ten 
thousand autographs of soldiers and sailors who fought in the Civil 
War, "with their rank, regiment, date of enlistment and discharge, 
including the battles in which they were engaged." In addition to 
these are many other autographs, illustrated envelopes used during 
the war, and other historic papers. In presenting these to the Buf- 
falo Historical Society, with the assurance that they will be pre- 
served in perpetuity, we believe that the trustees of your Associa- 
tion have fully executed the trust provisions of Mr. Francis' will. In 
accepting them, the managers of the Buffalo Historical Society un- 
dervalue neither their historic worth, nor the lofty patriotism which 
their donor intended that they would inculcate. 

This marble building, with its stately Doric columns, its spaciou< 
halls and classic outlines, overlooking an inland lake with its en- 



virons of surpassing beauty, is a fitting repository for such a monu- 
ment, as this memorial collection and superb statue constitute, to the 
greatest American of his generation. School children in scores and 
people of this and other states will come here to read again the thrill- 
ing story of the life of their beloved President. What a life that 
was ! Cradled in a Kentucky cabin, inured to all the deprivations 
and hardships of pioneer life, without the advantages of schooling or 
money, this child of the prairies, this self-trained lawyer of the 
plains, became the matchless champion of human freedom. While 
Congresses disputed and Cabinets wrangled, he, in contesting the 
senatorship with Douglas, fully realizing the irreconcilability be- 
tween the sentiments of the people at the North and at the South on 
the slavery question and also realizing the immanence of the con- 
flict that might disrupt the Union, declared that "a house divided 
against itself cannot stand. I believe this Government cannot en- 
dure permanently half slave and half free." Even though the con- 
flict were averted bv ^e recognition of slavery, still that would not 
avail, for this Government could not permanently endure on such a 
basis. He had a profound conception of the fundamental principles 
of the Declaration of Independence. "Life, liberty and the pursuit 
of happiness" were not only "inalienable rights," bestowed by the 
Creator upon His creatures, but living principles, which the Supreme 
Court, the Congress and the President of the United States might 
not disregard. These were eternal, while kingdoms, principalities 
and powers were temporal. In his application of these principles to 
the exigencies of the times, Mr. Lincoln not only completely refuted 
the doctrine of the Dred Scott decision, but also exhibited qualities 
of the loftiest statesmanship and became the recognized leader of the 
people at the North. His power of statement was unsurpassed; his 
logical argument was resistless ; his comprehension of the mo- 
mentous questions at issue was remarkable. His great heart throbbed 
in sympathy with the suffering and down-trodden colored race at 
the South. He knew their limitations, but he felt that the Creator 
had bestowed upon them these inalienable rights, of which they 
might not lawfully be deprived. This position he maintained with 
unflinching steadfastness. He spoke in many eastern states and was 
attended with large, enthusiastic audiences and made a profound im- 
pression wherever he appeared. 

In commenting on his Cooper Institute speech, the New York 
Tribune said: "Mr. Lincoln is one of nature's orators, using his 
rare powers solely to elucidate and convince, though their inevitable 
effect is to delight and electrify as well. We present a very full and 
accurate report of this speech, yet the tones, the gestures, the kindling 
eye, and the mirth-provoking look, defy the reporter's skill. l'he 
vast assemblage frequently rang with cheers and shouts of applause, 
which were prolonged and intensified at the close. No man ever 
before made such an impression on his first appeal to a New York 

People at the North were electrified. Mr. Lincoln became the 
logical candidate of the Republicans for the Presidency in i860. 
Party and sectional strife threatened to disrupt the Union. The 
South knew no bounds to their demands for the extension of slavery; 
the North was a wall of adamant against such extension. The con- 
flict was inevitable. Still in the presence of such civil commotion, 



which shook the Nation to its foundation. Mr. Lincoln, with the 
vision of a seer, in closing his first inaugural address on March 4. 
1861, made use of these prophetic words: "The mystic cords of 
memory, stretching from every battlefield and patriot grave to every 
living heart and hearthstone all over this broad land, will yet swell 
the chorus of the Union, when again touched, as surely they will he, 
by the better angels of our nature." He saw beyond the smoke of 
battle a reunited nation. He understood the temper of the people 
at the North as well as at the South. He knew the genius of our 
Republican institutions and had supreme faith in their fitness for 
government "of the people, by the people and for the people." 

He spent many sleepless vigils alone in brooding over the out- 
come of various battles of the Civil War, still he did not lose faith 
in our civil institutions and in the ultimate success of our armies. 
He left nothing undone that would tend to restore this country to a 
condition of peace. He wielded the extraordinary powers vested in 
the Executive under the Constitution more freely than they had ever 
been exercised before to uphold and strengthen the sovereign pow- 
ers of the Nation. He justified his Emancipation Proclamation, as a 
war measure that would weaken the enemy and strengthen the Union 
forces. His generous and sympathetic nature was proverbial and ex- 
pressed itself in many ways and in such words as "with malice 
toward none; with charity for all." found in his second inaugural. 
He was the revered President. General W. T. Sherman said that 
"Lincoln was the purest, the most generous and the most magnani- 
mous of men." He loved his country whose freedom was his in- 
spiration. His Gettysburg speech, like the funeral oration of Pericles, 
is the embodiment of true patriotism. 

It has been said that "Abraham Lincoln was the first American to 
reach the lonely heights of immortal fame." 

"He lives in endless fame 
All honor to liis patriot name." 

This marble building may crumble, this bronze statue may wear 
away, but the name and deeds of Abraham Lincoln will not perish 
from the earth. 


At the annual meeting, January 13. 1903. Mr. Ogden P. Letch- 
worth was elected a member of the Board of Managers for the four 
years ending January. 1907, to succeed Mr. George S. Hazard, made 
honorary life member of the Board. Messrs. Andrew Langdon, 
Frank H. Severance. George A. Stringer and James Sweeney were 
reelected for the term ending January, 1907. The annual reports of 
the officers were presented to the Society at a meeting held on the 
evening of January 17th. President Langdon occupied the chair. A 
pleasant feature of the programme was the singing by Miss Langdon, 
accompanied at the piano by Mrs. F. Davidson. Moses Shongo gave 



cornet selections, with accompaniment by his daughter, Miss Maud 
Shongo. The attendance was large. President Langdon delivered 
the annual address. Me said: 

Ladies and Gentlemen : 

We come together for the forty-first annual meeting of the Buf- 
falo Historical Society. This is its first annual meeting in a build- 
ing all our own and worthy of the collections here preserved. This 
building is not new to most of you : already it is like an old friend, 
for we first knew of its beauty during the Pan-American days when 
it was the New York State building. Today it stands as the only 
permanent memorial saved from the wreck and ruins of the City of 

My first annual address as president of this Society was given at 
the thirty-third annual meeting. January 8, 1895, held in the cham- 
bers of the Society on the third floor of the Buffalo Library build- 
ing, reached only by tiresome climbing of stairs. I referred then to 
the day wnen the Buffalo Historical Society would have "a substan- 
tial fire-proof home of its own." Let me quote from that address : 
''That such a house is needed today" — that, remember, was eight 
years ago — "for the proper display and safekeeping of our valuable 
collections is fully attested by their crowded condition and still more 
by the treasures that cannot be seen for want of a suitable place for 
their display. Such a building should be located not as the present 
one is, amid the smoke, dirt and noise, with constant danger of fire, 
in the business district; but well out in an easily accessible, quiet 
neighborhood, with plenty of light and air." One of the leading 
papers of the city referred to my idea as "Mr. Langdon's dream"; 
another dwelt upon the "icy desolation" of the park site suggested. 
Tonight much of that dream is realized in blocks of solid marble. 
Winter is pretty well upon us now. and we have not experienced the 
icy desolation except as we find it just over the fence, amid the ruins 
of the Exposition. We were never less isolated. Our removal has 
brought us new members and made many new friends. 

The story of this building you already know; it is told in the 
volume recently issued by this Society. In the Grand Hall, open to 
the skylights above, we have a suggestion of the beautiful Ariana 
Museum at Geneva in Switzerland. Our park surroundings for such 
a building have many notable precedents. 

Eight years ago Judge James Murdock Smith asked me to come 
to see him at his home. There he told me that he wished to do some- 
thing for the Historical Society and asked me what use the Society 
would make of his proposed gift. I suggested that it be used as the 
nucleus of a building fund, principal and interest to be used only for 
that purpose. This was done; and the contribution of five thousand 
dollars by Judge Smith was the first step toward the realization of 
our building project. In special recognition of his gift a new class of 
membership, called ''Patrons," was created and any one contributing 
$2500 is eligible for such membership. The name of the Hon. James 
M. Smith stands as that of our first— and as yet our only— "Patron." 
Out of his first gift, supplemented not only with money, but with the 
untiring efforts of other friends of the Society, has come the build- 
ing as it stands today, erected at a cost of nearly $200,000. It would 


take too long to relate in detail the whole story of our building pro- 
ject. But the members of this Society, and the community at large, 
must see in the present consummation a proof of the wisdom of our 
early plans. We desired a park site. A neighboring institution, the 
Albright Gallery for the Academy of Fine Arts, now stands on the 
site which was the Society's original choice; and already the com- 
munity begins to realize that in this group of public institutions — 
for the future home of the Society of Natural Sciences will be near 
by — is to be developed the city's most academic center. When our 
plans for a home in the Park were checked, a new opportunity was 
offered by the Exposition project. It developed into the proposition 
that it would be wiser for the State to contribute towards a per- 
manent building than to lavish the public money on a structure that 
would vanish when the great fair was over. The merger of state, 
city and society funds in this project was stubbornly opposed; and 
we owe it to the persistence and tact and logic of many devoted 
friends, but especially to the Hon. Henry W. Hill and the Hon. Wil- 
son S. Bissell, that this wise and economical plan was adopted. Or- 
iginally the Historical Society was to contribute $25,000, but when 
later it was found that the building could not be erected according to 
the plans decided upon so as to come within the cost limit of 
$150,000; when the Board of Commissioners for the State of New 
York found themselves pretty well in a corner where it was hard 
for them to turn and they found that their plans would have to be 
changed entirely; that the erection of the building, for which there 
was little enough time as it was, would have to be still further de- 
layed; then an appeal to the Historical Society was made and the 
response was immediate and cheerful : the Society contributed 
$20,000 additional, thus enabling the Commissioners to carry forward 
the work without delay. The Society had reason to believe that this 
additional $20,000 would be made good by the State: the Commis- 
sioners turned back into the State Treasury $127,000 out of the 
$300,000 appropriated. Most of the Commissioners were in favor of 
reimbursement ; one, at least, was not. Ye never obtained the 
$20,000. More than this, when we came to take possession of the 
building we found that certain changes in the general plan would be 
beneficial and suggested that such changes and several matters of re- 
pair, due wholly to the use and abuse of the building during the Ex- 
position, be cared for out of the State money. It seemed but right 
that the building should be put into tenantable shape for the new- 
comers. Even this we were not able to secure. So we had to turn 
again to our well-nigh depleted treasury and take from it funds 
needed for the carrying on of our regular work and apply them to 
the work of putting the building into condition for our occupancy. 

On the other hand, we have a moderate income from the City of 
Buffalo each year for a maintenance fund. Under the act of legis- 
lation secured in 1897 it is mandatory upon the City of Buffalo each 
year to appropriate for the maintenance of the Society and the care 
of its collections at least $5000; in addition we receive the cost of 
heating and lighting. Especially pleasant are the words "in per- 
petuity" in connection with this annual appropriation, thus providing 
a certain measure of the expenses incident to the proper management 
of the institution for the best good of the members and public gen- 


erally for all years to come. This provision of the law has put the 
Historical Society on a substantial foundation and guarantees its 
permanence. The measure of its growth and increase in usefulness 
to the community must continue to depend upon other sources of in- 
come. But even if our resources arc badly depleted, we have the 
comforting consciousness of being out of debt. We begin the new 
year owing no man a dollar, as shown by the report of the treasurer. 

It is a pleasure to me personally to speak of some of the more 
important gifts of the year. It has been a year notable for the num- 
ber and value received. This is a natural sequence of our removal to 
more ample and better quarters than we had before occupied. Gifts 
of any historical character and works of art can now suitably be ex- 
hibited and kept with guarantee of safety from fire or pillage. We 
can take care of them better than ever before. The building is a de- 
pository which should enlist the interest and appeal to the taste and 
pride of every family in Buffalo. 

First in the list entitled to special acknowledgment is the bronze 
statue of Abraham Lincoln, the gift of the Lincoln Birthday Associa- 
tion. When Julius C. Francis was alive, he was unusually loyal in 
his devotion to the memory of our martyred President, and spent 
both money and effort to have Lincoln's birthday made a National 
holiday; when Mr. Francis died he left to the Lincoln Birthday As- 
sociation, which he himself founded, certain money in trust, giving 
instructions in his will for the maintenance of exercises commemora- 
tive of this birthday. This money, principal and accumulating in- 
terest, lay unused for a number of years. One day, while I was look- 
ing into another matter, I came across the provisions of the Francis 
will and it occurred to me that a fine statue of Lincoln, dedicated by 
the Lincoln Birthday Association, would be entirely in keeping with 
the spirit of the will of Mr. Francis. Several of us, members of both 
the Lincoln Birthday Association and the Buffalo Historical Society, 
talked over the matter informally, later more in detail and to more 
serious intent, and still later a joint committee from the two so- 
cieties took the whole matter under careful consideration. For some 
time there was great doubt of any accomplishment. It took a good 
deal of persistence to bring all parties to agreement; but as a result 
of continued effort on the part of the members of this joint commit- 
tee the Lincoln Birthday Association, under an agreement especially 
drawn, has become merged with the Buffalo Historical Society. The 
funds accumulated have been put into the magnificent statue that 
forms the striking feature of our Grand Hall; this is the conception 
of the sculptor Niehaus and the casting in bronze was done at the 
foundry of the Gorham Company, a splendid combination of genius 
in conception and art in execution. The pedestal of black marble 
came as a gift from the Lautz Company, to whom the members alike 
of this Society and of the Lincoln Birthday Association are indebted. 

Another pedestal that is of note, stands just at the left of the en- 
trance to the Grand Hall. L T pon it stands an admirable bust of 
George Washington, of the finest Carrara marble, done by Pugi, a 
celebrated artist in Florence. Italy.* But it is of the pedestal I wish 
to speak. It was the gift of William Crawford. Some time ago Mr. 
Crawford, who is a life member of this Society, secured the contract 

One of President Langdon's numerous gifts to the Society. 


to erect over the grave of Mary, the mother of Washington, at 
Fredericksburg, Va., a new monument. The tomb standing there at 
the time was removed and two of its old pillars were brought to Buf- 
falo. I suggested to Mr. Crawford the idea of using a portion of one 
to form a pedestal for a bust of George Washington. The idea was 
pleasing to him and he carried it out. 

Having brought before your thought two of the greatest men of 
all ages, the two greatest Americans, let me suggest the propriety 
of setting apart in this building two rooms, one to be known as the 
Lincoln Room, one as the Washington Room. Already this plan has 
been carried out, in part. On the floor above, the northwestern room 
has been given over to the Lincoln collections left by Mr. Francis, 
with additions by other friends. The northeastern room, now used 
for the Lord and the Fillmore libraries, will become the Washington 
Room just as soon as we have enough Washington material to make 
a fair beginning. We have now a number of portraits, autograph 
letters, and other material. Within a few weeks we have received 
from Mr. George H. Grosvenor. through the kind offices of his 
mother, an old resident of Buffalo, an early and excellent oil por- 
trait of Washington. On the platform this evening we have relics 
that are most appropriate for such a Washington Room. This gavel 
was made from a tree which grew in the ruins of the house in which 
Washington was born ; it was burned in 1835. This table is one that 
once belonged to General Knox, who, you will remember, was pres- 
ent at the time of the surrender of General Cornwallis to General 
Washington. But even more closely associated with that memorable 
event is this chair, known as the Cornwallis chair, and which was 
a part of the furniture of the Moore house when the commissioners 
for Cornwallis signed the articles of surrender there. For this his- 
toric chair we are indebted to Mr. Jesse Peterson of Lockport, who 
has generously presented it to the Society. With the chair Mr. 
Peterson has sent us the detailed and accepted history of its descent 
from the household of Daniel and Mary Moore, who came to Vir- 
ginia long before the Revolution and built there the famous Moore 
house. Other Washington material, including several very valuable 
articles now promised, will enable us soon to set apart the second 
room; and we trust that our friends will remember us generously. 

Through the generosity of the Messrs. Steinway & Co. of New 
York City and the friendly interest in our behalf of Mr. Robert 
Denton,* another life member of this Society, we have received as a 
permanent possession the piano which you have heard already this 
evening. It is of the highest quality of excellence as a musical in- 
strument, and in its construction is exceptionally artistic. The case 
is of mahogany, carved in classic style, with bronze mountings and 
bronze electric' light fixtures. On the top cover are the arms of the 
State of New York. 

Mr. William Cottier has given us his splendid collection of In- 
dian articles of every description, the result of many years of collect- 
ing. This collection represents most of the Western tribes in their 
workmanship, beads, basketry, blankets, pipes, masks, weapons and 
utensils. The beadwork is especially choice and valuable. For the 
proper display of his collection, Mr. Cottier has provided a hand- 

* Died July 23, 1903- 


some oak case. This collection, together w i t li the Scoville collection, 
gives this Society splendid facilities for assisting those who are mak- 
ing a study of the Indians of the West. Our Six Nations collection, 
also, is a good beginning. 

I must pass over many recent gifts of interest and value, to speak 
of the large painting now temporarily placed in the Grand Hall.* 
The scene depicted is one of the most famous in the early history of 
this region — the blessing of the cross at Fort Denonville, the site of 
the present Fort Niagara, in 1688. It is more than a painstaking 
study of historical conditions. The canvas shows us the scene 
through the magic of an exalted imagination. The artist — and the 
donor — is Mrs. John Clark Glenny, to whose talent and liberality 
many a Buffalo institution is indebted. This picture, especially de- 
signed for mural decoration, is to be placed permanently in the large 
panel at the head of the grand stair. Another gift for like purpose 
is the painting in the central lunette of the south gallery. The sub- 
ject is the "Muse of Niagara." It is the work of Tabor Sears, the 
gift of Mr. George Cary, the architect of the building, and is of a 
high order of merit. These mural panels are the beginning of a 
scheme of decoration which shall fill many of our wall spaces and 
endow our halls with new attractiveness, by a series of historical and 
emblematic paintings in the decorative manner. Here is an alluring 
opportunity for some of our generous friends. Permit me to direct 
attention to the fact that this great work — for such it truly will be- 
come — was begun by a woman ; it was a woman, too — Mrs. Alfred 
G. Hauenstein — who, on June 7, 1901, made the first public address 
that was given in this building. It was an address before the West- 
ern Federation of Women's Clubs, on "The Lessons of the Exposi- 
tion." Thus, both in art and in eloquence, we have had an auspicious 

Many opportunities are presented here for noble memorials. The 
central hall in the basement, as well as the Grand Hall on this floor, 
calls for statues. Here is a suitable place for a statue of DeWitt 
Clinton, of whom the Society possesses portraits, autograph letters, 
and minor memorials. Here, too, it is becoming to place, and that 
soon, a worthy statue or bust of William McKinley. It was in this 
building on September 5. 1001, that President McKinley was the 
guest of the New York State Commissioners for the Pan-American 
Exposition. It was the last public function in which he shared. The 
next day, in the Temple of Music, was enacted the great tragedy 
which culminated in his death, September 14th. 

A pleasant incident of the year occurred at the Board meeting 
held on December 4, 1002, the day before Mr. George S. Hazard's 
ninety-third birthday. His fellow-members of the Board, desiring to 
express to him the "love and esteem in which he is held, by special 
and unanimous vote made him an honorary member of the Board of 
Managers for life. Mr. Hazard -served as president of the Society 
in 1890 and in 1892, and for many years has been a member of its 
governing board. 

During the year past our Society has had the inevitable losses due 
to death. The enumeration of the dead of the year belongs to an- 
other report than mine, but I crave a word in memory of my long- 

* Now permanently placed at the head of the grand stair. 


time friend, George W. Townsend. I was intimately associated with 
him, both in this Society and in other affairs, and always found him 
all that a man should be. For twenty years he shared in the man- 
agement of this institution; was twice its vice-president and twice 
its treasurer. He served it with fidelity, with sound judgment and 
with care. Much of what the Society is and what it bids fair to be- 
come, is due to the wise counsels and long-continued devotion of 
George W. Townsend. 

My friends, with the occupancy of this building and the broader 
opportunities which come with the new foundation, we enter upon 
an enlarged career of usefulness. We seek to make this edifice 
highly artistic in its embellishment, a repository for noble memorials, 
as well as for the minor relics and souvenirs that help preserve our 
history. We wish to extend our portrait gallery, to increase our 
library, and especially to carry on the work of historical publication. 
We want new members, and we want renewed interest on the part 
of the old members ; and we especially want all to share in and en- 
joy to the utmost whatever the Society has to offer. We are not a 
close corporation, but a public institution, thoroughly democratic in 
character and aims. 

We are on historic ground. Successors of the race whose meagre 
records formed the first chapters in our history, we follow them in 
guarding tne Western Gate of the ancient Long House. Other coun- 
cil fires were kindled here before ours. Our part is to keep the blaze 
bright today. We offer the pipe of peace and extend the hand of 
friendship. Share our lodge and the pleasantness of it shall be yours. 

The annual reports of the treasurer and the secretary were pre- 
sented. The secretary's report stated that the deed of the building 
had been delivered to the President, January 2, 1902. The building- 
was opened to the public July 1, 1902, and had since been open daily, 
10 a. m. to 5 p. m., Sundays 2 to 5 p. m., the Sunday attendance 
sometimes exceeding 1500. The growth of the museums and library 
was noted in detail. The total membership (January, 1903) was 
stated as 502, of which number 145 were corresponding and honorary. 

The Society's losses by death during 1902 were as follows: Life 
and resident members: March 2d, Bronson Case Rumsey; April 
26th, Henry H. Otis; June 14th, Dr. Jared Hyde Tilden; in July, at 
Saratoga, O. H. Whitford; July 22d, Fred B. Curtiss; October 24th, 
George W. Townsend ; December 30th, Henry G. White. Honorary 
members: March 20th, Hon. Noah Davis, New York City; October 
1st, Admiral J. E. Jouett, U. S. N., Port Royal, S. C. Corresponding 
members : March 12th, Hon. B. E. Charlton, Hamilton, Ont. ; De- 
cember 4th, Hon. Joseph Williamson, Belfast, Me. 

The prescribed business of the meeting being finished, Senator 
Henry W. Hill stepped forward, and addressing the president, said: 

Your associates on the Board of Managers of the Buffalo His- 
torical Society take this occasion to express publicly their apprecia- 
tion of your long and distinguished services as president of this So 


ciety, and of their personal regard for you. At the time of your first 
election, in January, 1894, there was very little to encourage, and 
much to discourage one in assuming the duties of president of the 
Buffalo Historical Society. Its location was not favorable to its 
growth, or to the maintenance of public interest in its affairs. Its 
limitations were recognized by all. 

After the late Dr. Joseph C. Greene and the late Dr. Frederick H. 
James had presented their respective collections to this Society, it 
was apparent to all that there was not sufficient space on the third 
floor of the Library Building adequately to exhibit its historic prop- 

Its archives were not easily accessible to the public. This was 
due to the fact that it was necessary to climb two long flights of 
stairs to reach the Historical Society rooms, and when reached, they 
were found to be in a congested and poorly lighted condition. Con- 
sequently the public did not use the Historical Society archives as 
freely as they otherwise would. As earlv as 1891, a committee 
was appointed by the Board of Managers of this Society to in- 
crease its membership, and we found that the difficulty of reaching 
the Society's rooms on the third floor of the Library Building was 
one of the principal objections advanced by Buffalonians to becom- 
ing members. However, this did not deter such well-known Buf- 
falonians as the late Judge James Sheldon, and that ripe classic 
scholar, James Frazer Gluck, both now deceased, from taking a deep 
interest in the welfare of this Society. Soon after assuming the ex- 
ecutive management of this organization, you made a study of its 
conditions and needs and presented plans for extending its sphere of 
usefulness in this community. These met with the approval of such 
well-known members as Edmund W. Granger, George H. Lewis, Dr. 
Frederick H. James, Judge James Murdock Smith, Dr. Joseph C. 
Greene, Cyrus K. Remington and George W. Townsend, all since 
deceased, but who, as occasion occurred, freely gave of their time and 
treasure to promote the welfare of the Society. They were its loyal 
and devoted friends. We should remember their solicitude for its 
success at times when it needed just such support as they were able 
to give to it. 

After full justice is done to all others, however, we feel that this 
Society and the city are under lasting obligation to you for what you 
have accomplished. As early as 1807, after the enactment of chapter 
310 of the Laws of 1897, authorizing the Society to build on Park 
lands, you had prepared for the uses of this Society plans of a build- 
ing, resembling the Matthew Laflin Memorial, in Lincoln Park, Chi- 
cago, which you presented to your associates and to the Board of 
Park Commissioners of this city. You sought to raise funds for the 
construction of such a building, which, though far less costly than 
this building, had many features of excellence for historical pur- 
poses. I need not recount the arguments advanced by those who 
favored, and by those who then opposed the movement from a down- 
town site to one on Park lands. Your familiarity with the location of 
such buildings in the parks of other cities of this and other countries 
greatly aided us in reaching a wise conclusion in that matter. People 
now recognize the propriety of the location of this Historical Society 
building. Had it not been possible to locate on park lands, it were 
not possible to have obtained State funds toward its construction. 


You will recall the conference of Judge James M. Smith. Dr. J. C. 
Greene, Hon. D. F. Day, Cyrus K. Remington, Dr. Albert H. Briggs, 
Frank H. Severance, yourself and myself, in the latter part of Sep- 
tember, 1897, at the Delaware Park, to decide upon a site for the 
Buffalo Historical Society building, and that such conferees favored 
the mound now occupied by the Albright Gallery of Art. Much dis- 
cussion ensued. The subsequent location of the Pan-American Ex- 
position, north of Delaware Park, necessitated the abandonment of 
that site, if the Historical Society were to take advantage of the State 
Building plan, as proposed at our monthly meeting on June I, 1899, 
in a resolution, which I presented on that occasion. 

The present site was decided upon at a meeting of the managers 
of this Society, the Commissioners on the part of the State of New 
York at the Pan-American Exposition, members of the Park Board 
and President John G. Milburn and some of the directors of the Pan- 
American Exposition Company held in December, 1899. The State 
Commissioners acceded to the arguments advanced for the location 
of the New York State Building on this site, instead of on the site 
originally proposed, upon which the Temple of Music was afterwards 
erected. That made it possible to aggregate the three funds and se- 
cure a better building for the Pan-American Exposition and a per- 
manent home for this Society. 

I prepared and introduced on January 16, 1900. a bill in the As- 
sembly to accomplish that purpose, which became law. As a member 
of the Building Committee on the part of this Society, you rendered 
exceedingly valuable services. Fortunate, indeed, was this Societ} - , 
at the time, in having one so willing and competent to serve it in that 
trying capacity. Week in and week out, you labored to accomplish 
the result which now crowns the work. It must not be forgotten that 
General Wilson S. Bissell, Hon. Charles W, Goodyear, Mr. G. Bar- 
rett Rich, Secretary Frank H. Severance and other members of this 
Board of Managers also counselled, advised and supplemented your 
efforts and rendered valuable service in this important matter. The 
Board of Park Commissioners favored the project and since the Ex- 
position have done much to beautify the grounds surrounding this 

This Society contributed $45,000. the City of Buffalo $25,000. and 
the State $100,000, towards the cost of this building. In addition to 
these sums, the most notable gift towards this building was the solid 
bronze doors, in its northerly entrance, which you presented to the 
Society. As works of art, it may be said, that they are not excelled 
by any in this country. They are embellished by female figures, 
which represent Ethnology and History, and are emblematic of the 
work of the Society. The bronze transom above the doors is adorned 
with two reclining figures, emblematic of Science and Art. These 
gates will endure long after this marble building has crumbled away. 
The munificence of this gift is one of the proofs of your loyalty to 
this Society and the quality of it evinces rare esthetic taste, that 
adorns and beautifies wherever it exists. These beautiful gates will 
refine and promote human happiness, for, as Keats says: 

"A thing of beauty is a joy forever." 

The Washington bust of Carrara marble, after the Stuart por- 
traits, the work of the eminent Florentine sculptor, Pugi, recently 



presented by you to this Society, is another evidence of your abiding 
interest in it. It was largely due to your forethought and efforts that 
the Society secured the Francis Memorial collection, and the bronze 
statue of Abraham Lincoln, but time does not permit me to enu- 
merate all that you have done for this Society during your nine years 
service as its president. 

During that time the Buffalo Historical Society may be said to 
have had a new birth. Its period of transition has passed. It has 
ceased to be a tenant and has become the owner of one of the finest 
Historical Society buildings in America. This Greek Doric temple 
and the Albright Ionic Gallery of Art, near at hand, with their rare 
collections and the replica of the gigantic statue of David by Michael 
Angelo, through your munificence soon to be placed in this vicinitv, 
and other works of art and stately buildings that are likely to follow, 
whose "architecture," to adopt the phrase of Schelling, may be lik- 
ened unto "frozen music," will constitute an acropolis of fine arts in 
Delaware Park. 

As time goes on this Park, which 

"... didst appear so fair 
To fond imagination," 
Will "rival in the light of day 
Her delicate creation." 

Henceforth Buffalo, the city of commerce, with its diversified in- 
dustries, will have its classic buildings and works of art to awaken 
"ideals of beauty," which Ruskin has well said, "are among the 
noblest which can be presented to the human mind invariably exalt- 
ing and purifying it according to their degree." Conspicuous among 
these will be the superb building of the Buffalo Historical Society 
with its stately portico of Doric columns and beautiful gates, housing 
an historic collection of rare value, already widely and favorably 
known. This will both elevate and instruct. The Publications of 
this Society will become standard authorities and will cover periods 
of time not hitherto adequately treated by other historians. The 
work of the Society will thus become educational and you will see 
fulfilled the highest ideals of historic research and historic exposi- 
tion. This is far in advance of the work that was possible to be done 
nine years ago. 

We feel that you have labored zealously to advance the interests 
of the Society and to extend its sphere of usefulness in this com- 
munity. You have contributed liberally of your time 
and treasure to make this a progressive institution. 
The impress you have left upon it is quite as notable 
as that of its first president, Millard Fillmore. 

In testimony of your faithful services and of the 
appreciation of your associates on the Board of Man- 
agers and of Mr. Edward D. Strickland, who has 
served in the capacity of assistant secretary during 
most of your presidency, I am requested to perform 
the pleasant duty of presenting to you this key of 
gold, bearing the inscription, "Board of Managers 
of the Buffalo Historical Society to Andrew Lang- 
don, iqoi," to open the massive bronze gates that 
will forever attest vour devotion to the Buffalo His- 


torical Society and perpetuate your name in memory as one of its 
most munificent benefactors. 

President Langdon, much moved, made a happy response, saying 
that he should treasure the key, because of what it expressed, as long 
as he lived. He received the congratulations of many friends. 



Adopted by a silent rising vote of the Board of Managers, 
October i, 1903. 

In the death of George Starr Hazard, which occurred August 7, 
1903, in his 94th year, the Buffalo Historical Society has lost its most 
aged member, who for over forty years had been devoted to its wel- 
fare. But one living member of the Society has a longer member- 
ship; that is Mr. Pascal P. Pratt, who was one of the original or- 
ganizers of the Society in the spring of 1862. Mr. Hazard and the 
Hon. William P. Letchworth both joined the Society on January 6, 
1863. Mr. Hazard was chosen a councilor in 1888; was elected 
president in 1890; was made a life member, February 4, 1890; was 
vice-president in 1891 ; president again in 1892; member of the board 
of managers continuously since that date, and honorary life member 
of the Board — the only member ever so designated — since December 
4, 1902. 

Mr. Hazard's first term as president was made memorable by the 
receipt of Mrs. Martha M. Huyler's gift of $10,000 for a statue of 
Red Jacket; and it was under Mr. Hazard's presidency that that im- 
portant work was entered upon and assured. In his second term the 
Society had the good fortune to receive the valuable collection of 
Holland Land Company papers and maps which are among its choic- 
est possessions. In many other ways the institution was strengthened 
while Mr. Hazard was at its head. He secured many new members, 
and was devoted, as for many years before and after, to promoting 
its welfare. 

On January 14, 1890, Mr. Hazard presented to this Society his 
manuscript history of the One Hundredth, or Board of Trade Regi- 
ment, a collection of data bearing on the fortunes of that organiza- 
tion, to the gathering of which he had devoted much time and re- 
search. The result amply warranted the effort, for the great volume 
is a repository of a vast amount of valuable historical material re- 
lating to this distinguished Buffalo regiment, much of which would 
have been lost to posterity but for Mr. Hazard's zeal and forethought. 

Mr. Hazard came to Buffalo in 1847, when the town had scarcely 
outgrown its village conditions. For many years he was active in 
business affairs, and as president of the Board of Trade shared prom- 
inently in making more -substantial Buffalo's commercial standing. 


His patriotism conspicuously showed itself in his work of organizing 
and equipping the One Hundredth New York Volunteers. His pub- 
lic spirit never flagged, and even in his old age his counsels — on the 
Canal Commission of 1899— were helpful to his city, his State and the 
Nation. Many a local institution knew him as a practical friend. 

In common with the rest of the community, this Society had long 
cherished Mr. Hazard with that respect and affection which are the 
natural tribute to ripe experience and high character. He was spared 
to his family and friends through an exceptionally long life and 
serene old age; and we, his late associates, who offer to his family 
our assurances of sympathy, will ever cherish the memory of his long 
devotion to the welfare of this Society, the pleasant memory of his 
kindliness, his good cheer, and sincerity. 


Adopted by the Board of Managers, October 8, 1903. 

The Board of Managers of the Buffalo Historical Society has 
learned with deep sorrow of the death, October 6th, of its most dis- 
tinguished member, the Honorable Wilson S. Bissell. 

Mr. Bissell was a citizen of Buffalo for nearly his whole life. For 
many years he was a member of this Society, devoted to its interests, 
and the preservation of the records of the community in which he 
lived. He was for a long time a member of this Board, and as such 
rendered the Society an invaluable and special service which resulted 
in the erection of its beautiful building in Delaware Park. 

He was a man of the highest integrity, of great ability, the keen- 
est sense of public duty, the closest and most enduring friendship, 
and the tenderest and most sympathetic affection. 

We sincerely mourn what seems to us his untimely taking off. 

We hereby adopt this memorial as a part of the permanent rec- 
ords of this Society. 


A meeting of the Buffalo Historical Society was held on the even- 
ing of November 6, 1903, to pay tribute to the memory of the Hon. 
James O. Putnam, who died April 24, 1903. President Langdon 
presided, and the attendance was -large. The programme included 
papers by Mr. J. N. Lamed and Mr. L. G. Sellstedt, with a brief ad- 
dress by Mr. William E. Foster, in which he dwelt on the scholarly 
side of Mr. Putnam's character, and related numerous anecdotes, il- 
lustrating Mr. Putnam's habits and tastes in his last years. The 
papers of Mr. Lamed and Mr. Sellstedt follow. 



Forty-seven years ago, in the old St. James Hall, which stood at 
the corner of Eagle and Washington streets, I listened to a speech, 
the very tones of which are distinct in my memory to this day. The 
speaker was James O. Putnam ; the occasion was a public meeting, 
called to express the indignation in this community excited by the 
dastardly assault made on Senator Sumner by Preston Brooks. 
There were other speakers, but I remember none of them ; there 
were other strong words spoken, but they left no mark upon me. 
The one speech stamped an impression on my mind that was deeper 
and more lasting than any other that belongs to that period of my 
life. I think it realized oratory to me as I had not realized it before, 
and thrilled me as eloquent speech has thrilled me very seldom in my 
experience since. As I think of it now, the scene rises like a picture 
before me : the crowded, silent audience ; the slender figure on the 
stage, all aquiver with the emotion of that impassioned hour; the 
mobile, expressive face, and the voice that came throbbing to my ears. 
with such words as these : 

Sir, what principle is contended for by the justifiers of this outrage' 
Simply this, that Northern representatives, upon questions connected with 
slavery, must speak what is agreeable to certain Southern ears. ... A South 
Carolina imprimatur must be found on the cover of every Congressional speech. 
or the stiletto and the bludgeon will punish the temerity of free men. By this 
permission we may live. Under the legs of this Carolina Colossus we may peep 
about to find ourselves dishonorable graves. If this is to be the price of union. 
it is too great. It cannot be paid. There is not forbearance enough, there is 
not fraternal charity enough, and there never ought to be, in the moral ex 
checquer of the North, to pay any such price. . . . The committee of investi- 
gation report that the Senate has no power in the premise! . . . The skulking 
assassin may burrow under the Speaker's chair until the opportunity arrives to 
rush upon his defenseless victim. He may shed his heart's blood before their 
senatorial eyes — and that, too, for words spoken in debate — and the Senate is 
impotent. If this be so, the Alpine passes in the Middle Ages and the Houns- 
low Heath of the seventeenth century were as secure as the Senate Chamber of 
the United States. 

In memory, I can listen now to the trumpeting of that last sen- 
tence in Mr. Putnam's vibrating voice, as I listened to it almost half 
a century ago, and it stirs me to my finger tips, as it stirred me then. 

Almost equally marked in my memory is the second of the early 
great speeches of Mr. Putnam on notable public occasions in Buffalo. 
It was made in May, 1858, at a union mass meeting, of Americans 
and Republicans, held to protest against the attempt in Washington 
to fasten the Lecompton Constitution upon Kansas, as the funda- 
mental law of a new State. If I could repeat, as his voice gave them. 
the opening words of that address, you would understand the won- 
derful effect with which they prepared the feeling of his audience for 
what he had to say: "On the gates of Busyrane was inscribed, on the 
first, 'Be bold,' on the second, 'Be bold, be bold, evermore be bold; 
and on the third gate, 'Be not too bold.' The Democratic party has 
adopted all these maxims save the last." 

Those two speeches, of 1856 and 1858, were the first, I think, that 
showed the full powers of Mr. Putnam as an orator to audiences in 
his own city. Pie had his fame as a youthful speaker in many poli- 
tical campaigns, and had won even national distinction already in the 
Senate of the State of New York ; but I believe I am not mistaken 


in saying that the speech on the Sumner outrage revealed him wholly 
to this city for the first time, and gave him an eminence in it which 
had not been recognized before. 

Mr. Putnam was not a native of Buffalo; his birthplace and early 
home were Attica, where he was born on the 4th of July, 1818. His 
father, Harvey Putnam, migrating from the East, a young man, 
newly married, had taken residence in Attica the previous year, estab- 
lishing himself in the practice of the law. As the son grew to man- 
hood he saw his father rise to eminence among the lawyers of West- 
ern New York, and became conscious that he was heir to a highly 
honored name. It was an inheritance that he valued more than 
wealth. In the State Senate once, and three times in Congress, Har- 
vey Putnam served the public, and his son, writing of him in a me- 
morial paper that was prepared for this Society in 1868, could say 
with just pride: "The elements of his personal strength in the pub- 
lic confidence were character and adequacy. To these, all the public 
trusts he held were spontaneous tributes." 

In 1838 Mr. Putnam entered Yale with high ambitions and hopes. 
Letters written by him at that time, which have been preserved, are 
all aglow with the ardent spirit of the young student, thirsting for 
pure knowledge, feasting on great thoughts, living already and joy- 
ing in the life of the mind. But the doom of ill-health, destined to 
handicap him to the end of his days, fell upon him then and drove 
him from his studies at the end of his junior year. He was never 
able to return to them ; but Yale, in later years, recognized him as a 
son who did honor to her, named him in the list of her graduates, 
and gave him his degree. 

After some months spent in travel and residence at the South, in 
1839, Mr. Putnam began the study of law with his father and was 
admitted to the bar in 1842. In that year he married and took up his 
residence in this city, entering into partnership with the late George 
R. Babcock, with whom he continued in practice for about two years; 
but the exacting duties of a laborious profession were beyond his 
strength, and once more his ambitions were put grievously in check 
by the inadequacy of his bodily health. In 1844 he became connected 
officially with the Attica & Buffalo and the Buffalo & Rochester rail- 
way companies, first as secretary and treasurer, and later as attorney 
and counsellor, and he held those positions until the companies in 
question were merged in that of the New York Central. Then he 
received from President Fillmore the appointment of Postmaster at 
Buffalo, and held the office until the close of Mr. Fillmore's term. 

From his youth Mr. Putnam had been interested warmly in poli- 
tics, and had attached himself with ardor to the party of the Whigs. 
While scarcely more than a boy he had been a favorite campaign 
speaker, and, in that fermenting period of our national history to 
which his early manhood belonged, he seemed to be at the threshold 
of a career that would carry him high and far in public life. With 
more stability of health, it is not to be doubted that he would have 
run such a career. As it was, he entered it, with remarkable promise, 
in 1853, when elected by his party to the Senate of the State. In that 
single term he won a reputation as wide as the nation, by the fame 
of a measure that drew attention everywhere, and the power of a 
speech that was read from end to end of the land. The measure in 


question, introduced by Mr. Putnam and advocated in an argument 
of masterly eloquence and force, was one requiring church property 
to be vested in trustees. It was consequent upon an issue that had 
arisen between some of the Roman Catholic congregations in this 
country and their bishops, on a ruling by the latter that every church 
estate should be made the property of the bishop of the diocese, — its 
title vested in him. Among the resisting congregations, that of St. 
Louis Church in Buffalo took a foremost place, by the firmness with 
which it asserted and maintained its rights. The controversy excited 
a deep interest in every part of the country, and nowhere more than 
here. Mr. Putnam took up the cause of his constituents in the St. 
Louis Church and championed it with characteristic vigor and zeal. 
He saw a sacred principle of liberty at stake, and he fought a battle 
for it which showed once, and once only, what his prowess in the con- 
tests of the forum might be. In the splendid speech that bore down 
all resistance to his bill he sketched his view of the issue to be settled 
by it in a few pregnant words. "I cannot look as a legislator," he 
said, "nor would I have the State look, with indifference on a con- 
troversy like this. On the one side is priesthood, panoplied with all 
its power over the pockets and consciences of its people, armed with 
the terrible enginery of the Vatican, seeking, in open defiance of the 
policy and laws of the State, to wrest every inch of sacred ground 
from the control of the laity, — property secured by their sweat and 
sacrifices, — and to vest it in the solitary hands of a single bishop, that 
he may close the door of the sanctuary, put out the fires upon its 
altar, and scourge by his disciplinary lash, from its sacraments, or- 
dinances and worship, every communicant who dares think a thought 
independent of his spiritual master. On the other hand, we see a 
band of men who have lived long enough in their adopted country to 
have the gristle of their liberal opinions hardened into bone; men 
devoted to the church of their fathers, but who love the State to 
which they have sworn allegiance and who respect its institutions; 
we see them resisting with a heroism which would honor the age of 
heroes, unitedly, unwaveringly, in defiance of bulls of excommunica- 
tion from bishop, legate and the Pope, every attempt to override our 

Here is eloquence, of fine texture in the warp and the woof of 
ideas and words ; but more than eloquence appears in the graver 
passages of the speech, such as that in which the attitude and the 
relations of the American Republic to the Roman Church are pro- 
nounced. "Being/' he explains, "a government of dissent, and popu- 
lar in all its theory, it cannot be moulded to meet more absolute sys- 
tems of rule. It admits the transplantation to its soil of even- exotic, 
spiritual or political, that can find it genial to its nature. Whether 
they are so, and can bear the transplantation, or whether they lan- 
guish and die, is of no interest to the Genius of American Democ- 
racy. Its office is spent when it has taken care that the State suffer 
no detriment, and that there spring up in its midst no hostile element 
of power." 

Writing of this speech more than twenty years ago, when a 
volume of Mr. Putnam's addresses was published. I said, and I think 
correctly, that the effect of it, "not alone in the State of New York, 
but from one end of the country to the other, was prodigious. It was 


published everywhere, read everywhere, and its author woke, like 
Byron, to find himself famous. The Church Property Bill became 
law irresistibly, and the fact that it was repealed some years after- 
wards takes nothing from the force and effect of the speech by which 
it was carried at the time. 

In all of the speeches of Mr. Putnam that touch in any way upon 
questions of public policy, movements of public opinion, or incidents 
of national history, the current of his thought has always started from 
the deep underlying principles of free government and the great pri- 
mal facts which shaped this federative nationality of ours. Whether 
speaking as a partisan upon his party platform, or standing aside 
from party, on historic anniversary occasions, he has always unveiled 
the light of past experience to turn it upon present affairs, and to pro- 
ject its forecasting rays upon things consequent and future. In that 
meaner sense of the word which prevails in our use of it now, Mr. 
Putnam was never a "'politician'' ; but throughout his life he was a 
political student, and there are few who study politics with equal 
subtlety and depth. For this reason there was a philosophy in his 
political speeches that gave them lasting value. Those found in the 
published volume of his addresses and miscellaneous writings, such 
as the speech made in the State Senate, in 1854, against the repealing 
of the Missouri Compromise by the Kansas-Nebraska Act; the 
speech made in this city on the Lecompton Constitution ; a speech at 
Cooper Institute, New York, on the principles of the Republican 
party; an address at Paris, in 1866, on Washington*? birthday ; an 
oration, here in Buffalo, on the Fourth of July, 1870; — all have their 
permanent value and can be read as instructively today as when they 
were first made public. They are none of them thoughts of the mo- 
ment on questions and excitements of the hour; they are all political 
studies, in which general convictions, mature and well determined. 
have been brought out and applied to the particular circumstances of 
the time. 

To these qualities of depth and strength in the thought of his dis- 
courses Mr. Putnam added the special gifts of the orator, in a sin- 
gular degree. He was born an orator, in the higher sense of that 
term, which implies something more than a man of fluent and stirring 
speech. It implies the gift of a sympathetic understanding of the 
hearts of men; the gift of an imagination that is winged and plumed 
for the upper ether; the gift of a temperament which kindles to 
glowing heat in fervent times, and flashes out its warmth on colder 
souls. With all these gifts Mr. Putnam was born. Naturally, for 
half a century, he was the one man among us whose voice the people 
of this city desired most and expected to hear, when deep feelings 
were to be expressed or matters of grave moment to be discussed. 
Pie was called upon continually for that service of expression on be- 
half of his fellow-citizens, when new institutions were hopefully un- 
dertaken or were happily opened ,to use; when important anniver- 
saries were commemorated ; when hospitable words were to be 
spoken to public guests; when a sorrowing tribute was to be paid 
to the city's nobler dead. How much of his eloquence was spent for 
us, willingly and beautifully, on occasions like those, and what dis- 
tinction it has given to the memory of them all ! 

Twice, in the years of Mr. Putnam's prime, there were long 


breaks in our enjoyment of the pleasure and the inspiration which 
his presence among us added to our lives. From 1S61 to 1867 he was 
in public service as the U. S. Consul at Havre, under an appoint- 
ment from President Lincoln; and in 1880 he was sent abroad again, 
by President Hayes, to represent our Government at the Belgian 
Court. In both instances, the best influences that work in American 
public affairs were expressed in his selection ; for he was not, as I 
said before, a politician, in any common sense of the term. To de- 
scribe him most truly in his political character I would say that he 
was of the type of the faithful citizen, whose political franchises rep- 
resent political duty to his mind, and who obeys the command of that 
duty when he interests himself in public questions and party strifes. 
He had acted with the Whig party until its dissolution, and after 
that event he had been carried by his old associations, for a short 
time, into the movement which formed the American party ; but his 
convictions and his feelings were alike anti-slavery, and he soon took 
an influential part in bringing the bulk of the "Americans" into union 
with the new party of the Republicans. In this part of the country 
that union was accomplished at the great meeting, in May, 1858, of 
which I have spoken already. In i860, he was named on the Repub- 
lican ticket as one of the two presidential electors-at-large, and was 
active in the campaign. 

Then followed his official residence for six years at Havre, which 
he could not enjoy as he might otherwise have done, because it took 
him from the country and kept him among strangers through all the 
heartache of the Civil War. At that distance and with alien sur- 
roundings it was far harder than Here at home to bear the dreadful 
anxieties of the time. Among our representatives abroad he took 
the prominence that was natural to his eminent gifts, writing the ad- 
dress of American citizens in France on the death of President Lin- 
coln, and being the chosen orator of a celebration of Washington's 
birthday, at Paris, in the year after the close of the war. 

W r hile residing as the American Minister at Brussels he was ap- 
pointed by his Government to represent it at the International Indus- 
trial Property Congress, held at Paris in 1881, to adjust rules and 
agreements concerning patents, trade-marks, and the like. He ex- 
perienced unusual pleasure in this episode of his public life. 

I have sketched but very briefly the official services which Mr. 
Putnam performed. They would bear dwelling upon at more length; 
for the record of his public life is not only a most honorable one. but 
it is astonishingly full, when we think of it as the record of one who 
carried a heavy burden of infirmities through all his life. There are 
not many with that handicap who reach honors as high ; not many 
who ach'ieve as much: not many who put their fellows so much in 
their debt. For Mr. Putnam, not only in the offices he held, but al- 
ways, in the private employments of his thought and his time, was 
continually making some or all of us debtors to him, for good service 
of some sort, rendered in some manner to others than himself. 
There was little of his life or labor spent on objects of personal gain. 
When he spoke, it was to advance a cause; when he wrote, it was 
to stir a thought or move a feeling in the public mind, or to brighten 
the memory of some good citizen who had passed from life; when 
he busied himself, it was commonly in the affairs of his church, or 


of some public institution that invoked his care. He was rarely 
without something to do, and what he did was more rarely for him- 
self. And this was so, nearly to the last days of his long life. Al- 
most to the last he resisted and overcame the infirmities of health, 
when calls for service came to him, because he could not learn to 
refuse himself, even when age and weakness required that he should. 
The great void made in this community by the ending of such a life 
is one that we shall seldom have the pain of knowing. 

Thus far, in what I have said of Mr. Putnam, I have looked only 
at the public side of his life. It presents him in his most important 
character, perhaps, but not in the character that endears him in our 
memory most. In the public arena he was impressive, inspiring, 
magnificent, and he made a conquest of the homage of our minds ; 
in the private circle he captivated hearts and minds together, in one 
happy surrender to his infinite charm. What other personality have 
we known that could radiate in all companies so instant an atmos- 
phere of social warmth? What other companion have we found 
among our neighbors whose influence was so expansive and so quick- 
ening as his? Who else could so brighten the talk of others by mag- 
netic qualities in his own? Who else has seemed so typically the so- 
cial man, — organized in all his being for human environments, for 
fellowships and friendships, for the intimate commerce of feeling and 
thought, for sympathies, for affections, for all the tender and beauti- 
ful ties that are woven together in the finer social life of mankind? 
In my memory of Mr. Putnam he is figured preeminently in that 
type, — the type of the social man. I think he illustrated it to us as 
no one else has done. His genius found expression in it, more, even, 
than in his oratory, and all his fine gifts were disclosed in it most 
finely. He found the food of his spirit in friendships and comradery, 
and he languished without them. When alone, he was easily over- 
come by depressions incident to the infirmities of his bodily health ; 
but the lift was instantaneous if he came into any company of con- 
genial friends, and he rose with a strength of spirit that bore up his 
companions with himself. 

These were marvelous and rare powers. The man who possessed 
them was a precious gift to the city in which he lived; his death 
takes a happy uplifting influence from it which can never be quite 
made good ; for no other man can ever be to Buffalo, in public serv- 
ice, in social life, in private fellowship, all that James O. Putnam has 


I need not say that I am proud to add my mite to this occasion. 
The privilege is, indeed, precious to me. and I esteem it a great 

We are here tonight to hallow the memory of one of our noblest 
citizens. His learning, eloquence, patriotism, and other civic virtues 
have been the theme of the able and discriminating address to which 
we have had the pleasure of listening, and I feel sure that could his 
spirit be cognizant of our actions he would be pleased that the friend 


who he more than once told me he regarded as Buffalo's first living 
citizen had been chosen "speaker of his living actions." 

My own meagre and imperfect tribute must needs be purely per- 
sonal. It is the overflow of a heart full of love which I ha*e reason 
to believe was to some degree mutual. I often wondered what in me 
he found to honor with his friendship. Art it certainly was not; 
perhaps for that he cared too little; it may have been our common 
devotion to the genius of Shakespeare ; or it may have been that 
mysterious and subtle something which an old and very intelligent 
Shaker I used to know, called my soul-atmosphere. 

Although I long had known Mr. Putnam as an able and highly- 
respected member of the bar, a tiusted officer of Government, a cul- 
tivated gentleman, and generally distinguished citizen, it was not till 
my admission to the Shakespeare Club of which he was a star mem- 
ber, that we became acquainted. But from that time, some thirty 
years ago, our friendship grew apace, until it ripened into an in- 
timacy which only Death could sever. But though the memory of 
our mutual relations is dear to me, I claim no preference in Mr. 
Putnam's choice of friends, for I am well aware that he had older 
and more valuable friends to whom he was closely bound, of some 
of whom it will be my pleasure to speak later. Besides his social 
nature, high ethical sense, fine tact, and, more than all, generous ap- 
preciation of all that was good in others made him the idol of re- 
fined society, and must have engendered many strong bonds of 
friendship of which I could have no knowledge. But while he was a 
favorite, while few social functions among his friends were deemed 
complete without his presence, I have reason to believe that his circle 
of intimates was choice rather than extensive. 

Although deep religious sentiment, seriousness, love of truth, 
hatred of hypocrisy and shams were the foundation of his moral 
character there was nothing of bigot in its make-up. Tolerant of the 
opinion of others, he was ever ready to admit and acknowledge the 
good in all. His natural sweetness of temper and buoyancy of spirits 
were ever ready to bring life and animation into the company unless 
oppressed with that physical suffering to which he seems to have 
been a frequent victim ; but even then the stimulus of a witty allu- 
sion or a suggestion from a favorite author would cause them to ex- 
pand into the natural florescence of their abundant elasticity. 

I recall one pleasant instance of his never-failing, ready wit: A 
number of society people had been invited to a house-warming at the 
formal opening of the Falconwood Club, Mr. Putnam being one of 
the guests. On his way down by the steamer he lost his hat. When 
later we were assembled round the festal board he was called on for 
a speech; he began to make excuses, alleging total lack of prepara- 
tion, unexpectedness, and so forth, to which the irrepressible Joseph 
Warren jokingly objected, declaring that this could not be true since 
he himself had written the speech for him and that he must have it 
in his pocket. Quick as thought Mr. Putnam exclaimed: "Why, I 
lost it ; it was in my hat when it blew off." He then went on to ad- 
dress us, and those acquainted with his ready eloquence need not be 
told that his witty and entertaining speech in which he did not spare 
his friend Warren was greatly enjoyed by that hilarious company. 
While always entertaining it was, perhaps, in our Shakespeare 


Club that our friend displayed one of his brightest sides. Ah, there 
be few left of the choice spirits which composed that harmony of 
friends. If 1 mention only those no longer living the list will be 
all too long: Putnam. Sprague, Rogers, Gray, Kent, Frothingham, 
Hazard, Babcock, Ranney, Mrs. Rogers, Mrs. Putnam, Mrs. Hazard, 
Mrs. Babcock, and Miss Wilkeson. 

Mr. Putnam's familiarity with Shakespeare included nearly all of 
his dramatic works, and his quotations were always letter-perfect. 
Tn the Shakespeare Club, though no beauty of the poet was missed 
or marred by his interpretation or reading, he was par excellence our 
Lear : the appreciating vigor with which he read that part was little 
short, if any, of Forrest in his best days. Unlike his friend Rogers, 
whose sense of humor could seldom be suppressed, he took Shake- 
speare seriously, loving him most in his sublime parts, or those 
which indicated the profundity of his insight into human nature. 

In later years he was fond of reciting Ulysses' speech to Achilles, 
in "Troilus and Cressida." Perhaps he fancied in it an adaptation to 
his own life, as I confess it fits mine, and may have meaning to others 
of advanced years with unfulfilled ambitions and lofty aims. I quote 
the passage because he loved it so : 

Time hath, my lord, a wallet at his back, 

Wherein he puts alms for oblivion, 

A great-siz'd monster of ingratitudes. 

Those scraps are good deeds past, which are devour'd 

As fast as they are made, forgot as soon 

As done. Perseverance, dear my lord, 

Keeps honour bright; to have done is to hang 

Quite out of fashion, like a rusty mail 

In monumental mockery. Take the instant way; 

For honour travels in a strait so narrow, 

Where one but goes abreast: Keep then the path, 

For emulation hath a thousand sons 

That one by one pursue. If you give way, 

Or hedge aside from the direct forthright, 

Like to an enter'd tide, they all rush by 

And leave you hindmost; 

Or, like a gallant horse fallen in first rank, 

Lie there for pavement to the abject rear, 

O'errun and trampled on. Then what they do in present, 

Though less than yours in past, must o'ertop yours; 

For time is like a fashionable host 

That slightly shakes his parting guest by the hand. 

And with his arms outstretch'd, as he would fly, 

Grasps in the comer: welcome ever smiles. 

And farewell goes out sighing. O, let not virtue seek 

Remuneration for the thing it was; 

For beauty, wit, 

High birth, vigour of bone, desert in service, 

Love, friendship, charity, are subjects all 

To envious and calumniating time. 

One touch of nature makes the whole world kin, — 

That all with one consent praise new-born gawds. 

Though they are made and moulded of things past, 

And give to' dust that is a little gilt 

More laud than gilt o'er-dusted. , 

Among the friends of Mr. Putnam with whom I was personally 
acquainted were Messrs. Fillmore, Haven, Hall, Sprague and Sher- 
man Rogers. I will not trust myself to speak of the ladies. _ The ap- 
parent physical delicacy of his slender figure often gave his friends 
solicitude. One instance I recall. I think it was at Mr. E. C. 
Sprague's house that some of these gentlemen met for a farewell 


gathering on the eve of his departure for Havre de Grace, where he 
had been appointed consul, that one of his friends (? Haven) re- 
marked after he was gone : "Dear Putnam ; we shall probably never 
see him again." Yet the irony of fate willed that he should see them 
all in their graves. 

He must have had a very marked affection for Mr. Haven ; at 
least he cherished his memory greatly, and I am sure from the talks 
we had in my studio that he had the highest respect for his char- 
acter and talents. I had an unfinished portrait of Air. Haven in my 
room which he admired very much, as it was a very good likeness, 
though painted from the corpse. This he requested me to let him 
have to keep in his study while he lived. As it is no longer wanted 
for that purpose I shall be pleased to have it go to this Society. 

As one by one of his old friends disappeared into that bourn 
whence there is no returning, he naturally clung closer to those that 
remained. The unexpected death of his friend Rogers affected him 
greatly. "Sellstedt," said he one day, "if you die before me I shall 
never forgive you." His friendship for Mr. Rogers was almost pa- 
thetic, and, indeed, I think it was about evenly returned. After the 
death of his wife and the subsequent scattering of his family Mr. 
Rogers found his home desolate and often fell back on his few re- 
maining intimates to render the evenings at his home less void. He 
often invited some of them to dine and spend the evening with him. 
Mr. Putnam and Mr. Johnston were frequent guests and even I 
was sometimes of the symposia. The last of these memorable occa- 
sions was the Monday of the week he left for California never to see 
his friends in Buffalo again. It was a cold winter evening when he 
sent his carriage for Mr. Putnam and myself to come and dine with 
him. Mr. Johnston was there, and a more genial set of old fellows 
would be hard to imagine. In the whist, which little deserved its 
name, that followed the excellent, but unpretending, repast, I think 
Mr. Putnam was the boyiest boy in the party, and even our host for 
the nounce forgot his grief, joining his partner in joyous boasting 
over their easily won victory. When we left in Mr. Rogers' carriage 
he insisted on accompanying us to our respective homes, and this was 
the last time I ever saw him. 

I have alluded to Mr. Putnam's lack of interest in painting. This 
I think rose in part from defective vision in his latest years; per- 
haps also his absorption in business and kindred studies had pre- 
vented his attention being called to it. I remember that while I was 
his guest in Brussels, where he had invited me to visit him when I 
was staying in Paris with my family, I proposed a visit to the art 
galleries. He had not been there before, and was much interested, 
regretting that he had neglected to visit them. Especially was he in- 
terested in the Wirtz collection, that melange of artistic vagaries so 
well calculated to cast their fearful weird over the sensitive beholder. 

But though his interest in pictorial art was limited, his love of 
poetry and the higher forms of literature was boundless. No touch 
of the poet's fancy was too fine for his exquisite sense, no shade too 
elusive to escape his sympathetic nature. As he loved Shakespeare, 
so he revelled in Spenser and Shelley, and no beauty of diction es- 
caped his critical acumen. 

At all times a delightful companion, he always brought out the 


best that was in me. May not this fine trait he one of the secrets of 
the charming conversational powers of which he was a past master? 

Mr. Putnam's last visit to my studio was on the afternoon before 
the Angel of Death touched him with his wing. He seemed tired 
and feeble, but after a slight restorative his spirits rose to their usual 
tone, and I had no reason to fear that I should never again hear the 
sound of his familiar and ever-welcome footfalls approaching my 
studio door. 

Though I think Mr. Putnam's orthodoxy would have satisfied 
even John Knox himself, at least in essentials, his broad mind could 
not be bounded within the ironclad precincts that inclose error as 
well as truth. He was a liberal thinker, willing to discuss the dif- 
ficulties which science has put in the way of that simplicity of faith 
which all regret the loss of, and which will ever trouble the intelli- 
gent believer. Immortality seemed to fill him with dread, the idea of 
living forever was associated with a never-ceasing activity, and what 
he most desired was rest. These were the promptings of a feeble 
frame which confined a glorious spirit. None knows anything of a 
future life beyond what Christ has told us ; but though he has left 
us the assurance that in his Father's house are many mansions we are 
left in ignorance of their nature. Of one thing we may be reasonably 
sure: the influence of a good life will be felt till time shall be no 

Whatever may be the nature of the life he now in glory lives, in 
the hearts of his friends his memory is immortal. 

Requiescat in Pace. 



(List revised to November, 1903.) 


No living Patron, the late Hon. Tames M. Smith having been the only 
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£ 639 



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Adams, William Wallace 
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Union Springs, N. Y. 
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Griffin, Martin I. J Philadelphia, Pa. 

Griffis, Rev. William Eliot Ithaca, N. Y. 

Hakes, Harry, M. D Wilkesbarre. Pa. 

Hall, William Moseley New York City. 

Harris, Capt. Peter C, oth U. S. Inf Fort Niagara, N. Y. 

Harris, Very Rev. W. R St. Catharines, Ont. 

Hart, Charles Henry Philadelphia, Pa. 

Hart, Hon. W. O New Orleans. La. 

Hastings, Hon. Hugh Albany, N. Y. 

Havens, Mrs. Alonzo East Aurora, N. Y. 

Hayden, Rev. Horace Edwin Wilkesbarre, Pa. 

Hayes, Rev. Charles W., D. D Phelps, N. Y. 

Hayward. John A Washington, D. C. 

Heyd, Hon. C. B Brantford, Ont. 

Hill, Josiah Oswekon, Ont. 

Hodgkins, William H Somerville. Mass. 

Hotchkiss. William Lewiston, N. Y. 

Howes, Charles N Silver Creek, N. Y. 

Hubbard, Elbert East Aurora, N. Y. 

Hunt, G. B Clarence, N. Y. 

Jackman, Warren Lima, N. Y. 

James, John II Urbana, Ohio. 

Jocelyn, Capt. Stephen P., U. S. A Plattsburg P.arracks, N. Y. 

Johnson, Samuel Dowagiac, Mich. 

Johnson, Mrs. Samuel Dowagiac, Mich. 


te 11 , ";' Fernando Chicago, 111. 

Jordon, John VV Philadelohia Pi 

kendrick Prof Asahel C, D. D. . \ \ \ \ \ \ Rochester^ N.y! 

Keppler, Joseph New y or k Citv 

Ki Hebrew Col. John B \ \\ SLhville, Ten'n. 

Kirby, William. Niagara, Ont. 

Lamasure, Edwin Washington, D. C. 

Lewis, Joseph D Gcneseo, N. Y. 

\? V r' 1° £ U a "o San Francisco. Cal. 

McCord. David R .Montreal, P. O. 

Marr, Robert A. . Edinburgh, Scotland. 

Mernam, Hon Clinton L Locust Grove, N. Y. 

Merritt Hon J. P. . Sfc Catharines, Ont. 

Meux Lady Virginia A Theobald's Park, London. 

Minard John b Cuba> N . Y . 

Moore, EM. Rochester, N. Y. 

Morgan, Henry J. Ottawa, Ont. 

M. u r r ay> Hon. Havid New Brunswick, N. J. 

Nichols, D. A. A Westfield, N. Y. 

Niven, Archibald C Monticello, N. Y. 

S i? st , e , d * ?, e . v - V 9 • • • Fort Edward, N. Y. 

O Reilly, Miss Isabel M Overbrook, Pa. 

Osborne, Charles R P.atavia, N. Y. 

Osgood, Howard L '.'.'. Rochester, N. Y. 

Parker, Mrs. Jane Marsh Rochester, N. Y. 

Pierce, Frederick C . . Chicago, 111. 

Plumb, Rev. A. II Roxbury, Mass. 

Poillon, William, A. M New York City. 

Post, Daniel H Jamestown, N. Y. 

Prentice, Hon. Amos W 'Norwich, Conn. 

Rankin, Rev. J. E., D. D Washington, D. C. 

Richmond, James Toronto, Ont. 

Ritch, Thomas G Stamford, Conn. 

Roberts, Hon. Ellis H Utica, N. Y. 

Rochester, Gen. William B Washington, D. C. 

Ross, Hon. G. W., LL.D., M. P. P. ...... Toronto. Ont. 

Safford, Prof. James M Nashville, Tenn. 

Salisbury, Prof. Edward E New Haven, Conn. 

Samson, W. H Rochester, N. Y. 

Sanborn. Rev. John W Naples, N. Y. 

Sellers, Edwin Jaquett Philadelphia, Pa. 

Sheldon, Hon. George Deerfield, Mass. 

Sheldon, Henry L Middlebury, Vt. 

Sherman, Daniel Forestville, N. Y. 

Skinner, Rev. James A Albany, N. Y. 

Slafter, Rev. Edmund F., A. M Boston, Mass. 

Smith, Chief Alexander D Brantford, Ont. 

Smith, Hon. Carroll E Syracuse, N. Y. 

Southwick, Edmund Evans. N. Y. 

Starr, George W Erie, Pa. 

Steadman, Stephen Newport, R. I. 

Stevens. Alden S Attica, N. Y. 

Stone, William L Mount Vernon. N. Y. 

Strong, Rev. Augustus H., D. D Rochester, N. Y. 

Suite, Benjamin Ottawa, Ont. 

Thwaites, Reuben Gold Madison. Wis. 

Tillinghast, C. B Boston, Mass. 

Trask, Williarn B., A. M Boston, Mass. 

Tryon, Amos S Lewiston, N. Y. 

Van Campen, George Olean, N. Y. 

Vandermissen, W. II., M. A Toronto, Ont. 

Waite, Hon. John T Norwich, Conn. 

Waith, Rev. William, Ph.D Lancaster, N. Y. 

Watson. Hon. Robert, M. P Ottawa. Ont ; 

Weed, Monroe Wyoming, N. Y. 

Welles, Hon. Samuel R Waterloo, N. Y. 

Wheeler, Richard A Stonington, Conn. 

White, Hon. Peter Marquette, Mich. 

Williams, Hon. A. J Cleveland, O. 

Whitehead, A. P Newark, N. J. 


VViltse, L. G Clarence, N. Y. 

Wing, Prof. Charles N Ledger, N. C. 

Wood, Lyman Wales Center, N. Y. 

Wood, Percy London, England. 

Woodward, Mrs. fallen E. L Chicago, 111. 

Worthen, Prof. A. H Springfield, 111. 

Younglove, Timothy M Hammondsport, N. Y. 

Total membership, November, 1903: 

Honorary 8 

Life 140 

Resident 404 

Corresponding 154 

Total 706 

Erratum: In list of life members, for "Eisele, Edward J.," read "Eisele, 
Edward A." 


(Not including names in the Bibliography or list of members of the Buffalo 
Historical Society.) 

A. B. C. F. M., see American Board 
of Commissioners for Foreign Mis- 
sions, 137. 

Abeel (original style ABeel; common 
but incorrect form O'Bail), father 
of Cornplanter, 416. 

Abington, Pa., 5.21, 522. 

"Account of the Seneca Indians and 
Mission," ms., cited, 128. 

Adams, S. Cary, 613. 

Addison, Rev. Robert, sketch, 214, 
note, 215. 

Ah-wes-coy, 391. 

Aikman family, 440. 

Albany, "Humble petition of the prin- 
ciple merchants," protesting against 
establishment of trading-post on Ni- 
agara portage, 1762, 40-41; Iroquois 
conciliated by the Dutch, 98; Rev. 
John Ogilvie appointed to mission, 
165, note; treaty at, 1802, 536; 
treaty of March 6, 1330, 577-. 

Albright, Col., commands militia at 
Frankstown, 388, 389, 394- 

Albright Art Gallery, 618. 

Alden, Rev. Timothy. "Account of 
sundry missions performed among 
the Senecas and Munsees," quoted, 
129-13^, 134-137; tribute to J. B. 
Hyde, 138; letter to, from J. h. 
Hyde, 1827, 273, note. 
Alexander, James, 38, note. 

Alexander, Rev. John, missionary, re- 
jected by the Senecas, 126-127, 130. 

Alexander, Win., Lord Sterling, 38, 
note, 30- note. 

Allan, Chloe, 493-494. 

Allan, Ebenezer, Col. Proctor at his 
house, 489-490; loss of his Genesee 
tract, 493-494- 

Allan, Mary, 493-494- 

Allegany Co., N. Y., 493- 

Alleghany Mts., crossed by Jacob 
Lindley, 1797. 170-171, T 79- 

Alleghany Reservation, delegates to 
last Indian council on the Genesee, 
107; teachers sent to by Society of 
Friends, 127, 167-168. 250; Indians 
removed to from Buffalo Creek res- 
ervation, 160-161; progress of Chris- 
tianity, 267, 269-270; boy sent to 
Buffalo mission school, 315-316*. 
Cornplanter's mission to, 1791. 4$7. 

mission to, 

490; Col. Proctor's 
1791, 490-491. 

Allegheny River, migration of Senecas 
to, 101. 

Allen, Benj., 481, 482. 

Allen, Lewis F., one of the founders 
of the Buffalo Historical Society, 

Allen, Hon. Orlando, address at last 
Indian council on the Genesee, 117. 
120; cited, 12S, note; mentioned, 
404, note; cited, 408, note; reads 
Stephen Parrish s ms. before Buf- 
falo Historical Society, 425, note, 
cited, 453; quoted, 459-460; copy 
of Parrish ms., 527, note; "Personal 
recollections of Captains Jones and 
Parrish, and of the payment of In- 
dian annuities in Buffalo," ^39-546. 

Allins (Allen's) River, N. Y., 229. 

American Bible Society, 274. 

American Board of Commissioners for 
Foreign Missions, possession of 
Vinton ms., 137, note; United For- 
eign Missionary Society merged in, 
151; J. C. Crane chosen assistant 
secretary, 330, note. 

American Foreign Mission [?], 182. 

American Historical Review, reprint 
from, 47-71. 

American Pioneer, cited, 181. 

American Tract Society, publication 
of Seneca hymn book. 147, 153; of 
the Gospel of St. Luke, in Seneca, 

Amherst, Gen. Sir Jeffrey, 22; letter 
to Col. Bouquet cited, 27, note, 29 
and note; orders schooners built at 
Navy Island, 30; strengthens north- 
ern posts and sends Sir \Ym. John- 
son to conciliate western Indians, 
1 761 , 33-37; establishment of trad- 
ing-post and settlement by Ruther- 
ford, Duncan & Co., on Niagara 
portage, 36-45; ordered to protect 
Indian lands, 42-44. 

Ancaster, Ont., 214, note. 

Anderson, John, 50. 

Andrews, Charles, prize-master, 

Andrews, Colin, quoted, 29-30- 

Angel, Benjamin F.. quoted, 
note, 513-514; credited, 514. 
marries Julia Jones, 525. 





Angel, Mrs. Julia Jones (Mrs. Benja- 
min F. Angel), 525. 

Ariana Museum, Geneva, Switzerland, 

Armstrong, Josiah, 3S0. 

Armstrong, Thomas, Indian interpre- 
ter, 131; marriage, 137, 280 and 
note; displeased with mission at 
Buffalo Creek, 200-291. 

Armstrong, Mrs. Win., 380. 

Arnold, Alonzo A., 3S9. 

Ash, James, 613. 

Ash, Sylvester, 496, note. 

Askin, Catherine, Mrs. Robert Hamil- 
ton, 77. 

Astor, John Jacob, visits Horatio 
Jones, 473-474; sketch, 473, note. 

Astor, Win. Waldorf, quoted, 473, 

Attica, N. Y., 629. 

Attica & Buffalo Railway, 629. 

Aurora plank road, 542. 

Austin, George, 500, note. 

Austinburg, Pa., 181. 

Avery, Christopher, 223, note. 

Avery, Tames, 222,, note. 

Avery, Rev. Joseph, visit to Buffalo 
in 1803, 223-230. 

Avery Park Memorial Association, 
223, note. 

Avon, N. Y., 485. 

Avon, Geneseo & Mt. Morris Railroad, 

Avon Springs, N. Y., Seneca village 
near, 101. 

Babcock, George A., 607. 

Babcock, George R., 629, 635. 

Babcock, Mrs. George R., 635. 

Bacon. Rev. David. 181; "Visits to 
Buffalo in 1800 and 1801," 183-186. 

Badger, Rev. Joseph, 181. 

Baker, Albert L., 607. 

Bald Eagle Creek, 451, 456. 

Baldwin, John, 169. 

Baldwin, Joshua. 169. 

Baldwin. Catt. Waterman, 489, 491. 

Baltimore. Mrs. Esther (Henry), 380. 

Baptist Church, mission of Rev. Ros- 
well Burrows to Western N. Y., 
231-238; teacher invited to Tonne- 
wanda, 296-297; driven away, 312. 

Baptist Church, Tuscarora Reserva- 
tion, 182. 

Barca, Calderon de, 12. 

Barge, Dominick de, 491. (Correct 
form De Barges, also written De- 
bartzch and De Bartych, q. t\), 472, 

Bartle, Copt. Peter. 477, 481. 

Barton, Rev. W. E., "Early ecclesias- 
tical history of the Western Re- 
serve" cited. 181. 

Bartych, de, Ercnch trader, 472. See 
Barge, D. de. 

Basket, Elizabeth. 361. 

Bassett, Rev. Archibald, 181. 

Bassett, Mat. Henry, letter to Gen. 
Haldimand, cited. 44, note. 

Batavia, N. Y., 208; in 1804, 221; 
visited by Rev. Joseph Avery, 1S05, 

225-226, 228, 229; visited by Rev. 
K. Burrows, 1806, 232. 
Bates, Rhode, 380. 
Bath, N. Y., Lindley's visits to, 1797. 

171, 179; mentioned, 511. 
Bear clan, 464. 

J '.card's Creek, N. Y., 484, note. 
Beauharnois, Marquis de, 17-18. 
"Beaver," vessel, built, 24; at the 
siege of Detroit, 1763, 25-27; 
wrecked, 27-29. 
Bedford, Eort, see Eort Bedford. 
Bedford Co., Pa., 118, 388, 459. 
Bedford Rangers, 389. 
Benjamin, Ira, 227. 
Rennet, Mrs. Aurelia W., 380. 
Bennet, Jacob, 380. 
Rennet, Mrs. Jacob, 380. 
Bennet, Mrs. John, 380. 
Bennett, Lewis, 465, note. 
Bennett, Maj., N. Y. militia, 18 13, 

Bennett, a guide, 510. 
Bently, Eli, 523. 
Bently, Mrs. Mary Hunter (Mrs. Eli 

Bently), 523. 
Benton, Dr. Caleb, 481. 
Berard, Claude, 60. 
Berkshire (Mass.) Missionary Society, 

223, note. 
Berrick's Sons, Charles, 611. 
Berry, Maj. Jack, (Do-eh-saw) 176, 
391, 392, befriends Horatio Jones, 
402-414; goes to Little Beard's 
Town, 418; on committee acting in 
sale to Phelps and Gnrham, 4S2. 
Bible, portions translated into the 
Seneca language. 131-132, 135, 146, 
147, IS2-153, 159-160. 
Big Jacob, 379. 

Big Throat. See Parrish, Capt. Jas- 
Big Tree (Ga-non-do-wa-nah), ^.S4, 

486, 487, 4S9, death, 507. 
Big Tree Treaty, 100, 499. 
Big Tree's Village (the Genesee Castle 
of the Senccas), 393, 483, 4S4 and 
note, 485. 
Billimer, Michael. 441, 447. 
Billy, Captain, Indian chief, 131, i>', 

Billy, Mrs. Captain, 180. 
I Birch, Mrs. Martha (Mrs. John), 175. 
Bird, Wm. A., purchase of the Bird 

farm, Buffalo, 502. 
Bishop, Asenath, 148, 150, 157, 346, 

Bissell. Dr. D. P.. 475, note. 
, Bissell, Hon. Wilson Shannon, 618, 
624; memorial adopted by the Buf- 
falo Historical Societv, 627. 
! Black Chief, 489. 
Black Joe, 470. 
Black Rock, Rev. David Bacon passed, 

1801. 186. 
Black Squirrel, Laura, 380. 
Blacksnake, "Governor," 114- 11?; 
known by Orlando Allen, iiS; 
delegate to Philadelphia, I790 -I » 
486-487; annuity, 540. 
Blacksnake, Mrs. Jacob, 380. 



Blacksnake, Wm. (Sho-noh-go-waah), 

at last Indian council on the Gene- 
see, 114. 

Blakey, Wm., 169, note. 

Blanco del Valle, Don Juan, 7-13. 

Blanford, Mass., 1S1. 

Blood, Caleb, missionary tour to head 
of Lake Ontario, 208; good results, 

Bloomfield, Conn., 181, 223, note. 

Board of Correspondents, in the col- 
ony of Connecticut, New England, 
appointed and commissioned by the 
Honorable Society in Scotland for 
propagating Christian Knowledge, 

Bolton, Scotland, home of Robert 
Hamilton, 74. 

Bombary, Capt., Btsh. officer at the 
Miami, 1793, 497. 

Bomford, Capt. Thomas, 71. 

Bomford, Trevor, 71. 

Boston Baptist Missionary Society 
cited, 236. 

"Boston," schooner, built, 31; fate, 

Boughton, Enos, 478, 480. 

Boughton Hill, Victor, N. Y., 480. 

Boughton, Jared, 478. 

Bouquet, Col. Henry, and early boat- 
building on Lake Erie, 20-22, 24-25. 

Bovier, Asa P., 443, note. 

Boyd, Col. John, 389, 393; captured 
by the Senecas, 394, 398, 400; runs 
the gauntlet, 408-409; sent to Que- 
bec, 415; dies, 415, note; men- 
tioned, 423, 443, note. 

Boyd, Lt. Thomas, 393; tortured to 
death, 422, 442, 4S3 and note. 

Boyd, William, 393. 

Boyr.e, battle of the, 523. 

Bradley, Mrs. Catharine Wheeler, 150. 

Bradley, Hanover, teacher at Seneca 
mission, Buffalo Creek, 150; in 
charge of mission, 154; 346. 

Bradstreet, Gen. John, expedition to 
Detroit, 1764, 31. 

Bradt, Capt. Andrew, 87. 

Brant, Elizabeth, marriage to Col. W. 
B. Kerr, 108. 

Brant, Capt. Joseph, embassy to Que- 
bec, 1 79 1 . S9; mentioned, 103; 
presence of his grandson, Col. Kerr, 
at last Indian council on the dene- 
see, 108, 117; saves James Pember- 
ton from torture, 426; expedition 
to Pennsylvania, 1780, 442-447, 516; 
visits Gen. Ilaldimand and secures 
Grand River tract for Mohawks, 
467; notifies Gov. Clinton of repu- 
diation of treaty of Feb., 1789, by 
the Six Nations, 480; mission to 
western Indians, 1791, 491; at Ni- 
agara council, 1793, 496; urges 

' western Indians to make peace with 
the U. S., 1703, 497; at Buffalo 
Creek council, 1794, 498. 

Brant, Mary, Mrs,. Wm. Johnson, 93- 

Brewer, James (Quaw-wa), 511-512, 

Briggs, Dr. Albert II., 624- 

"British privateer in the American 
revolution," 47-71. 

Brock, Gen. Sir Isaac, burial, 214, 

Brooks, Preston, 628. 

Cronson, Isaac, 503. 

Brothertown, 100. 

Brown, Mrs. D. C, "Memoir of the 
late Rev. Lemuel Covell" cited, 208, 

Brown. George V., "From Lake Erie 
to Morocco," 1-14- 

Brown, Marion (Mrs. Charles Clute), 

Brown, Capt., Cumberland Co. (Pa.) 
militia, 388. 

Brown's buildings, Buffalo, site of, 

P.rownell, J. R., 613. 
I Brussels, 632, 636. 

Bryant, Abner, 340. 

Buchanan, Sir Andrew, 12. 

Buck Island. See Carleton Island. 

Buell, Mrs. Ann Hunter (Mrs. Thos. 
Buell), 523- 

Buell, Mrs. Margrate Hunter (Mrs. 
William Buell), 5-3- 

Buell, Col. Thomas, 523. 

Buell, William, 523. 

Buffalo, 1; "Messenger" sails from, 
14, note; English railway iron 
shipped to, 14. note; Seneca mis- 
sion-house and cemetery, 134; Main 
St. site of First Universalist Church, 
134, 278; visited by Joseph Badger, 
1S01 and 1802, 181; visited by 
Rev. David Bacon, 1800 and 1801, 
18 vi 86; visited by Rev. Elkanah 
Flolmes, 194-196; visited by Rev. 
Lemuel Covell, 1S03, 209, 214; visit 
of Gerard T. Hopkins. 1804. 217- 
222; visit of Rev. Joseph Avery, 
1805, 22S; visit of Rev. Roswell 
Burrows, 1806. 231-238; twenty- four 
Tonnawanta Senecas remove to, 261, 
note; passed by Miss Esther Low, 
1819, 278; arrival of Rev. T. S. 
Harris, 1821, 281; first picture, a 
sketch of Seneca council, i793» 493> 
note; Jones and Parrish tracts. 500- 
502; in 1820-30 (?) and payment 
of Indian annuities, described by 
Orlando Allen, 539-545- 

Buffalo Board of Trade Regiment, 

Buffalo Creek, migration of Senecas 
to. 101; anecdote of an annual 
council. 120: "The Seneca mission 
at Buffalo Creek," 125-161; "Nar- 
ratives of early mission work," 163- 
380; visited by Jacob Lindley, 1797. 
i~3. 176; Joseph Badger's team the 
first to cross, 1802, 181; visits of 
Rev. David Bacon, 1800-1. 183-186; 
first mention of flood, 1800, 196; 
trail followed by Horatio Jones, 
1782, 437; council of July, 178S, 
Phelps and Gorham Purchase, 476- 
477. 493J beginning of Mile Strip, 



Buffalo Creek, Treaty of, 1838-9, 160; 
treaty of, 1788. ^67, 403. 

Buffalo Creek Reservation, 127; land 
sold to Ogden Land Co. and In- 
dians removed, 161; saw mill built, 
temperance movement encouraged, 
168; "A teacher among the Sene- 
cas: narrative of Jabez Backus Hyde, 
1811-1820," 239-274; progress of 
Christianity, 271; "Journals of Rev. 
T. S. Harris, 1821-1828," 281-378; 
council called by Cornplanter, 1791, 
490; council to consider Col. Proc- 
tor's mission, 1791, 491-492; treaty 
with Senecas at, 1813, 537; council 
of Six Nations, 1823, 537; Hon. 
Orlando Allen's account of payment 
of Indian annuities, 539-546; see 
also Seneca mission at Buffalo 
Creek; visit of Gen. Benj. Lincoln, 
1793. 495;. sketch of this council by 
Col. Pilkington in possession of 
Massachusetts Historical Society, 
49S> note; council of Feb., 1794, 
497-498; treaty concerning sale of 
Little Beard's Reservation to Hora- 
tion Jones, 503. 

Buffalo Fine Arts Academy, 618. 

Buffalo Historical Society, possession 
of ms. of Geo. V. Brown, 14; "Pub- 
lications" cited, 29, note, 30, note, 
607, 612, note; J. B. Hyde's ms. 
cited. 128; possession of only 
known copy of first edition of 
Young's Seneca hymn book, 147 and 
note; preservation of weather-vane 
from Seneca mission church, 153, 
note; possession of Burrows ms., 
231, note; possession of Hyde ms., 
239, note; possession of Harris ms., 
281, note; possession of set of the 
Gospel AdTocatc. 379; purchases 
ms. of "Life of Horatio Jones," 
383; possession of ms. of Augustus 
Porter. 503, note; possession of 
Orlando Allen papers, 527, note, 
545. note; Hon. Orlando Allen's 
narrative. 539, note; dedication of 
the building, Sept. 30. 1002, 607- 
616; history and work of the so- 
ciety, 607-609; history of the build- 
ing, 610-612; unveiling of the sta- 
tue of Lincoln, 612-616; _ proceed- 
ings of 41st annual meeting, Jan. 
13, 1903, 616-626; President Lang- 
don's report. 617-622; presentation 
to Mr. Langdon of a golden key to 
doors of society's building, 622-626; 
"Memorial on the death of George 
S. Hazard," 626-627; "Memorial on 
the death of Hon. Wilson S. Bis- 
sell." 627; James O. Putnam me- 
morial evening, 627-637. 

Buffalo Medical Association, 608. 

Buffalo, Park Commissioners, Board 
of, 610-611, 624. 

Buffalo Patriot, cited, 153. 274, 280, 

Buffalo, Presbvterv of, trial of Jabez 
B. Hyde, 1S27. 237. note. 

Buffalo & Rochester Railway, 629. 

Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences, 

Buffalo Tom. See Temison, Thomas. 

Burch, John, 86, 88-89. 

Burford, Ont., 212. 

Burril, Adam and Sarah, 174. 

Burrows, Rev. Roswell, "Visit to Buf- 
falo, in 1806," 231-238. 

Burrows, Roswell L., 231, note. 

Burton, Simon, 379. 

Butler, Col. John, 76, 390, 427, 447, 
458, 462, 492. 

Butler's Rangers, at Newark (.Niagara- 
on-the-Lake), 84; mentioned 85, 86, 
8S, 104. 451. 

Butterfield, C. W., "History of the 
Girtys" quoted, 496, note. 

Cadiz, quarantine regulations, 1-4; re- 
turn of "Republican" to, 13. 

Calderon de la Barca, 12. 

Caledonia, N. Y., 230, 461. 

Calhoun, John C, Dr. Morse's rept. 
to, 269, note: appealed to in vain 
to save the Allan tract at Mt. Mor- 
ris, 493; Jasper Parrish's letters to 
concerning lands at Green Bay, 537- 

Camp, Caroline (Mrs. William Jones), 

Camp, Edward, 524. 

Camp, Mrs. Elizabeth Jones (Mrs. 
Edward Camn), 524. 

Campbell, Lt. Col. Archibald, 53, 57- 

Campbell, Capt. Donald, 2T-22, 24-25; 
warns Fort Niagara of Seneca plot, 
1761, 35; with Maj. Rogers takes 
possession of Detroit, 1760, 38. 

Campbell, Capt. Patrick, visit to Niag- 
ara Falls and Oueenston, 1 791-2, 79- 
80. 91; "Travels in the interior in- 
habited parts of North America," 
cited. 80, note. 

Canada, settlement of Quakers in, 169, 
I note: missionary visit of Covell 
and Warren. 1803, 207-216; Cayuga 
Indians in, 250. 
I Canada, Upper. See L"pper Canada. 

Canadaway, N. Y., 234 and note. 
I "Canadian archives," cited, 17-22 
notes, 24-27 notes, 33. note, 76, 
note. 77, note, 82, note. 

Canadian Institute, Transactions, cited, 
75. note, 76, note. 

Canandaigua, N. Y., visit of Rev. 
David Bacon, 1800, 184; passed by 
G. T. Hopkins, 1804.222; visited by 
Miss Esther Low, 1S19, 276; villace 
founded, 1 7S8, 47S; Joseph Smith 
opens tavern, 480; on early trade 
route, 480; visit of Horatio Jones 
and family, 485; signatures and 
marks of Indian chiefs, etc., in On- 
tario county clerk's office, 493, note; 
Horatio Jones meets Jemima Wil- 
kinson, 494; last general council 
between the U. S. Government and 
the Six Nations, Oct.. i794> 498, 
534; Indian annuity paid at, 537; 
death of Jasper Parrish, 538. 

Canandarque, N. Y., 534. 



Canaseraga Creek, N. Y., 489. 

Can-a-wau-gus, Seneca village, 101. 

Caneadea (Ga-6-ya-de-o), N. Y., old 
council house, 97-123; Seneca vil- 
lage, 102; the last council, 107-123; 
in 1779-81, 389-391; running of the 
gauntlet, 407-411, 415, note, 456; 
mentioned, 490. 

Canistiere (Canisteo) River, 171, 179. 

Cannidoway Creek Settlement. See 
Canadaway, N. Y. 

Canniff, Dr. Wm., "History of the 
province of Ontario," cited, 74; 
quoted, 83. 

Carleton, Gen. Guy, 75, 467. 

Carleton Island (Deer or Buck Isl- 
and), Lake Ontario, Robert Hamil- 
ton's trading-post, 75-77. 

Carlton, Upper Canada, 236. 

Cartier, Jacques, 97. 

Cartwright. Richard, 75; partnership 
with Robert Hamilton, 76-77, 84; 
Judge of Mecklenburgh, 82 ; in the 
Legislative Council of Upper Can- 
ada, 83. 

Carver, Capt. Jonathan, "Travel* 
through the interior parts of North 
America" cited, 19 and note, quoted, 
32-33 and notes. 

Cary, George, 611, 621. 

Cashong, 472. 

Caswell, H. S., "Our life among the 
Iroquois" cited, 157. note. 

Cat Fish Creek, wreck of the "Bea- 
ver," 29. 

Cataraqui. See Kingston. 

Catawissa, Pa., 170, 180. 

Cattaraugus Creek, migration of Sene- 
cas to, 101 ; passed by Horatio 
Jones, 1782, 437; by Col. Proctor, 
1791, 491. 

Cattaraugus Reservation, delegates to 
last Indian council on the^ Genesee. 
107; teachers sent to by Society of 
Friends in Philadelphia, 127, 150- 
151, 250; home of Mrs. Martha F. 
Parker, 128, note, 155; preaching 
by J. B. Hyde, 135: under charge 
of Rev. T. S. Harris, 150; placed 
under control of Am. Board of 
Commissioners for Foreign Mis- 
sions, 151; printing-press estab- 
lished, 1846, 158-160; removal to of 
Indians and mission family from 
Buffalo Creek reservation, 161; re- 
quest aid from Quakers, 167-16S; 
visited by Rev. Roswell Burrows. 
1806, 233-236: introduction of 
Christianity. 267-260; "Journals of 
Rev. Thompson S. Harris: his mis- 
sionary labors, 1821-28," 281-37S; 
Chester C. Lay, U. S. interpreter 
for, 386; former ownership of part 
of land, 304. 

Cayantha, Peter, 489, 491. 

Cayuga, Judy, 416, note, 505. 

Cayuga, Tom, 416, note, 505. 

Cayuga Indians, 08. 114; those at 
Buffalo Creek Reservation agree to 
receive missionary teachers, 133; 
consent to receive a settled minister 

at Buffalo Creek, 137; remnants 
scattered, 250: consent to receive 
missionary teachers, 262 ; clans, 415; 
lands ceded to the state, 479; treaty 
repudiated by the Six Nations, 480; 
confirmed in their reservation, 1794. 
498; receive annuity from N. Y. 
State, 539-544; part settle at Grand 
River, Canada, 540, note. 

Cayuga Lake, 222. 

Cazenovia Creek, Indian settlements, 

Cemetery, Indian, at Buffalo, 134- 

Chalmers, Rev. Thos., invited to Can- 
ada. 83. 

Champlain, Samuel de, C7-98. 
I Chapin, Rev. Calvin, 181. 

Chapin, Gen. Israel, 495, note, 497 and 
note, 534- 

Chapman, Charles, 180. 

Charles, Isaac, 193. 

Charlotte, Queen, Queenston named in 
honor of, 78. 

"Charlotte," sloop. See "Royal Char- 

Charlton, Hon. B. E., 622. 

Charter Oak, 614. 

Chegouamigon Bay, 17. 
I Chemung Narrows, 530. 

Chemuncr, N. Y., 5^8, 53°- 

Cherry Creek, Indian massacre, 100. 

Chester, Rev. Alfred, 338. 

Chester Co., Pa., 515. 
I Chew, Wm., 361. 

J Chickasaw Indians, mission to, 187. 
I Childs, Pattv, 276. 

! Chimney, stone, at Niagara, surmised 
I uses, 40. 

' Chippewa, supplants Fort Schlosser on 
old trade route, 7S; Robert Hamil- 
ton's buildings, 81-82: visited by 
Rev. L. Covell in 1803, 214-215; 
visited by Rev. Joseph Avery, 1803, 

; Chiop'ewa, Fort. See Fort Chippewa. 

: "Chippewa." ship, 407. 

i Chippewa Indians, adoption of John 

Rutherford. 27; mentioned, 497- 
j Choctaw Indians, Rev. David and 

Mrs. Remington missionaries to, 

275. note. . fJ 

I "Christ's Sermon on the Mountain. 

Seneca version, 147. 152-153. 
"Church Covenant, A." by Flkanah 

Holmes, fac-simile of page, 205. 
I Church property bill, N. Y. State, 629- 

Clark. Oilman, missionary at Seneca 

mission. Buffalo Creek, 130, 351. 
Clark, Col. John. 80. 
Clavton, Thomas, J40. 
Cleveland. ().. sailing of the "Massil- 

lon" and "Valeria" from, 14, note. 
! Clinton, DeWitt, 621. 
: Clinton, Gor'. George, 478-482. 
j Clinton. Hon. George \\'.. 607. 
i Clute, Alexander. ^24. 525. 
! Clute. Mrs. Almira Glines (Mrs. Tag. 

II. Clute). 525. 
> Clute, Charles, 525. 
! Clute, Charles Benjamin, 525. 



Clute, Charles O. S., 525. 
Clute Elizabeth, 525 
Clute, Ella, 525. 
Clute, Fayette, 524. 

Clute, Frederick, 525. 

Clute, George, 524. 

Clute, Grace, 525. 

Clute, Mrs. Harriet Jones, 526. 

Clute, James, 525. 

Clute, James H., 525. 

Clute, Jellis, 511, 524. 

Clute, Mrs. Marion Brown (Mrs. 
Charles O. S. Clute), 525. 

Clute, Myrtle, 525. 

Clute, Mrs. Nancy Jones (Mrs. Jellis 
Clute), 524. 

Clute, Mrs. Sarah E. (Mrs. Alexander 
Clute), 524, 525. 

Clute, Sarah J. E. (Mrs. Chester B. 
Gunn), 525. 

Clute, William, 525. 

Coates, Isaac, 160. 

Cobb, Ebenezer S., 538. 

Cochrane, Copt. Gavin, rescue of the 
"Beaver's" shipwrecked crew, 29. 

Cockspur Island, Ga., 58. 

Cohocton River, 171, 179. 

Colden, Lt. Gov. Cadwallader, corre- 
spondence with the Lords of Trade 
regarding encroachments on Indian 
lands, 42. 

Coleman, Michael, 393. 

Coleman, Thomas, 393. 

Colt, James F., 483, note. 

Commerce. trans-Atlantic, from the 
Great Lakes, 14. note; early ship- 
building on the Great Lakes, 17-33. 

Commerce, over the Niagara portage, 
1 779-1 796, 75-78; Canadian trans- 
fer business controlled by Robert 
Hamilton. Si. 

Comstock, Jared, 172. 

Comstock, "Mary, 172. 

Comstock, Nathan, 172. 

Comstock, Otis, 172. 

Connecticut, Missionary Society of. 
See Missionary Society of Connec- 

Connewago, 4S9. 

Conover, Hon. George S-, 386. 

Constellation, Toronto, quoted, 80. 

"Constitution," frigate, 614. 

Cook, Lt. John, 393, 394; captured j 
by the Senecas, 395, 398; tortured, 
400; sent to Quebec, 415; dies, 
415* note. 

Cook, Col. William, 393, 441. 

Cook House, near Deposit, N. Y., 
425 and note, 426, 527, S28. 

Cooper, Rev. D. M., "Rev. David 
Bacon's visits to Buffalo 1800 and 
1801; from memoranda bv the Rev. I 
D. M. Cooper, of Detroit,'" 183-186. 

Copper mines on Lake Superior, early 
exploration, 18. 

Cornelius Creek, Buffalo, 502. 

Cornplanter (Ga-yant-hwah-geh, John 
O'Bail). mentioned, 103; his grand- 
son at last council on "the Genesee, 
1 1 5-1 1 7; known by Orlando Allen. 
118, 120; proposes education of 

Seneca boys by Quakers, 166-167; 
first advocates, then opposes Chris- 
tianity, 270; family and influence, 
416; sent as delegate to Philadel- 
phia, 1790, 486-487; goes to the 
Allegheny, 1791, 487; calls council 
at Buffalo, 1791, 490; trouble with 
militia on the Allegheny and nego- 
tiations with Col. Proctor, 490-491; 
mentioned, 510; annuity, 540. 

Cornwallis, Lord, entry into Philadel- 
phia, 1777, 48. 

Cornwallis chair, Buffalo Historical 
Society, 620. 

Cottier, Wm., 620-621. 

Couagne, Jean Baptiste de, 22, 36, and 
note, 37- 

Council house, Caneadea, N. Y., 97- 

Covell, Rev. Lemuel, "Visit of Rev. 
Lemuel Covell to Western New 
York and Canada in the fall of 
1803," 207-216; "Narrative of a 
missionary tour" cited, 208, note; 
Mission to Lpper Canada, 232; 
death, 236. 

Coville, Capt. Stephen, 1-14. 

Cownesky River, 171, 179. 

"Cradles" used in hoisting goods at 
Lewiston, 78. 

Cram, Rev. Mr., missionary, rejected 
by the Senecas, 127, 130, 250, note. 

Crane, Rev. James C., teacher and 
missionary to the Tuscaroras, 126, 
182, 250, note, 265, 277, sketch of, 
330, note; death, 355, z^>3'> mission 
chapel begun, 377. 

Crane. Mary Ann Davenport, 340. 

Crawford, Wm., 619-620. 

Crooked Lake, in 1797, 171. 

Crouse, George, 380. 

Crouse, Mrs. George, 380. 

Crouse, Rachel, 380. 

Crow, Captain, Indian chief, 303 and 

Crow, Franklin, 380. 

Crow, Thomas, 3S0. 

Crow St., Buffalo, now Exchange St., 

Crusan, Katharine (Mrs. Benjamin 

Jcnes), 522. 
Cuillierie, Angclique, marriage to 

Tames Sterling, 44. See Cuillierier ; 

both forms given in original mss. 
Cuillierier, Antoine, purchase of John 

Rutherford from the Indians, 27. 
Culbertson, James, 491. 
Cummings, Arthur, 483, note. 
Cummings, Sarah E. (Mrs. Charles 

Jones), 525. 
Curtiss, Fred B., 622. 
Cusick, Dennis, 27S. 
Cusick, David, 182. 
Cusick, James, 181-182. 
Cusick, "Nicholas, 182. 
Cutler, John, 174. 
Cutler, John, Jr., 176. 

Da-ha-ya-dah-woh-goh. See Jones, Hor- 
atio, 465, note. 



Dah-yah-daoh-woh-koh. See Jones, Hor- 

Danbury, N. Y., 178. 

Da-ne-ne-ta-quen-deh, 404 and note. 

Danforth, Frank L., 613. 

Dan forth, Frederick L., 613. 

Danforth, Frederick \\\, 613, 614. 

Danforth, Wm. E., 613. 

David, Michael Angelo's statue of, 
Delaware Park, Buffalo, 625. 

Davidson, Mrs. F., 616. 

Davis, Hon. Noah, 622. 

Day, Hon. D. F., 624. 

Da-yo-it-ga-o, on Genesee River, 10 1, 

Deamhout, 470. 

Dean, Capt. George, master of the 
"Vengeance," 48-49; letter Feb. 
1779. 50-51; chased by the "Uni- 
corn," 52; letter from Savannah, 
Mch. 1779, 53-55; letter, May 1779. 
59-61; wounded, 66; last cruise, 

Dean, James, 476, 478. 

"Deane," frigate, "Unicorn" mistaken 
for, 52. 

Dearborn, H., 535, note. 

De Bartych. See Barge, D. de. 

DeCouagne, J. B. See Couagne, Jean 

Deer Island. See Carleton Island. 

Deh-he-wa-mis. See Jemison, Mary. 

Delaware Indians, conquered by the 
Senecas, 264, note; several mur- 
dered near Fort Pitt, 1791, 490; at 
conference with U. S. commission- 
ers, 1793. 49&, note, 497; Jasper 
Parrish's life with, 529-532. 

Dember, George, his map of Niagara 
River described, 40. 

Dennis, Martha, 380. 

Dennis, Obadiah, 174. 

Dennis, Philip, 217, note. 

Dennison, Polly, 380. 

Denonville, Marquis de, destruction 
of Seneca villages, 99. 

Denonville, Fort. See Fort Denon- 

Denton, Robert, 620 and note. 

Deonundagao, 391. 

De Rochemont, Josephine (Mrs. Homer 
Jones), 524. 

Destroy Town, 118, 155, 3S0, 540. 

Destroy Town, Mrs.. 380. 

Detroit, vessels engaged in defense, 
1763, 25; Court of Inquiry, 1763, 
26; romantic episode of Pontiac's 
siege, 44; stores sent by way of 
Niagara portage, 78; visited by Rev. 
David Bacon, 1 800-1 801, 184-186; 
Elmwood cemetery, 385. 

Devil's Hole, massacre, 29, 423-424; 
Horatio Jones at, 449. 

DeWitt, Benjamin, 537. 

"Diary of the siege of Detroit" cited, 
26, quoted, 3 1 - .3 2 . 

"Diana," brig, 64, 67. 

Dickson, Thomas, marriage to Mrs. 
Taylor, 80: mentioned, 94. 

Dickson, William, 94. 

Dies, John, 23-24. 

"Documentary history of the state of 
N. V." See O'Callaghan, E. B., 

"Documents relative to the colonial 
history of the state of N. Y." See 
O'Callaghan, E. B., ed. 

Do-eh-saw. See Berry, Jack. 

Dog, white, annual sacrifice of the 
Senecas, 99-100, 197. 

Dolson's, on Mud Creek, N. Y., 171, 

"Don Quixote of the Jerseys." See 
Livingston, VVm. 

Don-e-ho-ga-wa, door-keeper, chief 
sachem of the Senecas, 114, 390, 

t 464. 

"Door of the long-house," western 
location, 389. See also Seneca In- 

Dorchester, Lord, divides Upper Can- 
ada into four districts, 82; is vis- 
ited by Capt. Brant, 1791, 89-90; 
aggravates Indian troubles, 1794, 91. 

Dorsheimer, VVm., 607, 608. 

Doty, L. L., "History of Livingston 
Co., N. Y.," cited, 508, note, 511, 
note, 512, note. 

Dow, Mrs. II. B., 223. 

Downington, Pa., 521, $23. 

Doxtater, Mrs. Aleck, 380. 

Draper, Mrs. Carrie Cobb, 425, note, 
527. note. 

Dudley, Maj. Joseph P., 612-614. 

Duncan, Lt. John, 38. See also Ruth- 
erford, Duncan &: Co. 

Duncan & Sterling, successors to 
Rutherford, Duncan & Co., 44. 

Duncan, Sterling & Porteous, 47, note. 

Dun-e-wan-gua, Pa., 490. 

Dunkers, near Niagara, Ont., 227. 

Dunlap, Capt., 393; captured by the 
Senecas, 395; killed, 398. 

Duquesne, Fort. See Fort Duquesne. 

Dutch, conciliation of Iroquois, 98. 

Dutton, Mrs. Mary Smith, 475, note. 

Dyce, Forsyth &, Detroit, 76. 

Eagle Tavern, Niagara Falls, 277 and 

East Bloomfield, N. Y., 99, 185. 
Eaton, Rev. S., 153. 
Ebenezer, Lower. See Lower Ebene- 

Eden, N. Y., home of J. B. Hyde, 

Egerton, Martha. See Wright, Mrs. 

Martha Egerton. 
Eighteen Mile Creek, wreck of the 

"Beaver," 29; boundary in land 

sale, 504. 
Eighteen Mile Creek settlement, 234 

and note, 236. 
Eighteen Mile Woods, near Batavia, 

"Elegante," ship, rechristened "Ven- 
geance. " 48-49. 
Ellice, Alexander, 47, note, 84. 
Ellicott, George, mission to Indians 

at Fort Wayne, 217, note. 
Ellicott, Joseph, 503-504, 537. 



Elliot, John, missionary to the Tus- 
caroras, 182, 376. 

Elliot, John, Quaker, 497, note. 

Ellis, Mercy, 170. 

Ellis, Wm., 170, 180. 

Elmira, N. Y. See Newtown, N. Y. 

Elmwood Cemetery, Detroit, 385. 

English, Indian chief, 442; killed, 
443; mentioned, 444, 445. 

Erie, Pa. (Presqu' Isle), early boat- 
building, 20-21; taken by the In- 
dians, 1763, 26; Maj. Rogers joined 
by Capt. Campbell, to take posses- 
sion of Detroit, 1760, 38; in 1S04, 

Erie, Fort. See Fort Erie. 

Erie, Lake, "From Lake Erie to Mo- 
rocco," 1-14: early ship-building, 
19-33 > described by G. T. Hopkins, 
in 1804, 218. 

"Erie," steamboat, 538. 

Erie Indians, exterminated by the 
Iroquois, 98. 

Erwin, N. Y. See Painted Post. 

Espafia, Don Carlos de, 6-7. 

Etherington, Capt. George, 25. 

Evangelical Magazine, cited, 183. note. 

Evans, Mrs. Ann Jones (Mrs. David 
Evans), 521, 522. 

Evans, Rev. David, 522. 

Evans, N. Y., 234. 

Eves, John, 180. 

Ewing, Kate (Mrs. John H. Jones), 

Ewing, "Win., 514. note. 

Exchange St., Buffalo, formerly Crow 
St., 541. , J . 

Exodus, ch. 19-20 translated into Sen- 
eca, 159- 

"Experiment," privateer, 50, 55. 

Fairbank's Tavern, Ouecnston, 79. 

Fairchilds, John, 277, note. 

Fairfield, N. Y., 231-232. 

Falconwood Club, Buffalo, 634- 

Fall Brook, N. Y., 4S4, note, 499. 5°5- 

Faneuil Hall, 614. 

"Fannie," schooner, captured by the 
"Vengeance," 59. 63; as the "Lan- 
golee" becomes tender for the "Ven- 
geance," 67; probable fate. 6$. 

Farmer's Brother, Jacob Lindley's in- 
terview with, 176; visited by Rev. 
David Bacon, 1S4 and note; assem- 
bles council to hear Rev. Elkanah 
Holmes, 104; thinks learning use- 
less to Indians, 200; entrusts his 
grandson to Mr. Holmes to be edu- 
cated, 201-204: met by G. T. Hop- 
kins, 221; as delegate requests Hor- 
atio Jones to return to the Genesee, 
478-479; unfriendliness toward the 
government, 1791, 487; receives 
Col. Proctor, 1791, 491: his mark, 
493, note; urges acceptance of U. S. 
peace proposal, 1703. 497; -it the 
Canandaigua council, 1794. . 49§; 
speech on presentation of Niagara 
River tract to Horatio Jones and 
Jasper Parrish, 500-501 ; name on 
treaty, Buffalo, 1815," 537. 

Fayal, Azores, schooner "Republican" 
at, 13. 

better's Fort, 388, 393. 394, 39$- 

Fillmore, Hon. ' m Millard, at the last 
Seneca council at Caneadea, 107, 
120; mentioned, 539; one of the 
founders of the Buffalo Historical 
Society, 607; its first president, 
608; appoints James O. Putnam 
postmaster at Buffalo, 629; men- 
tioned, 635. 

Fillmore collection, Buffalo Historical 
Society, 608, 620. 

Finley, Mrs. Elizabeth Tones (Mrs. 
William Finley), 523. 

Finley, William, 525. 

"First book for Indian schools," print- 
ed at Cattaraugus Reservation, 160. 

First Universalist Church, Buffalo, site 
of, 278 and note. 

Fish Carrier, 540 and note. 

Fishing Creek, Pa., 180; Indian ex- 
peditions to, 440, 447. 

Fitzgerald, John, 49- 

Fitzhugh, Charles Carroll. 525. 

Fitzhugh, Mrs. Charles Carroll Jones, 
quoted, 513. 

Fitzhugh, Mrs. Jane Jones (Mrs. 
Charles Fitzhugh), 523. 

Fitzhugh, Mrs. Mary Ann Tones (Mrs. 
Richard Fitzhugh), 523. 

Fitzhugh, Richard, 525. 

Five Mile Meadows, below Lewiston, 
N. Y., 504. 

Five Nations. See Iroquois Indians. 

Fleming, George, 481. 

Flint, Mrs. Hester (Mrs. Robert 
Flint), 525- 

Flint, Judge Robert. 523. 

Flint & Kent, Buffalo, site of store, 
278 and note. 

Flint Creek, 4S5. 

Forsyth, George, quoted, 75-76. 

Forsyth & Dyce, Detroit. 76. 

Fort Bedford, 388. 

Fort Chippewa founded. 78. 

Fort Denonville. blessing of the cross 
at, painting, 621. 

Fort Duquesne, capture of remem- 
bered by "Governor" Blacksnake, 
114-115; mentioned, 503. 

Fort Erie, visited by the 'Duke de la 
Rochefoucault Liancourt. 1705. 73, 
81; Robert Hamilton's business, Si- 
S.2\ visited by Rev. Lemuel Covell. 

1803, 210. 214; visit of George El- 
licott, G. T. Hopkins and P. Dennis, 

1804. 217-218, 220; influence of 
British officers over Senecas after 
the Revolution, 401: visited by Gen. 
Benj. Lincoln, 1703. 493-496. 

Port Franklin, 491. 

Fort George, burial of Gen. Sir Isaac 
Brock ' and Col. John McDonald, 
214. note. 

Fort Haldiinand, 7;. 

Fort Hill farm, 415. note. 

Fort Niagara, Capt. Pou.chot com- 
mandant, 1739, 10; tradition con- 
cerning fate of chapel, 39-4°: in 
*779> 75-76; in 17S5, 77; letters 



from Robert Hamilton, 1789-91, 85- 
90; news of St. Clair's defeat re- 
ceived, 91; delivered to the LJ. S. 
1796, 94; receives homeless Sene- 
cas after Sullivan's raid, 1799, 100, 
125; Moses Van Campen taken to, 
104, 456, 458; burial service of 
Prideaux, 165, note; Juryman and 
Senseman at, 17S5, 181; letters ot 
Rev. Elkanah Holmes, 1000. 1S7- 
204; mentioned, 390, 401: Indian 
firearms repaired at, 420; food sent 
to the Indians, 423; visited by 
Horatio Jones, 424, 436-440, 449; 
prisoners brought by Brant, 447; 
visited by Horatio Jones, 462-463; 
officers thwart Col. Proctor's mis- 
sion, 1 79 1, 491-492; visit of Gen. 
Benj. Lincoln and party, 1793, 495; 
influence of British officers over In- 
dians of western N. Y., 497-49S; 
Jasper Parrish taken to, 328; Six 
Nations encamp around, 531; coun- 
cil of Six Nations with the British, 
1780, 533; painting of the blessing 
of the cross at Fort Denonville, site 
of Fort Niagara, 1688, 621. 
Fort Orange. See Albany. 
Fort Pitt (Pittsburgh), threatened by 
Indian conspiracy, 1701, 35; In- 
dians killed near, 1791, 490. 

Fort Schlosser, Stedman's right to im- 
proved adjacent land, 1763, 44; El- 
kanah Holmes' missionary labors, 
181, 209; supplanted by Chippewa 
on old trade route, 78; visited by 
Horatio Jones, 43S, 439, 462; end 
of Mile Strip, 536. 

Fort Schuyler (formerly Fort Stan- 
wix), Iroquois council sells Onon- 
daga and Oneida lands to New 
York State, 477-478. 

Fort Slu^her (incorrect spelling). See 
Fort Schlosser. 

Fort Stanw-ix, peace negotiations and 
treaty with Six Nations, end of 
Revolution, 10S-109, 468-469, 474, 
533-534- See Fort Schuyler. 

Fort Washington, Indian treaty at, 
proposed, 489. 

Fort Wayne, Quaker mission to, 1804, 

Fort Wheeler, built. 441. 

Foster, Win. E., 627. 

Four Mile Creek, 215. 

"Fowey," ship, 59. 

Fox, George, 341. 

Fox, Mrs. George, 380. 

Francis, Florence, 612. 

Francis, Guilford R., 613. 

Francis, Julius E., 612-614, 619, 620. 

Francis, Wm. C, 613. 

Francis memorial collection, Buffalo 
Historical Society, 619, 620, 625. 

Franklin, Fort. See Fort Franklin. 

FrankstowTi, Pa., 388, 392. 

Fraser, John. 40. 

French Creek. Pa., 490. 

Frey, Capt. Bernard ("Barent"), 85- 

Frey, Col. Hendrick, 86. 

Frey, Maj. John, 86. 

Frey, Philip P., 86. 

Friends, Society of, sends teachers to 
Indians on Cattaraugus reservation, 
and on the Allegheny, 127, 150-151, 
250; protects Indians in sale of 
lands to Ogden Land Co., 160; 
"Quakers among the Senecas," by 
F. II. Severance, 165-168; a com- 
mittee appointed by Yearly Meeting 
of Friends of Pennsylvania, N. J., 
etc., for promoting the improvement 
and gradual civilization of the In- 
dian natives, 167 and note, 168, 
note; "Meeting for sufferings" 
sends delegation to treaty at San- 
dusky, 168; deputations to Friends 
in Canada, 169, note; Jacob Lind- 
ley's journal of visit to Friends in 
Canada, 1797. 169-180; desire to 
educate Indian boys, 201; mission 
of Ellicott, Hopkins and Dennis to 
Indians at Fort Wayne,, 1804, 217, 
note; Hopkins' visit to Buffalo and 
Niagara Falls, 217-222; at Indian 
councils, 497, note, 499; their 
method of civilizing Indians, 250, 
254, 376; a Quaker's idea of the 
work of the Spirit, 373. 

Frobisher, Benj., 19. 

"From Lake Erie to Morocco," 1-14. 

Frontenac, Comte de, urges need of 
sailing vessels on Lake Erie, 19. 

Frothingham, .Rev. Frederick, 635. 

Fur trade. Sir William Johnson sent 
to regulate, 1761, 36; northwestern 
trade opened to British by occupa- 
tion of Detroit, 1760, 38; injured 
by Indian hostility after the Revo- 
lution, 89-91. 

Gage, Gen. Thomas, letter to, from 
Sir Wm. Johnson, 32; condemns 
the "Gladwin" and the "Royal 
Charlotte," 23- 

Gah-an-o-deo, 390. 

Gah-ne-ya-de-o. See Caneaden. 

Gah-nec-songo. See Shongo, Col. 

Gan-da-chi-o-ra-gou, Seneca village, 90. 

Gan-da-ga-ro, Seneca village, 99. 

Gan-dou-ga-rae, N. Y., Seneca village, 

Ga-ne-o-di-go, 464. 

Ga-no-gi-e, 464. 

Ga-no-go-e-dii-wc. 464. 

Ga-non-do-wa-nah. See Big Tree. 

Ganson's Settlement. See Le Rov, 
N. Y. 

Ga-o-do-wa-neh. See Jones, George. 

Ga-o'-wah-ge-waah. See Navy Island. 

Ga*6-ya-da-o. See Caneadea. 

Gardeau Hats, home of Mary Jemison, 

Gardeau Reservation sold, 509. 

Gaskin, Copt., 441- 

Gath-se-o-wa-lo-ha-re, 431. 

Gauntlet, running of, at Caneadea, 
103-104. 119, 407-411, 45 6 ; at Che- 
mung,, 5^9- 

Ga-yant-hwah-geh. See Cornplanter. 



Ga-yeh-twa-geh. See Parker, Nichol- 
son H. 

"Gazette," York, quoted, 84. 

"General Mathew, ' privateer, 50, 55. 

Genesee Castle. See Big Tree's vil- 

Genesee County, N. Y., 526. 

Genesee River, crossed by Jacob Lind- 
ley's party, 1797, 172-173. 178; 
crossed by Rev. David Bacon, 1801, 
185-186; crossed by Covell and 
Warren, 1803, 208; the river course, 
431; crossed by Horatio Jones, 485, 

Geneseo, N. Y., Livingston County 
Historical Society, 459. note; men- 
tioned, 485; treaty of Big Tree and 
Morris Purchase, 1797. 4991 trial 
of James Brewer, 511-512; grave of 
Horatio Jones, 512 and note; the 
Jones family, 525. 

Genesis, in part translated into Sen- 
eca, 159. 

Genet, E. C, 91. 

Geneva, N. Y., meeting of presbytery, 
1805, 225; Horatio Jones the first 
white settler on site, 472; first 
called Kanadesaga, 477-478; early 
trade route, 480. 

Genisha, N. Y., 484 and note. 

Gen-nis-he'-o. See Genesee River. 

George III., protects Indian lands 
from encroachment, at Niagara port- 
age, 42-44- 

George, Colonel Sam, 544. 

George, Chief, 361. _ . 

George, son-in-law of White Chief, 

George, Fort. See Fort George. 

"George Washington," ship, 51, S3. 

Gibbins, Lt., of the Queen's Rangers, 
at the Miami, 1793. 497. note. 

Gibson, Henry B., 509. 

Girty, Simon, 496 and note. 

Givin, Hannah (Mrs. Joshua Jones), 

Gladwin. Maj. Henry, 23, 27, 36. 

"Gladwin," schooner, at siege of De- 
troit, 1763. identified with the "Hu- 
ron," 25-26; real "Gladwin" built 
in 1764, 26; sailed for Detroit and 
Michillimackinac, 31; fate, 32-33- 

Gladwin mss., cited, 26 and note. 

Glen Iris, 102. 

Glenny, Mrs. John Clark, 621. 

Glines, Almira (Mrs. James II. Clute), 

Gluck, Tames Fraser, 623. 

Goat Island, in 1819. 277. 

Goodyear, Charles W., 624. 

Gordon, Col., commandant at Ft. i\i- 
agara, 49-- 

Gordon, Samuel, 340. 

Gordon, Mrs. Samuel, 380. 

Gorham, Nathaniel, 476-482, 493. 538. 

Gorham, Mrs. Wm., 527. note. 

Gorham, William \V., 538. 

Gorham Manufacturing Co., Provi- 
dence, 614, 619. 

Goring, Francis, 75-76. 

Goshen, N. Y., 534. 

Gospel Advocate cited, 379- 

"Go'-wana-gwa'-he'-sat-hah Yon-de'-yas- 
dah'-gwah: a spelling book in the 
Seneca language," published at Buf- 
falo Creek Reservation, 159. 

Gowanda, N. Y., Seneca mission press, 

Grand Army of the Republic, Butralo 
posts, gifts to Buffalo Historical So- 
ciety, 608. 

Grand Island annuity, 539. 

Grand River, Canada, home of the 
Mohawks, 107-108, 115-117, 190; 
visited by Covell, 212; condition of 
Mohawks, 247; tract secured at 
Brant's request, 467; settlement of 
Cayugas, 540, note. 

Granger, Edmund W., 623. 

Granger, Erastus, 218 and note; 275, 

Gray, Rev. Andrew, missionary to the 
Tuscaroras, 1809, 126. 

Gray, David, "The last Indian council 
on the Genesee," 121-123, credited, 
107, note; 635. 

Great Abico, wreck of the "Republi- 
can," 14- 

Great Britain, Lords, commissioners 
of trade and plantations, petitioned 
by the merchants of Albany, 40-43. 

Great Lakes, visit of lake schooner 
"Republican" to Mediterranean 
ports, 1-14; trans- Atlantic trade in 
vessels from the Great Lakes, 14, 

Greeley, Horace, 526. 

Green, James, letter from R. Hamil- 
ton, 81-82. 

Green, Thomas, 193. 

Green Bay, Wis., 385; land pur- 
chased by Six Nations, 537. 

Greene, Dr. Joseph C, 608, 623, 624. 

Greig, John, 509. 

Greybeard, Charles, 380. 

Greybeard, Mrs. Charles, 380. 

Gridley. S. IT., collections of Water- 
loo Historical Society cited, 420, 
note, 434, note. 

Griffith, Sally, 485. 5*9. 520. 

"Griffon," its first successors on the 
Great Lakes, I7"33- 

Grimsby. Ont., 214. note. 

Gross, Thomas, 379. 

Grosvenor, George H., 620. 

Groton, Ct., the "Hive of the Averys," 
223, note. 

Groton (Ct.) Union Conference, ex- 
tract from report to, 1807, 231-238. 

Gunn, Chester B., 525. 

Gunn, Mrs. Sarah J. E. Clute (Mrs. 
Chester B. Gunn), 441. note, 515, 
note; "Sarah Whitmore's captiv- 
ity," 515-520; credited, 521, note; 
family, 525- 

Guy-an-gwa-ta. See Cornplanter. 

Gy-ant-wa-chia. See Cornplanter. 

Ha-ah-ta-o. See Sharp Shins. 
Haddock, Lorenzo K., 231, note. 
Ha-dya-no-doh. See Pierce, Maris B. 



Ha-go-go-ant. See Shongo, "Dr." 

Hah-do-wesgo-wah, adopts Horatio 
Jones, 416; mentioned, 421; expe- 
dition to Grand River, 461; declines 
to sell Horatio Jones, 463; visits 
Horatio Jones, and his family, 513. 
Hah-ney-wee, 414 and note. 
Hah-yen-de-seh, 390, 391, 395. 
Haines, Jesse, 170. 
"Halcyon," Queenston, residence of 

R. K. Noye, 79. 
Haldimand, Gen. Sir Frederick, 33, 

39. 467- 
Haldimand, Fort. See Fort Haldi- 
"Haldimand papers," quoted, 76. See 

also "Canadian archives." 
Halftown, 103, 486. 
Hall, Hon. Nathan K.. 613. 635. _ 
Hamburg, N. Y., home of Benj. C. 

Van Duzee, 128, note. 
Hamilton, Catherine Askin (Mrs. 

John), 77. 
Hamilton, Rev. John, 74. 
"Hamilton, Robert, the founder of 
Queenston," 73-93; emigration to 
America, 75; partnership with Rich- 
ard Cartwright, 76-77; business 
transferred to Fort Niagara and 
Kingston, 77; marriage to Catherine 
Askin, 77; home at Queenston, 79- 
80; control of Canadian transfer 
business on the Niagara, Si: ap- 
pointed Judge of Nassau, S2: in the 
Legislative Council of Upper Can- 
ada, 83; marriage to Mary Herki- 
mer McLean, and death, 84; letters 
to John Porteous, 1 789-1 798, 84-94; 
entertains Gen. Benj. Lincoln, 1793. 
Hammond, Libbeus, capture and es- 
cape from Indians, 44-"-443- 
Ha-non'-da-a'-suh, "Keeper of the 
Hill," vi. See also Shongo, Moses. 
"Harcourt" ("Renown"), ship, 64. 
Hardenbergh, Mai. Abraham, 480-48;:. 
Harper, Capt. Alexander, captured, 

Harrington, Nancy (Mrs. William W. 

Tores). 524. 
Harris, Daniel, settles in Rochester, 

Harris, Daniel Ely, ^4. 
Harris, George H., "The life of Hora- 
tio Jones," 381-492; biographical 
sketch, 384-386; "The aboriginal oc- 
cupation of the Lower Genesee coun- 
try" mentioned, 386; data for 
Jones genealogy, 521, note. 
Harris, John, 6r>. 
Harris, Louisa La Tourrette, 340. 
Harris, Mrs. Marianne La. T., 138- 

154, I?}, 351. 3^- 
Harris, T. S.. Jr. (Indian), 379- 
Harris, Rev-. Thompson S., missionary, 
Buffalo Creek Reservation, 13S-154; 
his character and success, 138-139; 
report to U. S. War dept., 1821, 
143-145; with James Young trans- 
lates the "Sermon on the Moun- 

tain," 147. 152-153. 273, note, mis- 
sion broken up in 18.24; return in 
1825, 150; missions at Cattaraugus 
and the Tuscarora village added to 
his charge, 150; translation of Gos- 
pel of St. Luke into Seneca, 153, 
155; resigns his charge, 154; charges 
against J. B. Hyde, 273, note; 
"Journals, 1821-1828," 281-378; his 
life and work, 378-379. note. 
j Harris, Mrs. Thompson S., 378, 379. 

See also Harris, Rev. T. S. 
I Hart & Hickox (formerly Hart & Lay, 
then Hart & Cunningham), 544- 
Hartford, Conn., 183-184. 
I Hart's Log, 392, 394- 
I Hartshorne, Wm., 168, 497, note. 
Harvey, Joel, settlement at Eighteen 

Mile Creek, 234. 
Haton's (?), N. Y., 226. 
Hauenstein, Mrs. Alfred G., 621. 
Haven, Joseph, 174. 
Haven, Solomon G., 635, 636. 
Havre de Grace, 632, 636. 
j Ha-wes-do-ne. See Jones, Horatio. 
Hawk clan, 464. 
Hawley's settlement, near Tuscarora 

village, 352. 
Hay, Lt. Jehu, 25-26. 
Hay, Sir John Druminond, 12. 
Hay-en-de-seh, 390, 391, 395. 
Hayhurst, Bezaleel, 180. 
Hazard. George Starr, 616, 621; me- 
morial, 626; 635. 
Hazard, Mrs. George S., 635. 
Health regulations, ports of Spain and 

Morocco, 1-13. 
Heap-of-Dogs, 476. 
Heckcwelder, John. 168, 497. note. 
Hempferman, Rebecca, marries Thos. 

Armstrong, 137, 280 and note. 
Henderson, Nancy, 150. 
Hendrick, sachem, 193: his men, 497. 
Henry, Alexander, "Travels," cited, 

Henry Twoguns. See Twoguns, Henry. 
Henvey, Patrick, 40. 
Herkimer, Mary, Mrs. McLean, mar- 
riage to Robert Hamilton, 84. 
Hermitage, Genesee valley, 513. 
Herringdon, Nathan, 172. 
Herrit, John and Mary, 174. 
Hesse, Upper Canada, 82. 
Hewitt. Elijah. 525. 
Hewitt, Horatio Jones, 526. 
Hewitt, Mrs. Margaret Lovett (Mrs. 
H. J. Hewitt). 526. 
I Hewitt. Mrs. Rebecca Jones (Mrs. 
Elijah Hewitt), 525. 
Hey-en-de-seh, 390, 391, 305- 
I Hi-e-wah-doo-gis-tah. See Tones, Hor- 
f atio. 
I Hill, Benjamin. 174. 

Hill, C. F., "History of Columbus 

Co., Pa.," cited. 440, note. 
Hill, Capt. Daniel (or David?), buys 
Jasper Parrish. 427-428; mentioned, 
463: adopts him. 532-533. 
Hill, Hon. Henry W., address in ac- 
ceptance of Lincoln statue by Buf- 
falo Historical Society, 612-616; 



services in securing society building, 
618; address to Andrew Langdon, 
presenting gold key to doors of new 
building, 622-626. 

Hill, John, 174. 

Hill, Mrs. Mary Hunter (Mrs. Wil- 
liam Hill), 523. 

Hill, William, 523. 

Hi-u-do-nis. See Jones, Horatio. 

Hillyard, Lt., 462. 

"Hue of the Averys, The," 223, note. 

Hoc-sa-go-wah. See Jones, Horatio. 

Ho-de'-no-sau-nee (People of the Long 
House). See Iroquois Indians. 

Holland Land Co., negotiations for 
purchase of land from, by Tuscaro- 
ras, 221. 

Holland Land Co., papers and maps 
presented to Buffalo Historical So- 
ciety, 626. 

Holliday, Adam, 393. 

Holliday, William, 393. 

Holliday's Fort, 393. 

Holmes. Dr. Albert, letter to from 
Rev. Timothy Alden, 134-137. 

Holmes, Rev. Elkanab, missionary to 
Tuscaroras and Scnecas. 125-126, 
181; "Letters from F"ort Niagara in 
1800: his work among the Tusca- 
roras, the Senecas, and in Buffalo," 
187-204; "A church covenant," 
quoted, 204, note; fac-simile of title 
page of same, 205; with Rev. 
Lemuel Covell among Indians of 
Niagara frontier, 209-215; Mr. Co- 
vell's account of his work, 215-216; 
. assembles Indians to hear Rev. Jo- 
seph Avery, 226-227; missed by 
Elder Burrows, 233; visited by El- 
der Burrows, 236, 238. 

Ho-nan-ne-ho'-ont (Keepers of the 
door). See Seneca Indians. 

Honeoye Falls, Indian village near, 

Honeoye Lake, 510. 

Hopkins, Gerard T., "Visit of Gerard 
T. Hopkins, a Quaker ambassador 
to the Indians, who visited Buffalo 
in 1804," 217-222. 

Hosmer, Rev. Dr. George W., 607. 

Hosmer, Timothy, 508. 

Hosmer. Wm. II. C, 50--506. 

Ho-tar-shan-nyooh. See Harris, Geo. LI. 

Houdin, Capi. M. (',., 4^9- 

Hough, F. B., translation of Pouchot's 
"Memoirs of the late war" cited, 20, 
note; "Proceedings of the commis- 
sioners of Indian affairs" cited, 479, 
note, 481, note. 

Houser. Smith. 450. 452-455- 

Howard, Mrs. Hannah. 3< 9r >- 

Ho-wav-no-ah. See O'Bail, Solomon. 

Howe, 'Mary M., 3S0. 

Howe. Sir Wm., j.8. 

Howland, Mrs. Anna Jones Pretty- 
man, 521. note. 

Howland, Henry R., "Historical pa- 
pers": "Navy Island and the first 
successors to the Griffon." 17-73 ; 
"The Niagara portage and its first 
attempted settlement under British 

rule," 35-45; "A British privateer 
in the American revolution," 47-71 ; 
"Robert Hamilton, the founder of 
Oueenston," 73-95; "Old Caneadea 
council house and its last council 
fire," 97-123; "The Seneca mission 
at Buffalo Creek," 125-161. 

Howland, Job, 172. 

Howland, John, 172. 

lloyt, Martha. See Parker, Mrs. 
Martha E. 

Iloyt, Tirza Ann, 380. 

Hubbard, J. N., "Life of Moses Van 
Campen" cited, 440, note, quoted, 
443. 452. 

Hudson (or Hutson), Captain, 103, 
390-393. 4i4, 451- 

Hudson, David, "History of Jemima 
Wilkinson" quoted, 494. 

Hudson, George, 525. 

Hudson, Mrs. Grace Jones (Mrs. 
George Hudson), 525. 

Hughes, Julia E. (Mrs. George H. 
Harris), 385. 

Hughett, Elijah, 525. 

"Humble petition of the principle mer- 
chants living in Albany," to the 
Lords of Trade, 1762, 40-41. 

Hunt, Elisha, 452, 456. 

Hunter, Ann, 523. 

Hunter, Mrs. Ann, 523. 

Hunter, Ann (Mrs. Thomas Buell), 

Hunter, Elizabeth, 523. 

Hunter, Elizabeth (Mrs. William 
Jones), 523. 

Hunter, George, 523. 

Hunter, Hannah (Mrs. Malachi Jones), 

Hunter, Mrs. Hannah Woodward 
(Mrs. William Hunter). 523- 

Hunter, James, son of John, Sr., 523. 

Hunter, James, son of John, Jr., 523. 

Hunter, John, Sr., 523. 

Hunter, John, Jr., 523. 

Hunter, Margrate, 523. 

Hunter, Margrate (Mrs. William 
Buell), 523. 

Hunter, Mrs. Margrate (Mrs. John 
Hunter), 523. 

LIunter, Martha (Mrs. John Ratlen), 

Hunter, Marv (Mrs. Eli Bentlv), 523. 

Hunter, Mary (Mrs. William Hill), 

Hunter, Peter, 523. 

Hunter, William, 523. 

"Hunter," sloop. 61. 

Hunt's Hollow, N. Y., 406. 

Huron, ()., schooner "Republican" 
sailed from, 1. 

Huron, Lake. The "Royal Charlotte" 
built for its navigation, 31. 

"Huron," schooner, built at Navy Isl- 
and, 22-25; at si<^ge of Detroit, 
1763, 25-27; probable fate. 30. 

Hutton, Emma (Mrs. George W. 
Tones). 524. ^2-. 

Hinder. Mrs. Martha M., 626. 

Hyde, Jabez Backus, teacher of Sen- 
eca school at Buffalo Creek, 127- 



138; result of his work, 139; his | 
ms. "Account of the Seneca In- 
dians and mission" cited, 128; trib- 
ute to by Rev. Timothy Alden, 13S; 
trial and suspension, and publica- 
tions, 273-274, note; discussion con- 
cerning Ogden land purchase, 291- 

"Hymns in the Seneca tongue, by 
James Young," 147, 159-100, 273, 

Independence Hall, 614. 
Indian Church road, 153. 
Indians, trade at Fort Niagara, 1779, 
75-76; border warfare after the 
Revolution, 89-91; Quaker mission 
to at Fort Wayne, 1804, 217, note. 
See also names of tribes. 
"Invermay," ship, 54, 56. 
International Hotel, Niagara Falls, on 
site of Eagle Tavern, 277 and note. 
International Industrial Property Con- 
gress, Paris, 1 88 1, 632. 
Iroquois Indians, wrath against Brit- 
ish aggression, conciliation by Sir 
W'm. Johnson, 1761, 35-38; treaty 
of 1726 violated by the British, 36- 
42; 97- 1 23; in the Am. Revolu- 
tion, 100; in the War of 1812, 108- 
109: their supremacy commemor- 
ated at the last council on the 
Genesee, 1 10-123; mound found 
near Batavia, 1805 (?), 225; gen- 
eral council, Buffalo Creek, 1822. 
317-318; clans, 415; ceremony of 
adoption, 415-416; peace negotia- 
tions and release of prisoners at end 
of Revolution, 467-470; extensive 
sale of lands, 1 788-1 789, 474-483; 
Col. Proctor's mission to, 1791, 488- 
492; last general council with the 
U. S. Government, Canandaigua, 
1794, 498; encamp around Fort Ni- 
agara, 531; general council with 
British at Fort Niagara, 1780, S331 
treaty of peace with the United 
States, 533-534; treaty at Newtown 
Point, 1791. 534; treaty at Canan- 
daigua, I794> 534-53 5; council at 
Buffalo, 1823, 537; account of the 
manner of paying annuities to. in 
Buffalo, by Orlando Allen, 539-546. 

Irvine, Callender, 535, note. 

Isaac, Indian chief, 193. 

Isaac, Charles, 193. 

Isaac, Joseph, 3S0. 

Isaac, Mrs. Nancy (Deacon), 380. 

Isle de la Ronde, 18. 

Isle-la-Marine. See Navy Island. 

Jack Berry's town. See Jackstown. 

Jacket, John, 380. 

Jacket, Mrs. John, 380. 

jacket, Jonathan, marries Yeck-ah- 
Wak. 280, note; joins mission table, 
uninvited, 291; illness, 324-327. 

Jacket, Mary (Mrs. Wm. Jones), 380. 

jacket, William, 305. 306. 324- 

Jackstown, or Jack Berry's town, In- 

dian village in Western N. Y., 128, 
157, 288, 294. 

Jacob, John, 3S0. 

James, Dr. Frederick H., 608, 623. 

James, Reuben, 380. 

James, St., Epistle General translated 
into Seneca, 159. 

"Jamestown," sloop-of-war, 5-7. 

Jamieson, Da-an-di, 380. 

Jamieson, Isaac, 380. 

Jamieson, Jacob. See Jemison, Jacob. 

Jay, John, treaty with Gt. Britain, 92, 

Jemison, Georrje, 136. 

Jemison, Jacob, Seneca interpreter, 
130, 149. 282, 343-344; Red Jacket 
plans to have him supplant mission- 
aries at Buffalo Creek, 345-346. 

Jemison, Mary (Deh-he-wa-mis), home 
at the Gardeau flats, 10 1; story of 
her life, 105; her grandsons at the 
last council on the Genesee, 112- 
114; her removal to Buffalo in 
1831, 113; her death. 156; first 
burial-place, 161; mentioned, 470; 
her home on the Genesee, 484; her 
title thereto confirmed, 500. 

Jemison, Thomas (Shoh-son-do-want, 
or "Buffalo Tom"), at the last In- 
dian council on the Genesee, 113- 
114, i-o; mentioned, 507. 

Jemmy, Tommy, 112*- 

Jeneshadago, 167. 

Jennings, Clark, 477, 481. 
Jesuits, Ottawa mission of La Point 
du Saint Esprit, 18; in the Iroquois 
country, 99. 

Jewett, Thomas & Co., 274 
Jimerson, Mrs. Geo 


rge, 380. 
Jimeson, Mother. 379. 
Jimeson, Mrs. George, 379. 
Jimeson, Jacob. See Jemison, 
Jimeson, John, 416, note. 
John, St., Gospel of, translated into 

Seneca, 131-132, 274. 
John Jacket. See Jacket, John. 
John Jacob, 380. 
John "Mohawk, 104. 
John Seneca, 140, 148, 156, 286-287, 


John Shanks, 115. 
Johnson, Lt., Guy 

420, 431, 442. 
Johnson, Hank, 

, 22, 36, and note, 
Indian interpreter, 


Deacon Jacob, 380. 

Johnson, Sir John, 22. 36, and note. 

"Johnson, Jonathan, 380. 

Johnson, Little. See Little Johnson. 

Johnson, Mrs. Polly (1st), 380. 

Johnson, Mrs. Polly (2nd), 380. 

Johnson. Wm. See Johnson, Capt. 

Johnson, Sir Wm., at Navy Island, 
1 761. 22-24; informs Gen. Gage of 
burning of vessel at Navy Islnnd, 
1766, 32; adjustment of difficulties 
with Indians in regard to encroach- 
ments on their lands, 35-4?: his 
grandson marries daughter of Capt. 



Brant, 108; mentioned, 165, note, 

Johnson, Sir Wm., mss. in N". Y. 

State library cited, 29, note, 37, 

note, 41 and note. 
Johnston, James N., 636. 
Johnston, Capt. Wm., 184, 201, 203; 

interpreter from Buffalo Creek 

(name misspelled), 476; regarded 

as British spy, 498. 
Johnstown, N. V., 503. 
Joncaire, Philippe Thomas, sieur de 

Chabert (incorrectly written Shabear 

Jean Coeur), son of Louis Thomas 

de J., 23, 36, 40. 
Tones, Abenego, 523. 
Jones, Alma, 524. 
Jones, Ann, daughter of Benjamin, 

Jones, Ann, daughter of Malachi, 521. 
Jones, Ann, sister of Horatio, 523. 
Jones, Ann (Mrs. David Evans), 521, 

Jones, Ann (Mrs. William Lyman), 

Jones, Benjamin, son of Malachi, 521, 

Jones, Benjamin 2d, 322. 
Jones, Mrs. Caroline Camp (Mrs. 

William Jones), 524. 
Jones, Charles, son of Horatio, 459, 

note, 520, note, 523. 
Jones, Delia, 524. 
Jones, Edward, son of George W., 

Jones, Edward, son of John H., 524. 
Jones, Mrs. Eliza Lemen (Mrs. Wil- 
liam W. Jones), 524. 
Jones. Mrs. Eliza Richmond (Mrs. 

Charles Jones), 525. 
Jones, Elizabeth, daughter of Benja- 
min, 522. 
Jones, Elizabeth, daughter of Malachi, 

Jones, Elizabeth (Mrs. David Parry), 

521, 522. 
Jones, Elizabeth (Mrs. Edward Camp), 

Jones, Elizabeth (Mrs. William Fin- 
ley), 523. 
Tones, Mrs. Elizabeth Hunter, 526. 
Jones, Mrs. Elizabeth Hunter (Mrs. 

William Jones), mother of Horatio, 

387, 523, 524. 
Jones, Mrs. Elizabeth L. (Mrs. Tames 

W. Jones), 524. 
Jones, Mrs. Elizabeth Starr (Mrs. 

Horatio Jones), 512, 525, 526. 
Jones, Mrs. Emma Hutton (Mrs. Geo. 

W. Jones), 324, 525. 
Jones, Esther, daughter of Malachi 2d, 

Jones, Esther, sister of Horatio, 523. 
Jones, Mrs. Fannie Wicker (Mrs. 

Homer Jones), 524. 
Tones, Fayette. 526. 
Jones, Flora, 324. 
Jones, George (Ga-o-do-wa-neh), grand- 

son of Tommy Jemmy, at the last 

Indian council on the Genesee, 112. 

Jones, George, brother of Horatio, 

478, 481, 483-484, 523- 
Jones, George II., 526. 

Jones, George W., son of Hiram W., 
524, 525. 

Jones, George W., son of Horatio, 
484-485, 519, 504, 524. 

Jones, George W., son of William W., 

Jones, Grace (Mrs. George Hudson), 

Jones, Mrs. Hannah Givin (Mrs. Jos- 
hua Jones), 522. 

Jones. Mrs. Hannah Hunter (Mrs. 
Malachi Jones), 524. 

Jones, Harriet (Mrs. Clute), 526. 

Jones, Mrs. Harriet W., 380. 

Jones, Henry, son of Benjamin, 522. 

Jones, Hester (Mrs. Robert Flint), 

Jones, Hiram, son of Hiram W., 524. 

Jones, Hiram, son of John II., 526. 

Jones, Hiram \V., 484-485, 519, 520, 

Jones, Homer, 324- 

Jones, Capt. Horatio, runs gauntlet 
and is adopted by Senecas at Canea- 
dea, 118-119; mentioned, 197, note, 
318; "Life of," 381-514: captured 
by the Senecas, 384, 386, 395"397; 
runs the gauntlet, 408-411; adopted 
by the Senecas. 415 417; expedition 
to the Susquehanna, 459-460; ex- 
pedition to the Niagara, 461-463; 
elected a chief. 464; marries Sarah 
Whitmore, 466; released from cap- 
tivity, 469-470; becomes purchasing 
agent for John Jacob Astor, 474; 
interpreter in Indian land sales, 475- 
483; returns to the Genesee, 478- 

479, 481-486; adventure near Tona- 
wanda Creek. 4S7-4S8; first employ- 
ment by the U. S. Government. 487- 
488; interpreter for Col. Proctor, 
489-492; accompanies Gen. Lin- 
coln's expedition, 1793, 495-497; 
probable portrait, 495, note; service 
as government interpreter, 498-499; 
moves to Williamsburg, then to 
Sweet Briar farm, near Geneseo, 
499-500; receives tract of land on 
Niagara River as gift from the Sen- 
ecas. 500-302; purchase with Phelps 
and Bronson of Little Beard's Res- 
ervation, 503 ; death of his sons, 
504; anecdotes, 504-514; death, 
512, epitaph, 512, note; sketch of 
his wife, Sarah Whitmore, 515-520; 
genealogy, 521-526; marriage" to 
Elizabeth Starr, 525; associated 
with Jasper Parrish, 536: sign* 
treaty with Senecas, 537; personal 
recollections of, by Orlando Allen, 

Jones, Horatio, son of John H., 526. 
Jones, Horatio, son of Malachi 2d, 

Tones, Horatio, Jr., 325. 
joncs, Mrs. Jabez, 380. 



Tones, James M., 526. 

Jones, James \Y\, son of Hiram \V., 

Jones, James W., son of Horatio, 483 

and note, 504, 519, 524. 
Jones, James VV\, son of William W., 

Jones, Jane, daughter of John H., Jr., 

Jones, Jane (Mrs. Charles Carroll 

Fitzhugh), 525. 
Jones, John, son of Benjamin, 522. 
Tones, John, son of Horatio, 525. 
Jones, John II., Jr., 524, 526. 
Jones, John Hunter, 472, note; 478, 

4S0-481, 483-484, 5-23, 5^4; first 

Judge of Genesee county, 526. 
Jones, Mrs. Josephine De Rochemont 

(Mrs. Homer Jones), 524. 
Jones, Joshua, son of Benjamin, 522. 
Jones, Joshua, son of Malachi, 521, 

Jones, Julia (Mrs. Benjamin F. Angel), 

Jones, Mrs. Julia (Mrs. John H. 

Jones), 520, note, 5.24- 
Jones, Mrs. Julia Wilmerding (Mrs. 

Horatio Jones), 525. 
Jones, Mrs. Kate Ewing (Mrs. John 

H. Jones), 526. 
Jones, Mrs. Katharine Crusan (Mrs. 

Benjamin Jones), 522. 
Jones, Katherine, 522. 
Tones, Lucien B., 526. 
Jones, Lucien M., 484, vote. 
Jones. Mrs. Lucy Tromley (Mrs. John 

Jones), 525. 
Jones, Lynand. 523. 
Jones, Rev. Malachi, 387, 521-522. 
Jones, Malachi 2d, 521, 522. 
Jones, Malachi 3d, 523, 5-4- 
Tones, Malachi, son of Benjamin, 522. 
Jones, Mrs. Marietta, 526. 
Jones, Martha, daughter of Malachi 

2d, 523. 
Jones, Martha (Mrs. John Parry), 

521, 522. 
Jones, Mary, daughter of Benjamin, 

Jones, Mary, daughter of George W., 


Jones, Mary, daughter of Malachi, 


Jones, Mary, sister of Horatio, 523. 

Jones, Mary (Mrs. Abenego Thomas), 

Jones, 'Mary (Mrs. Albert Phillips), 

Jones, Mrs. Mary (Mrs. Malachi 

Jones), 521, 522. 
Jones. Mary Ann (Mrs. Richard Fitz- 

hugh), 525. 
Jones, Mrs. Mary Parry (Mrs. Mala- 

chi Jones), 522, 523. 
Jones, Nancy (Mrs. Jellis Clute). 524. 
Jones. Mrs. Nancy Harrington (Mrs. 

William W. Jones). 524. 
Jones, Napoleon B., 526. 
Jones, Rebecca (Mrs. Elijah Hewitt), 


Jones, Ruth, daughter of Malachi 2d, 

Jones, Samuel, son of Benjamin, 522. 

Jones, Sarah (Mrs. Henry Perkins), 

Jones, Sarah E. (Mrs. Alexander 
Clute), 524. 525- 

Jones, Mrs. Sarah E. Cummings (Mrs. 
Charles Jones), 525. 

Jones, Mrs. Sarah Whitmore (or 
Whitmoycr), captured by Indians, 
3S3, 441, note, 44S-449, 465; mar- 
riage to Horatio Jones and subse- 
quent life. 464-477, 483-486; "Sarah 
Whitmore's captivity," her marriage 
to Horatio Jones, and subsequent 
history, 515-520; descendants, 524. 

Jones, Seneca, 525. 

Tones, Stephen, 523. 

Jones, Thomas J., 526. 

Jones, Mrs. Verona Shepherd (Mrs. 
Hif-am W. Jones), 524. 

Jones, William, father of Horatio, 
387. 523- 
William, brother of Horatio, 






I 524- 

J Jones, 


William, son of John H., 526. 
William, son of William W., 

Col. Wm. Whitmoyer, 459. 
472 and note, 484 and note, 
485, 519, descendants, 524; death, 

Jones, Mrs. Wm., 380. 

Jones tract. Buffalo, 384, 500-502. 

Jordan, Ont., 214, note. 

Joseph Isaac. 380. 

Touett, Ad»iiral J. E., 622. 

judd, Ruth (Mrs. Jabez Stevenson), 
380. . 

Jungman (Jungmann), Christian Da- 
vid, Moravian missionary, 181. 

Juniata river, 392. 

Juniata valley, 405. 

Juvenile Charitable Society, Lenox, 
Mass., 261, note. 

Kaasontaw Sagoghwiheagh, 193. 

Kah-Kwas, conquered by the Iroquois, 

Kanadesaga (the Old Castle of the 
Senecas), N. V., Rev. Samuel Kirk- 
land missionary to the Senecas, 166; 
easternmost town of the Senecas, 
471; De Bartych at, 472; council 
of the Six Nations and New York 
Land Co.. 1787. 475; name given 
to new white settlement, later Ge- 
neva. 477-478. 

Kansas-Nebraska act. 631. 

Kn.tarangus. See Cattaraugus. 

"Keepers of the door," 97-101. See 
also Seneca T n dians. 

Ke-jc-jen-ha-nik. See Osborne, Mrs. 

Kent. Duke of, visit to Niagara Falls 
and Ouccnston. 1792. 80. 

Kent, II. M., 635. 

Kent, Tames. 536. 
1 Kerr, Dr. Robert, 93. 



Kerr, Mrs. Robert (Elizabeth John- 
son), 93. 

Kerr, Col. VV. J. Sirncoe (Te-ka-re-ho- 
ge-a), at the last Indian council on 
the Genesee, 108, 115, 117. 

Kerr, Col. Walter Butler, marriage to 
Elizabeth, daughter of Capt. Brant, 

Kersey, Jesse, 169. 

Kersey, Wm., 171. 

Ketchum, Wm., "Buffalo and the Sen- 
ecas," cited, 76, note, 77, note. 

King, Indian chief. See Young King. 

King, Catharine Y., 3S0. 

King, Mrs. Lucy, 380. 

King, Mary, 380. 

King, William, 379. 

King, Mrs. William, 379. 

Kingston (Cataraqui), settlement, 77. 

Kirkland, Rev. Samuel, visit to the 
Indians of Buffalo Creek and the 
Niagara, 1788, 165-166; labors 
among Oneidas, 247, 250; marries 
Horatio Jones to Sarah Whitmore, 
466, 470, 519; connection with In- 
dian land sales, 476-479. 

Knowles, Lt. Charles, 40, 62. 

Knowles, Lt. (afterward Capt.) George, 
49, 52; praise of the "Yengeance," 
56; transferred to captured schoon- 
er "Fannie," 59; anxiety about 
Capt. Dean, 71. 

Knox, Gen. Henry, 620. 

Krouse, Mrs. Lucy (Wm.), 380. 

Krouse, Lydia Giddings, 380. 

Krouse, Wm., 380. 

La-de-a-no-wus, 464. 

La-geh-jo-wa, 464. 

La Hontan, A. L. de D., describes 
canoes of voyageurs, 19. 

Lancaster Co., Pa., 515. 

Land question, Indian ownership, 474- 
483, 486-487, 493- 

"Landing of Niagara." See Queens- 

Landon, Toseph, 541. 

Lane, Rev. B., 1S2. 

Lane, Rev. Joseph, 134. 

Langdon, Andrew, possession of rec- 
ords of John Porteons. 47, note; in 
Europe when Buffalo Historical So- 
ciety building dedicated, 607; ar- 
ranges for transfer of Francis col- 
lection of Lincoln memorials to 
Buffalo Historical Society building, 
and for statue to Lincoln. 613-614, 
619; annual address, Buffalo His- 
torical Society, Jan. 1903, 617-622; 
gift of bust of Washington to His- 
torical Society, 619 and note; is 
presented with gold key to doors 
of Historical Society in token of ap- 
preciation of his services. 622-626; 
presides at James O. Putnam me- 
morial evening, Buffalo Historical 
Society, 627. 

Langdon, Miss Ellen, 616. 

"Langolee," formerly the "Fannie," 

Langstaff, James, 170, 180. 


Lapham, Abraham, 172. 

Lapham, Mrs. Esther, 172. 

Larned, J. N., delivers address on 
Lincoln's birthday, 1874, 613; trib- 
ute to James O. Putnam, Buffalo 
Historical Society, 628-633. 

La Rochefoucault Liancourt, Due de, 
visit to Niagara and Oueenston, 
1795, 73-74; "Travels through the 
U. S. of North America," quoted, 
73-74 and note. 

La Ronde Penis, Sicur de, 17-19. 

La Ronde, Denis de, ensign, 18. 

La Salle, Robert Cavelier de, 17. 

"Last Indian council on the Genesee," 
poem by David Gray, 121-123. 

La Tournette (Tourrette), Marianne. 
See Harris, Mrs. Marianne La T. 

Lautz Co., 619. 

Lay, Chester C, 386, 465, note. 

Lay, Sylvester Cowles, 380. 

League of the Iroquois. See Iroquois 

Lebanon Co., Pa., 515. 

Lecompton constitution, 62 

Lee, Nathan, 1S0. 

Lee, Samuel, 170. 

Lee, Thomas, 171. 

"Le Hardy," ship, 60, 62, 63. 

Leicester, N. Y., 472, note. 483, 525. 

Lemen, Eliza (Mrs. William YY. 
Jones). 524. 

Lenox, Mass., Juvenile Charitable So- 
ciety, 261, note. 

Le Roy, N. Y., formerly Ganson's Set- 
tlement, 20S. 225, 229. 

Letch worth, Ogden P., 616. 

Letchworth, Hon. Wm. P.. home at 
Glen Iris, 102; old Caneadea coun- 
cil house rescued and last council 
summoned, 106; medals presented 
to the councillors, 120; joined Buf- 
falo Historical Society, 626; his In- 
dian museum, 459, note. 

"Letters and conversations on the In- 
dian missions at Seneca, Tuscarora, 
Cattaraugus, in the State of New 
York, and Maumee in the State of 
Ohio," cited, 378, note. 

Lewis, George H., 623. 

Lewiston, Cusick's pamphlet published 
at. 1 82; visited by Rev. Joseph 
Avery, 1805, 227, in 1819, 276; 
passed by Horatio Jones, 1782, 439: 
sons of Horatio Jones killed at, 
504, 524; Mohawk Indians settle at, 


See La 
Due de. 

Lightfoot. Thomas. 169. 

"Lily of Kingston," vessel, 14, note. 

Lima, N. Y., 00, 485. 

Lincoln. Abraham, memorial room. 
Buffalo Historical Society, 608, 613- 
614, 620; statue unveiled at dedi- 
cation of building, 612-616, 619, 
62 5; address of American citizens 
in "France on his death, written by 
James O. Putnam, 632. 

Due de la Rochefoucault. 
Rochefoucault Liancourt, 



Lincoln, Gen. Benjamin, 495-497, 495, 

Lincoln Birthday Association, 612-616, 


Lindley, Jacob, on the Niagara in 
i"93. 168; his "Journal," an ac- 
count of his "religious visit" to the 
Friends in Canada, and to Indians 
on Buffalo Crock, in 1797. 169-180; 
at Indian conference with U. S. 
commissioners, 1793, 497, note. 

Little Beard, 103, 105; appeals for 
teacher for his people, 141, 290; 
summoned to council by I'roctor, 
1791, 4S9; his mark, 493, note. 

Little Beard's Creek, 483. 

Little Beard's Reservation, bought by 
Jones, Phelps and Bronson, 503. 

Little Beard's Town, 105, 389, 418, 
422, 447, 456, 461, 465; council of 
1784, 468; council of 1789, 481; 
mentioned, 484, note, 519. 

"Little Ben," ship, 50, 54, 56. 

Little Billy, 118, 476, 537, 540. 

Little Falls, N. Y.. home cf John Por- 
teous. 47, note, 84. 

Little Johnson, 139, 283. 

Little Lake Cemetery, Peterborough, 

Little Niagara, trading-post established 
by Stirling, 36-38; Stedman house 
on site of old French barracks, 44. 

Livingston, John, 475-47S. 486. 

Livingston, Peter Van Brugh, 39 and 
note. See also Rutherford, Dun- 
can & Co. 

Livingston, Philip, 39, note. 

Livingston, William, Gov. of N. J., 
39 and note. 

Livingston, Rutherford & Syme, De- 
troit, 27, 44. 

Livingston Co., N. Y., 493. 

Livingston County Historical Society, 
459> note, 499. note. 

Livingston Republican quoted. 512. 

Lockwood, Hon. Daniel N., address at 
dedication of Buffalo Historical So- 
ciety building, 600-612. 

Lockwood, Mrs. Sally, 380. 

Loean, Mrs., mother of Saul Logan, 

Logan, Mrs. Saul, 380. 

London. Canada, visited by Rev. Da- 
vid Bacon, 1 80 1, 186. 

Long Board, 193. 

"Long House." See Iroquois Indians. 

Long Point. Ont.. 212. 

Lord, Rev. Dr. John C, 607. 

Lord collection, Buffalo Historical So- 
ciety, 608, 620. 

Lord's Prayer translated into Seneca 
by J. B. Hyde. 131; in Tuscarora 
verse, 159, 

Lothrop, Samuel K.. "Life of Samuel 
Kirkland," quoted. 165, 166. 

Lovett, Margaret (Mrs. H. J. Hewitt). 

Low, Fsther Rutgers. See Reming- 
ton. Mrs. Esther R. L. 

Low, John, 275, note. 

Lower F.benezcr, N. Y., Onondaga 

village near, 128. 

Loyalsock River, 180. 

Lucena, Leopold O'Donncll, Count, 7, 

Luke, St., Gospel of, translated into 
Seneca, 153, 155. 

Lundy, Wm., 174. 

Lunenburgh, Upper Canada, 82. 

Lycoming, Penn., 170. 

Lycoming Creek, 180. 

Lyman, Mrs, Ann Jones (Mrs. Wil- 
liam Lyman), 525. 

Lyman, William, 525. 

McClure, James, 440. 

McCoskry, Dr., at the Miami, 1793, 
497, note. 

McDonald, John, 393; captured by 
the Senecas, 395, 398. 

McDonald, Col. John, burial, 214, 

McDonald, William, 393; captured by 
the Senecas, 395, 398; runs the 
gauntlet, 408-409; killed, 412-413. 

Mcllenry family, 440. 

McKenney, T. L., "History of the 
Indian tribes of North America, 
with biographical sketches," cited, 

Mackinac, 22, 25, 31, 32, 78. 

McKinley, Wm., 612, 621. 

McKinstry, John, 481. 

Mackumber, Caleb, 172. 

McLane, S. W., 380. 

McLane. Mrs. S. W., 380. 

McLaughlin, Prof. A. C, 47> note. 

McLean, Dond., 63. 

McLean, Mrs. Mary Herkimer, mar- 
riage to Robert Hamilton. 84. 

McMaster, G. H., "History of the 
settlement of Steuben Co." cited, 
511. note. 

Macmillan Co., courtesy acknowl- 
edeed, 47. note. 

Madelaine Island, Lake Superior, Ot- 
tawa mission, 18. 

Mahoning Creek, 180. 

Maiden Creek meeting of Friends, 
1797, 169. 

Mansfield. Conn., 1S4. 

Mansion House, Buffalo, 541. 

Mark, St., Gospel of, translated into 
Seneca, 160. 

Markham, Wm., 478- 

Marriage among the Senecas. without 
ceremony. 180-190; Christian cere- 
mony, 137, 280 and note, 3 2 7'33°- 

"Mars," privateer, 59. 

Marsh. Toseph and Anna, 174. 

Marshall, O. H., "The Niagara fron- 
tier" cited, 23. note; identities lo- 
cation of wreck of the "Beaver," 
29-30; "Historical writings" cited. 
423, note: one of the founders of 
the Buffalo Historical^Society. 607. 

Marshall & Harvey, Buffalo. 608. 

Mason, Rcr. J. M., letter to. as secre- 
tary to the directors of the Mission- 
ary Soc, 10 1- 103; letter to, from 
Rev. Elkanah Holmes, 194-197. 



Massachusetts, claim to Iroquois ter- 
ritory, 475, 477. 

Massachusetts Historical Society. "Col- 
lections" cited, 495, note; posses- 
sion of sketch of Buffalo Creek con- 
ference with Gen. Lincoln, 1793, 
495> note; Pickering papers cred- 
ited, 514, note. 

"Massillon," vessel, 14, note. 

Mathews, James, 482. 

Matthew Lafiin Memorial, Chicago, 

Matthew, St., Gospel of, translated 
into Seneca, 160. 

Maude, John, visit to Queenston, 1800, 
79; "Visit to the Falls of Niagara 
in 1800," quoted, 79 and note. 

Maurepas, Marquis de, 18. 

Meacham, George, 613. 

Meacham, George C, 613. 

Mecklenburgh, Upper Canada, 82. 

Meginness, J. F., "History of the 
West Branch of the Susquehanna," 
cited, 400, note. 

Melick, Peter, 440. 

Mendenhall, Moses, 169. 

Mennonists, near Niagara, Ont., 227. 

Menomonee Indians, 537. 

Mental Elevator, periodical printed at 
Seneca Mission, Buffalo Creek, 158- 


Mercer, Thomas, 174- 

Meshoppen Creek, Pa., 442, 444. 

"Messenger," vessel, 14. note. 

Meyer, Capt. EHas, 24. 

Miami Indians, Col. Proctor's official 
mission to, 1791, 488-492: at con- 
ference with U. S. commissioners, 
1793, 497- ., e , „. 

Miami River, Council of the \\ estern 
Indians, 1791, 89; council, 1793. 

Michelangelo Buonarroti s statue of 
David, 623. 

Michillimackinac. See Mackinac. 

Middleton, Thomas, 49, 61. 62. 

Milan, O., "Pierson" sailed from, 14, 

Milburn, John G., 624. 

Mile Strip, state reserve, 502, 536. 

Milligan, Edward, 393. 

Minard. John S., 440, note. 

Minnesota Historical Society. "Col- 
lections" cited, 18, note. 

Missionary Herald cited, 150, note, 
153 and notes, 155. note. 3 79- 

Missionary Society of Connecticut, 
181; Rev. David' Bacon sent to visit 
Indian tribes on Lake Erie. 183-186. 

Missions to the Indians. "Seneca mis- 
sion at Buffalo Creek," 125-161; 
"Narratives of early mission work 
on the Niagara frontier and Buf- 
falo Creek," 163-380: note on 
earliest missionaries, 181-182. 

Mississaga Point. See Newark. 

"Mississippi," steamship, 5. 

Mitchell, T. [I.?], 51- 

Mitchell, Robert, 481. 

Mobile, schooner "Republican" at, 14. 

Mohawk, John, 104; expedition to 

Pennsylvania, 442-447; futile pur- 
suit of Van Campen, 456-4:8; his 
tomahawk, 458-459 and note. 
Mohawk Indians, remonstrate against 
encroachment by whites, 41; guar- 
dians of eastern door of the Long 
House, 98, 114, 121; at last Indian 
council on the Genesee, 107-121; 
emigration to Grand River, Canada, 
108, 116; enmity toward Senecas, 
108-109; effect of education upon 
them, 200; visited at Grand River 
by Cove 11 and Warren, 1803, 212; 
progress, 246-247; clans, J.: 5: re- 
ceive Grand River tract, 467: mur- 
der of sons of Horatio Jones and 
burning of Buffalo, 1813, 504; life 
of Jasper Parrish with, 532-533. 
Mohawk River, mill for valley trade 
built by John Porteous, 93; journey 
of G. T. Hopkins, 1804, 222. 
Mohawk Valley, records possessed by 

Andrew Langdon, 47, note. 
Mohegan (Muhheconnuk) Indians, 
195, 198; effect of education upon 
them, 200. 
"Molly," ship, 57. 
Monckton, Brig.-Gen. Robert, 20-22, 

Monroe Co., N. Y., 493. 
Monsie Indians. See Munsey Indians. 
Montresor, James, mentioned, 23. 
Montresor, Capt. John, 27; rescue of 
crew of the "Beaver," 28-29: or- 
dered to construct defensive works, 
Niagara portage and Navy Island, 
1764, 30; his journal qu:ted. 31; 
use of "cradles" for hoisting goods 
at Lewiston, 78. 
Moore, Daniel, 620. 
Moore, Jeremy, 174, 175. 
Moore, Joseph, 168, 497, note. 
Moore, Lydia, 380. 
Moore, Mary, 620. 
Moravian missions, 181. 
Morgan, H. M., printer at Cattarau- 
gus Reservation, 160. 
Morgan, Dr. Lewis H., cited, 40s. 
note; his Indian name, 464. note; 
cited, 465. note. 
"Morocco, From Lake Erie to." 1-14. 
Morris, Robert, Ebenezer Allan's tract 
included in his purchase. 493-494; 
purchase of Indian lands west of 
the Genesee. 400. 
I Morris Purchase. See Morris, Robert. 
J Morse, Rev. Jedidiah, 269, note; "Re- 
port to the Secretary of War . . . 
on Indians affairs," cited, 270, note. 
', Moscow, N. Y., 500. 
: Mosher's Tavern, 180. 
i Mounsh. Captain. 425, 426. 52S. 520. 
i Mount Morris, N. Y., 101, 4S9; loss 
of Ebenezer Allen's tract. .103-494. 
Mountpleasant, John, 427, note. 
Muhheconnuk. See Mohegan. 
Munsey Indians, 497; capture Jasper 

Parrish, 527. 
Murderers' Spring, near the Ridce 
Road, N. Y., 488. 



Murray, Hon. Charles Augustus, | 

quoted, 506-507 and note. 
Murray, Co/., Btsh., lands at Five 

Mile Meadows, 1S13, 504. 
Murray Hill, near Mt. Morris, home 

of 'lall Chief, 1 14. 
"Muse of Niagara," painting by Tabor 

Sears, 621. 
Music, fondness of Indians for, 261- 

262 and note, 270, 278, 304, 323. 
Muskegon, Mich., Lincoln statue, 614. 

"Narratives of early mission work on 
the Niagara and Buffalo Creek," 

Nassau, Upper Canada, 82. 

"Navy Island and the first successors 
to the Griffon," 17-33. 

Navy Island, called Lsle-la-Marine by 
the French and Ga-o'-wah-ge-waah 
by the Senecas, 23; navy-yard, 30- 
31; ship burnt, f766, 32; shipyard 
visited by Sir Wm. Tohnson, f76t, 

"Ne Jaguhnigoagesgwathah," "Ihe 
mental elevator," 15S. 

Neilson, John, 00. 

Nelles, Lt. Robert, 3*30; commands 
expedition to Pennsylvania, 391-415, 
captures Moses Van Campen, 451- 
456; aids captives, 462. 

Nelles, Capjt., 390, 391. 

Neutral Nation. See Kah-Kwas. 

New Arrow, mission to Philadelphia, 
1790, 486-487; trouble with Penn- 
sylvania militia, capture and release, 

New Stockbridge, 190. 

New York Baptist Association recom- 
mends Rev. Elkanah Holmes for 
western mission, 187-188. 

New York City, schooner "Republi- 
can" at, f3-i4- 

New York Committee of One Hun- 
dred, 1773. 39. note. 

New York Genesee Land Co., 475-481. 

New York Missionary Society, mis- 
sionaries and teachers sent to Tus- 
caroras and Senecas. 125-137, 1S2, 
250-251; Seneca mission transferred 
to United Foreign Missionary So- 
ciety, 138; Rev. Elkanah Holmes 
sent on mission to western Indians, 
187-204; address of the Tuscarora 
chiefs to, 1800. 191-193; commis- 
sioners sent to investigate mission 
at Buffalo Creek, 262; Tames C. 
Crane appointed to Tuscarora mis- 
sion, 330, tfotc; Rev. T. S. Harris 
sent to Buffalo Creek Reservation, 
378, note; his journals, 2S1-378. 

New York State, acquirement of title 
of Indian lands, 468-470, 474-483. 
493; payment of Indian annuities 
at' Buffalo, 530-546; revised sta- 
tutes, extracts from v. i., pt. 1. eh. 
20, title 8, published at Buffalo 
Creek Reservation, 159. 

New York State building at Pan- 
American Exposition, history of. 

New York State Library, Bradstreet 
and Amherst mss. cited, SO, note; 
Sir Wm. Johnson mss. cited, 29, 
note, 37, note, 4f and note. 

New York State Volunteers, tooth 
regiment, G. S. Hazard's ms. his- 
tory, 626, 627. 

New York Tribune, cited, 615. 

Newark (West Niagara, now Niagara- 
on-the-Lake), visited by the Duke 
de la Rochefoucault Liancourt, f795, 
73; death of Capt. Bernard Frey, 
1M3, 86; visited in 1803 by Rev, 
Lemuel Covell, 2 r 1-214. 

Newbery, l'a., 170. 

Newhall, Rebecca, f5o, 157. 

Newtown (Elmira), N. Y., 494, 503; 
battle near, 531. 

Newtown Point, N. Y., treaty at, 534. 

Niagara, Presbytery of, employment 
of J. B. Hyde, 274. 

Niagara Falls, visited by English ar- 
tist, John Maude, f8oo, 79; visited 
by Capt. Patrick Campbell, 1791, 
79-80; visited by the Duke of Kent, 
1792, 80; passed by Jacob Lindley, 
f 74-f 75; visited by Rev. David 
Bacon, f8ot, f86; visit of Gerard 
T. Hopkins, f8o4, 2 f 9-220; visited 
by Rev. Joseph Avery, 1805, 227; 
visit of Miss Esther Low, f8i9, 276- 
277; first house and taverns, 277, 
note; visited by Gen. Benj. Lin- 
coln, 1793, 495. 

Niagara, Fort. See Fort Niagara. 

Niagara frontier, "Narratives of early 
mission work," 163-380. 

Niagara Genesee Land Co., 475-481. 

Niagara, Ont., residence of Rev. Rob- 
ert Addison, 214; Gen. Benj. Lin- 
coln at Indian council, f793, 496. 

Niagara-on-the-Lake. See Newark. 

Niagara portage, Montresor ordered 
to construct defensive works, 30; 
"The Niagara portage and its first 
attempted settlement under British 
rule," 35-43; trade, f779"i796, 75" 
7S; Canadian portage, 78, 79, 8f. 

Niagara River, early sailing vessels, 
1 7-33 ; beginning of fruit orchards, 
94; first Protestant service on its 
banks. 165, note; visited by Qua- 
kers in 1703, 168; river and whirl- 
pool visited by Jacob Lindley, f707, 
174-176; settlements described by 
Rev. Lemuel Covell in 1803, 2! 4- 
215; four-mile strip from Fort 
Schlosser to Buffalo Creek granted 
by Senecas to government for a 
road, 1704, 408; Jones and Par- 
rish tracts, Buffalo, 501, 502. 

'Niagara River, the Mile Strip, 502, 
536; islands sold to New York 
State by the Senecas. 537. 530. 
Niagara River, "West Landing." See 

Oiu enston. 
Niehaus, Charles IF, 614, 619. 
N : . = - h a • ne-a • n en t, 464. 
Noh-Sahl. See Shanks. John. 
Norris' Landing, Seneca Lake, 494. 



Northern Missionary Society in the 
State of New York, 269, note. 

Northumberland. Pa., 451, 454. 

"Notre Dame," brig, 60. 

Noye, Richard K., summer residence, 
"Halcyon," at Queenston, 79. 

Nunda, N. Y., 490. 

O'Bail, John. See Cornplanter. 

O'Bail, Solomon (Ho- way -no -ah), 
speech at last Indian council on the 
Genesee, 115-117. 

O'Callaghan, E. B., comp. "Docu- 
mentary history of the State of 
N. Y." citeiL 32, 40. 

O'Callaghan, E. B., ed. "Documents 
relative to the colonial history of 
the State of N. Y." cited, 19, 41 
and note, 42 and note; 44, note. 

Ocracock harbour, 60, 62. 

O'Donnell, Leopold, 7, note. 

O'Friel's Ridge, 395. 

Ogden, W. D., 292. 

Ogden Land Co., purchase of the 
Buffalo Creek and Tonawanda res- 
ervations, 160-161, 291-293. 

"Official return July 30, 1778, of all 
vessels built on the lakes since the 
year 1759" cited, 26, 30-33- 

Ogilvie, Rev. John, sketch, 165, note. 

Ohio River, proposed by northwestern 
Indians as boundary of their pos- 
sessions, 1793. 496, note, 497- 

Oil Creek, Pa., 490. 

"Old Caneadea council house and its 
last council fire," 97-123. 

Old Castle, Seneca Lake. See Kane- 
desaga, N. Y. 

Old Smoke, 471- 

Old South Church, 614. 

Olmsted, Mrs. Frederick Law, 521, 
note, 526. 

One Hundredth Regiment, N. Y. S. 
V., G. S. Hazard's ms. history, 626- 

Oneida Indians, 98, 114; neutral dur- 
ing American Revolution, 100; Rev. 
Samuel Kirkland missionary to, 166; 
effect of education upon them, 200; 
religion and civilization. 247-248; 
clans, 415; lease of lands. 475; sale 
of lands to New York State, 478; 
at conference with U. S. commis- 
sioners, 1793, 497, note: confirmed 
in their lands, 1794. 498; friendly 
disposition, 535; receive annuities 
from N. Y. State, 539-544. 

Onondaga Indians, in the Iroquois 
confederacy, 98-114; village near 
Lower Ebenezer, 128; those at Buf- 
falo Creek Reservation agree to re- 
ceive missionary teachers, 132-133; 
consent to receive settled minister at 
Buffalo Creek, 137; life at the mis- 
sion, 157; seen at Buffalo Creek 
by Jacob Lindley, 1797, 176; re- 
pulse missionaries, 247; consent to 
receive missionary teachers, 262; 
clans, 415; sale of lands to New 
York State, 478; confirmed in their 

lands, i794t 498; receive annuities 
from N. Y. State, 539-544. 

Ontario Co., N. Y., 493. 

Oswego, N. Y., Moravian missionaries, 

Orange, Fort. See Albany. 

Osborne, Mrs. Kate (Ke-je-jen-ha-nik), 
at last Indian council on the Gene- 
see, 108. 

Otis, Henry H., 622. 

Ottawa mission, La Pointe du Saint 
Esprit, 18. 

Pagan party, Seneca Indians, 133, 140, 
262-268, 284-369; at Tonewanta, 
284; Tuscarora Indians, 249. 

Paine, Gen. Edward, 538. 

Painesville, Ohio, 538. 

Painted Post (now Erwin), N. Y., 
179, 404, note, 489, 531. 

Palmer, John, 201. 

Palmer, Joseph R. (?), teacher at 
Buffalo Creek, 1801, 126. 

Palmyra, N. Y., 502. 

Pan-American Exposition, New York 
State building, history of, 610-612, 
617-618, 624. 

Paris, N. Y., 232. 

Parish tract, Buffalo. See Parrish 
tract, Buffalo. 

Parker, Commodore Sir Hyde, 53. 

Parker, Gen. Ely S., brother of Nich- 
olson H. Parker, 109. 

Parker, Sergt., tortured by Indians, 
422, 483. 

Parker, Mrs. Martha E. FToyt, in- 
formation credited to, 128, note, 
155; early life at the mission, 137; 
member of Seneca mission church, 

Parker, Nicholson H. (Ga-yeh-twa- 
geh), at last Indian council on the 
Genesee, 109-111, 120-121. 

Parkman, Francis, "Conspiracy of 
Pontiac" cited, 25, note. 

Parrish, Mr. (father of Jasper), 425. 

Parrish, Edward, 545. 

Parrish, Capt. Jasper, 118: interviews 
with Missionary Harris and Red 
Jacket, 140, 141, 289; mentioned, 
269, note, 317, 318, 384; captured 
by the Delawares, 425-426; men- 
tioned, 445, 463, 403, 494: at Can- 
andaigua council, 1794. 498; in ne- 
gotiations for Morris Purchase. 
1797, 409: receives tract of land on 
Niagara River as gift from the Sen- 
ecas, 500-502; witnesses instance of 
frontier justice, 502-503; interprets 
for Horatio Jones, 503; at sale of 
Gardeau Reservation, 509; death. 
512; his letters among Pickering 
papers, 514, note; "Story of," 527- 

Parrish, John, 168, 497, note. 

Parrish, Stephen, 425, note; "Sketch 
of the captivity of the late Captain 
Jasper Parrish" cited, 5-7. note. 
quoted, 520, note, 532, note: per- 
sonal recollections of, by Orlando 
Allen, 539-546. 



Parrish tract, Buffalo, 3S4, 500-502, 

Parry, Mrs. Ann (Mrs. James Parry), 

Parry, David, 522. 

Parry, Mrs. Klizabeth Jones (Mrs. 
David Parry), 521, 522. 

Parry, James, 522. 

Parry, John, 522. 

Parry, Mrs. Martha Jones (Mrs. John 
Parry), 521, $22. 

Parry, Mary (Mrs. Malachi Jones), 

Parsons, Mrs. Patty Childs, 276. 

Patriot. See Buffalo Patriot. 

Patterson, guide, 510, 511, note. 

Paxson, Oliver, 170, 180. 

Pemberton, James, captured by the 
Delawares, 425-427; prefers Indian 
life, 470. 

Pence, Peter, capture and escape from 
Indians. 443-445, 447. 

Penman, James, 51, sketch, 58, note. 

Penny, Rev. Joseph, 340. 

People of the Long House. See Iro- 
quois Indians. 

Perkins, Dr. Henry, 525, 526. 

Perkins, John, 484 and note. 

Perkins, Mrs. Sarah Jones (Mrs. 
Henry Perkins), 525, 526. 

Perth, Scotland, former home of John 
Porteous, 47, note. 

Peter, Olive, 380. 

Peter, Tall. See Tall Peter. 

Peter Cayantha. See Cayantha, Peter. 

Peterborough, Canada, 3S5. 

Peterson. Jesse, 620. 

Phelps, Oliver, 476-482, 486-487, 493, 

Phelps, N. Y., first crop of corn. 480. 

Phelps and Gorham Purchase, 476-4S2, 

Philadelphia, partnership of John Por- 
teous and John Richardson, 48; 
Seneca delegation visits President 
Washington, 1 790-1, 4S6-487. 

Phillips, Albert. 524. 

Phillips. Mrs. Mary Jones (Mrs. Al- 
bert Philips), 524. 

"Phoenix." ship. 57. 

Phoenix Coffee House, Buffalo, 541. 

Phyn, James, 47. note, 84. 

Phvn & Ellice, Schenectady, 47, note, 
84. 85. 

Pickering. 'Col. Timothy. 404-497. 495. 
note, 408, 514, note, 534 and notc.^ 

Pickering papers, Massachusetts His- 
torical Soc, credited, 514, note. 

Pickerine treaty. 404. 

Pierce, Chas. Fisher, 180. 

Pierce, Mr*. Isnac. 380. 

Pierce, Julia, 380. 

Pierce, Maris B. (Ha-dya-no-doh) . 1 1 5. 

Pierce. Mrs. Robert, 379. 

Pierce's "Military Academy, 385. 

"Pierson." vessel, 14, note. 

"Pigeon Roost." 449-451, 517-518. 

Pike, Abraham, capture and escape 
from Indians, 443-44". 

Pilkington, Col. C. A., "405, note. 

Piper, Col. John, 388, 389. 

Piquet, Abbe. 168. 

Pitt, Fort. See Fort Pitt. 

Pitts, Capt. Peter, 510. 

Pittsburgh, 487, 490. See also Fort 

Plain Wood Co., O., 181. 

Point aux Pins, probable site of first 
ship-building on Lake Superior, 18; 
fortification urged, 19. 

Pointe du Saint Esprit, La., Ottawa 
mission, 18. 

Pollard, Captain, probably at Canea- 
dea, 103; known by Orlando Allen, 
118; sanctions Mr. Alden's preach- 
ing to Senecas, 130-131; an influ- 
ential Christian, 136, 139; joins the 
church, 148; first burial-place, 161; 
advocates Christianity, 270, note: 
■welcome to Missionary Harris, 283- 
284; conversion of his wife, 341- 
342; religious meeting at his house, 
351; late meeting with Horatio 
Jones, 507; signs treaty at Buffalo, 
537; annuity, 540. 

Pollard, Edward, 75-76, 90. 

Pollard, Col. John, 379. 

Pollard, Mrs. John, 379. 

Pomeroy, Ralph, 541. 

Pontiac, siege of Detroit, 25-27, 44. 

Porteous, James, 48. 

Porteous, John, sketch, 47, note, 84; 
engages in privateering, 48-49; ca- 
reer of the "Vengeance," 49-71; let- 
ters from Robert Hamilton, 85-94; 
mill for Mohawk valley trade, 93;- 
death, 95. 

Porteous, John, & Co. 48. 

Porter, Albert H., "Historical sketch 
of Niagara from 1678 to 1S76," 
quoted. 39-40, cited 44. note. 

Porter, Augustus, first house at Ni- 
agara Falls, 277, note; quoted, 502- 
503 and note. 

Porter, Gen. Peter B., signs treaty 
with Senecas, 537. 

Potter, Herman B., 150, 318, 348-340. 

Poudry, captive by the Senecas, 470, 

Pound, Daniel and Patience, 174. 

Powell. Capt., 462-463. 4QI. 

Pratt. Pascal P., 613. 626. 

"Preemptive line," 475-478. 

Prentup, Billa, 193. 

Prentup, George, 193. 

Prentup, \Vm., 193. 

Presbyterian Church, first Protestant 
missionary in Western N. Y., 207: 
three preachers on Niagara frontier 
in 180-;, 215. 

Presqu' Isle. See Erie, Penn. 

Preston, Gen. Wm., 12-13. 

Prevost, Ger. Augustine, 58, note. 

Prideaux, Gen. John, burial service 
undoubtedly conducted by Rev. 
John Ogilvie. 165. note. 

Privateer. British, in the American 
revolution. 47-7 r. 

Proctor, Col. Thomas, visit to Onon- 
daga village on Ca7.enovia Creek. 
1791. 128; official mission to west- 
ern Indians, 1791. 4S8-492. 



Pugi, F., 619, 624. 

Putnam, Harvey, 629. 

Putnam, Hon. James O., Buffalo His- 
torical Society's memorial evening, | 
627; address by J. N. Larned, 628- 
633; Mr. Sellstedt's offering, 633- j 

Putnam, Mrs. James O., 635. 

Pye, Capt. at Fort Niagara, 462. 

"Quakers among the Senecas," 165- I 

Quakers. See Friends, Society of. 

Quarantine regulations, Spain and Mo- 
rocco, 1-13. 

Quaw-wa. See Brewer, James. 

Quebec, Brant's mission to, 467; pris- 
oners sent to, 415. 

Queenston (Queenstown), Robert Ham- 
ilton, founder, 73-95; visited and 
described by the Duke de la Rouche- 
foucault Liancourt, 1795, 73-74, 79; 
begun as "West Landing," 1789, 81, 
78; named, 78; commercial import- 
ance, 78-79; described by John 
Maude in 1800, 79; letters from 
Robert Hamilton, 179 1-4, 87-88, 91- 
93; first use of present name, 1792, 
92; Rev. Lemuel Covell preaches 
at, 211-213, describes, 215; visited 
by Rev. Joseph Avery, 1805, 227. 

Quinte, Bay of, 467. 

Ramsdell, Orrin P., 613. 

Randolph, Beverly, 495"497> 495. note. 

Ranney, Orville \\\. 633. 

Ransom, Capt. Elias, 134, 228, 278 
and note. 

Ratlen, Mrs. Martha Hunter (Mrs. 
John Ratlen), 524. 

Reacle, Gen. Sir Thomas, mentioned, 

Recorder cited, 265. 

Red Jacket ( Sa-go-ye-wat-ha, "He 
Keeps them awake"), probably at 
Caneadea, 103; his grand-nephew 
at last Indian council on the Gene- 
see, 109-11,1, 120-12 1, and his son, 
111-112; his defense of Tommy 
Jemmy, 112; known by Orlando 
Allen, 118; attends Mr. Alden's 
preaching, 130; at Tonnewanda, 
131; leader of the Pagan party, 
131. 140, 264-266. 270, 273, note, 
303; succeeds in breaking up mis- 
sion at Buffalo Creek. 149-150, 34S- 
349; repudiates his wife upon her 
conversion to Christianity, but re- 
turns to her eventually, 152, 367- 
369; first burial-place, 161; inter- 
view with Missionary Harris and 
Capt. Parrish, 140. 141. 289; re- 
ceives Rev. David Bacon, 1800, 184; 
invites Rev. FJkanah Holmes to 
preach at Buffalo Creek, 195-196; 
address to Mr. Holmes. 1800, 197- 
200; notifies Mr. Holmes that Sen- 
ecas will build mission house. 1803, 
210; his advocacy of the project, 
216, note; met by G. T. Hopkins, 
221; discomfited by Christians, 1S22, 

319; interview with Missionary 
Harris, 342-343; plan for the over- 
throw of the mission, 344-340; 
death, 378-379, note; mentioned. 
386; invitation to Phelps to meet 
Indians at Buffalo Creek. 476; dele- 
gate to Philadelphia, 1 790-1, 486- 
487; inclined to thwart L*. S. In- 
dian policy, 1791, 487; renders Col. 
Proctor's mission futile, 491-492; 
his mark, 493, note; at Buffalo 
Creek council, 1794, 49S ; at Can- 
andaigua council, 1794. 49S-499; 
anecdotes of, 508-509; mentioned, 
513; opposed to civilization, 535- 
536; signs treaty at Buffalo, 181 5, 
537; statue undertaken, 626. 

Red Jacket, Mrs.; 379- 

Reed, Col. Seth, 479-483. 

Reese, George, & Co. 274. 

Remington, Cyrus K., 133, 275, note, 

Remington, Rev. David, 133, 275, note. 

Remington, Elizabeth H., 133-134, 275, 

Remington, Mrs. Esther Rutgers Low, 
teacher at Seneca mission, Buffalo 
Creek, 133-136; marries Rev. David 
Remington, 133, 275, note; cited, 
137 and note; sketch, 275. note; 
"Narrative of Esther Rutgers Low, 
her sojourn at the Tuscarora and 
Seneca missions, 1819-20," 275-280. 

R^msen, Henry, 48. 

"Renown" ("Harcourt"), ship, 64-67. 

"Republican," schooner, 1-14. 

Reuben James, 380. 

"Revenge," privateer, 68. 

Revised statutes, N. Y. See New 
York State, Revised statutes. 

Revolution. American, Iroquois allies 
of the British, 100. 

Rich, G. Barrett, 613, 614. 62s. 

Richardson, Capt. John, friend of 
John Porteous, 48; sails on the 
"Vengeance," 49-50; letter. Feb. 
1779. 51-53; letter from Savannah 
River, Mch., 1779. 56-50: letter. 
May. 1779. 61-63; account oi at- 
tack on the "Vengeance"' by the 
"Renown," 64-67; anxiety about 
Capt. Dean, 70: at Fort Niagara, 
1789. 85. 

Richmond, Eliza (Airs. Charles Tones'). 

Rii'ii" Road, murder of John Street. 

Rivardi, Maj. T. I. Ulrich. iSS, jot: 

letter from. 104; removed from 

Fort Niagara, 197. 
Roanoke River, 537. 
Ro-ring Creek, Penn., 180. 
Robbins, Rev. Thomas, 181. 
Roberts. Jacob G.. 511. 
Roberts, John, 511. 
Roberts, Peter, 511. 
Robertson. Mrs. John, afterward Mrs. 

Robert Hamilton. 77. 
Robinson, Capt. Thomas, 45*. 
Robison, Capt. Thomas, quoted, ?'■ 
Rochefoucault Liancourt, Due de La. 



See La Rochefoucault Liancourt, 

Duke de. 
Rochester, in i8pi, 185-1S6. 
Rock wood, Gilbert, 182. 
Rogers, Henry W., 607. 
Rogers, Jonah, captured by Indians, 

Rogers, Maj. Robert, takes possession 

of Detroit, 1760, 20, 38. 
Rogers, Hon. Sherman S., 635, 636. 
Rogers, Mrs. Sherman S., 635. 
Rome, N. V. See Fort Stanwix. 
Root, Emily, 150. 
Rosencrantz, Nicholas, 4S2. 
Ross, Thomas, mentioned, 1S0. 
Ross, Pa. soldier, 393; captured by 

the Senecas, 395, 398; tortured to 

death, 400 and note. 
"Royal Charlotte," sloop, built, 31; 

carries back furs to Niagara, 31-32; 

long service, 33. 
Rumsey, Bronson Case, 622. 
Rutherford, Sir John, 38, note. 
Rutherford, John, adventures during 

Pontiac's war, 27-29, cited, 29, note. 
Rutherford, Duncan & Co., trading- 
post at Niagara portage, 36-45. 
Ryckman, Peter, 478, 479-483. 

Sacarese (Sagareesa, etc., or Sword- 
carrier), asks Friends to send 
teachers to the Tuscaroras, 166; be- 
gins to reform, 190; signs address 
to N. Y. Missionary Society, 103; 
negotiates purchase of land from 
Holland Land Co. for Tuscaroras, 
221; address to Secretary of War, 

Sa-da-ga-o-yase, 464. 

Sagareesa. See Sacarese. 

Sa-go-ye-wat-ha. See Red Jacket. 

St. Augustine, papers of the "George 
■ Washington" sent to, 53. 

St. Catharine's, Ont., 214, note. 

St. Catharine's, Island of, the "Ven- 
geance" ashore, 60. 

St. Clair, Gen. Arthur, news of his 
defeat received at Fort Niagara, 91. 

St. James Hall, Buffalo, 628; 

St. Lawrence River, its part in trans- 
Atlantic trade, 14, note. 

St. Louis Church, Buffalo, 630. 

St. Mark's, Niagara, Ont., 214, note. 

St. Regis, Canada, 247. 

St. Simons, Island of, letter from 
Cant. Dean, 69. 

Salisbury, II. A., 273, note, 379- 

Salisbury, N. Y., 179. 

Salmon, Joseph, 440. 

Sam George, Colonel. Sec George, 
Colonel Sam. 

Samson, W. IT., "History of the 
treaty of Big Tree," 499, note. 

Sandusky, ()., delegation of Friends 
attend treaty. 168; preaching by 
Rev. Joseph Badger, 181; Cavugas 
at, 250. 

Sangerfield Monitor cited, 265. 

Savannah, captured by the British, 
1 77$, 53; the town in 1779, 58; 

"Vengeance" stops on last cruise, 

Savannah River, letters from the 
"Vengeance," 1779, 53-59, 69-70. 

Savery, W'm., his journal quoted, 166- 
167, cited, 168; attends a treaty at 
Sandusky, 168; at council with U. 
S. commissioners, 1793, 497, note; 
quoted, 499. 

Sawyer, John, 59. 

Scajaquada Creek, 501-502. 

Scarlet, John, 169. 

Schenectady, N. Y., business of John 
Duncan, 38, 40; mentioned, 84, 88, 
93, 94; Whitmore children reunited, 
470; marriage of Horatio Jones and 
Sarah Whitmore, 519- 

Schlosser, Fort. Sec Fort Schlosser. 

Schoolcraft, Henry R., 181 ; "Notes 
on the Iroquois" mentioned, 182. 

Schoo'ey, Asa, 173-176. 

Schools for the Tuscarora and Seneca 
Indians, 125-161, 191-194, 251. 

Schuyler, Maj. Peter, 478. 

Schuyler Co., N. Y., 493. 

Schuylkill River, Jacob Lindley's ride 
up the valley, 1797. 169-170; his 
return, 180. 

Scott, Wm., commissary with Gen. 
Lincoln, 1793. 497* note. 

Scott, Wm., member Seneca mission 
church, 380. 

Scott, Mrs. Wm., 380. 

"Scott," vessel, 14, vote. 

Scoville collection, Buffalo Historical 
Society, 621. 

Scoy-gu-quoy-des Creek. See Scaja- 
quada Creek. 

Scribner's magazine, David Gray's 
poem credited, 107, note. 

Sears, Tabor, 621. 

Seaton. Joel, occupies old council 
house. Caneadea. 106. 

Sedgwick. H. C, 505, note. 

Selden. Phrebe, ij.8, 150, T57, 379. 

Sellstedt, Lars G., reminiscences of 
James O. Putnam, 633-637. 

Se-nc-at'-do-wa. See Parrish, Capt. 

Seneca. Mrs. Chas. (Ruth), 3S0. 

Seneca, John. See John Seneca. 

Seneca, Mother. 370. 

Seneca, Phehe (Mrs. Tabez Jones), 

Seneca. White. See White Seneca. 

Seneca hymn book, 146-147, 152-153, 

Seneca Indians, wrath against British 
accrcssion, conciliation by Sir Wm. 
Johnson. 1761, 35-38; the "Keepers 
of the door." 97-101: settlement in 
Genesee valley, 09: villaees de- 

• stroyed by Gen. Sullivan, 100; de- 
parture from the Genesee valley, 
105-106: loyalty to Americans in 
War of 1812, 108-109; the last 
council at Caneadea, 107-123; set- 
tlement at Fcrt Niagara and Buffalo 
Creek after expulsion from Genesee 
valley. 125; "The Seneca mission 
at Buffalo Creek," 125-161; early 



missions to, 163-380, 181 -182; visit 
of Rev. Samuel Kirkland to Buffalo 
Creek, 1788, 165-166; "Quakers 
among the Senecas," 165-168; early- 
temperance movements, 168; Jacob 
Lindley's visit to Buffalo Creek, 
1797, 176-177; work of Rev. El- 
kanah Holmes among Tuscaroras 
and Senecas, 1S7-204; visit of Rev. 
Lemuel Covell to western X. Y., 
1803, 207-216; council considers 
building house for public worship 
and school, 1803, 200-210. 216, note; 
"A teacher amon? the Senecas: nar- 
rative of Jabez Backus Hyde, 18 11- 
1820," 239-274; Seneca character 
and customs, 240-242; religion, 242- 
246; progress of the Gospel and 
civilization, 256-273; "Life of Hor- 
atio Jones," 381-000; organization 
of council, 464; peace negotiations 
and release of prisoners at end ot 
Revolution, 467-470; extensive sale 
of lands, 1788-9, 474-483; delega- 
tion sent to President Washington, 
1790-r; asking for justice, 486-4S7; 
Col. Proctor's effort to obtain their 
aid in securing peace with western 
tribes, 1791, 4S8-492; boundaries of 
their lands established. 1794, 498; 
Dr. Hosmer's poems of Seneca life 
and learends, 505-506; treaty at 
Tioga Point, 1790, 534; treaty at 
Albany, 1802, 536; treaty at Buf- 
falo, 1815, 537; payment of an- 
nuities at Buffalo described by Or- 
lando Allen, 539-546. 

Seneca Lake, first settlers, 471-478. 

Seneca language, portions of the Bible 
translated into, 131-132, 135; 
hymns by J. B. Hyde, 138; hymn- 
book with translation from the 
Bible prepared by James Young and 
Rev. T. S. Harris. 146-147. 152-153, 
273, note, 333; first book printed 
in, 158; the "Mental elevator." 
Seneca spelling book, and other pub- 
lications of the Mission Press, Buf- 
falo Creek and Cattaraugus, 158- 
160; usefulness of translations, 271- 
272; translations of Hyde and Har- 
ris, 273-274, note. 

"Seneca mission at Buffalo Creek," 
125-161; conducted by T. B. Hvde, 
128-138; described by "Mr. Alden, 
129-132. 134-137; transferred by the 
New York Missionary Society to 
the United Foreign Missionary So- 
ciety, 138; conducted by Rev. 
Thompson S. Harris. 13S-154; first 
rept. to U. S. War dept. 1821, 143- 
145; first church organized. 145, 
147-148: mission broken up. 1824, 
150, 348-349; work resumed, 1825, 
150: under control of Am. Board 
of Commissioners for Foreign Mis- 
sions, 151; new church built. 1829. 
153; reservation abandoned. 1S43-4, 
158, 161; old mission house, built 
in 1833, still standing, in 1003, 134. 
155, 161; life at, 157; first peri- 

odical, "The mental elevator," print- 
ed, 158; reservation sold to Ogden 
Land Co. and mission family mi ved 
to Cattaraugus Reservation, 1 60-161; 
"A teacher amons the Indians: nar- 
rative of Jabez Backus Hyde, iS:i- 
1820," 239-274; "Narrative of Es- 
ther Rutgers Low, 1819-20," 275- 
280; "Journals of Rev. Thompson 
S. Harris, 1821-28," 281-37S; work 
of Mr. Harris, 37S-370, note; "Reg- 
ister of the Seneca Mission Church 
organized Aug. 10th, 1823," 579- 

Seneca Mission Church, Register, 
1S23-50, 379-38o. 

Seneca village, Buffalo Creek. 127- 
128; visited by Rev. Samuel Kirk- 
land, 1788, 165-166; visited by G. 
T. Hopkins. 1804, 221. See also 
Seneca mission. 

Seneca White, 127, 136, 139-140: joins 
the church, 148; mentioned, 150, 
279, 286; disapproves hunting. 291: 
supports missionaries in question of 
resident children, 336-337; discloses 
Red Jacket's plan for overthrow of 
the mission, 344; meetings at his 
house, 354, 358-361; in mission 
church register, 379. 

Seneca White, Mrs., 3 79- 

Senseman (Sensemanu), Gottlobb. Mo- 
ravian missionary, 181. 

"Sermon on the mountain," Seneca 
version, 147, 152-153. 

Severance, Frank H., "Old trails on 
the Niagara frontier" cite.:. 106, 
note; "Quakers among the Sene- 
cas," 165-168; continuation of Har- 
ris' "Life of Horatio Jones," 403- 
514: "Bibliography of the Niagara 
Region: Pamphlets and B< ks 
printed in Buffalo prior to 1S50." 
547-606; on Lincoln statue commit- 
tee of Buffalo Historical Society, 
614; reelected to Board of Histor- 
ical Society, 1903, 616: _ services in 
securing building for Historical So- 
ciety. 625. 

Seymour, Hon. Norman, "Sketch of 
Horatio Jones" quoted, 436. 

"Shabear Jean Coeur." See Joncaire, 

Shaftsbury Baptist Association, Rev. 
Lemuel Covell and Elder Obed 
Warren sent to western N. Y. and 
Canada, 207-216: Covell and Ir:>h 
sent to Upper Canada. 232. 

Shakespeare Club. Buffalo, 634. 

Shanks. John (Noh-Sahl), 115. 

Sharp Shins, 401, 402; attempts to 
kill Horatio Jones. 409-410: rn ra- 
tioned, 414: his encounters with 
Horatio Jones, 432-435; later friend- 
ly meeting, 505; signs treaty at 
Buffalo. 181 5. 537. 

Sharne, W.. letter to, from Gen. Am- 
herst. 1762, 42-44. 

Sharpless, Joshua, 169. 

Shawnee Flats, Pa., 443. 

Shawnee Indians, conquered by the 



Senecas, 264, note; unwilling to 
make peace with the U. S., 1793, 
497 and note. 

Sheldon, Henry, 3S0. 

Sheldon, Hon. James. 623. 

Sheldon, Laura M. See Wright, Mrs. 
Laura M. Sheldon. 

Shepherd, Verona (Mrs. Hiram W. 
Jones), 524. 

Sherman. Gen. Wm. T.. quoted. 616. 

Ship-building on the Great Lakes. 14, 
note; first successors to the Griffon, 

Sho-gyo-a-ja-ach. See Jacket, John. 

Shoh-son-do-want. See Jemison, Thos. 

Shongo, Captain, signs treaty at Buf- 
falo, T815. 537. 

Shongo, Col., 390, 39 r, 39-; advo- 
cates adoption of Horatio Jones by 
Senecas, 414; mentioned, 451. 

Shongo, Jacob, 379. 

Shongo, Mrs. James, 380. 

Shongo, Maud, 616. 

Shongo, Moses, "Fore-word," v-vi; 

Sho-noh-go-waah. See Blacksnake, 

Short Hills, Ont. 174. 

Silverheels, Abagail, 380. 

Silverheels, George, 380. 

Silverheels, Mrs. Joseph, 380. 

Silverheels, Robert. 3S0. 

Simcoe, Mrs., at Queenston, 1792. 80. 

Simcoe, Col. John Graves, Lt. Gov. 
of Upper Canada. 83, 89; building 
of fort in Miami county, 91; visited 
by Gen. P>enj. Lincoln, 1793, 495; 
mentioned, 407, note. 

Simmerton, John, 470. 

Simms, Jephtha R., "History of Scho- 
harie Co." cited, 440, note, quoted, 

Simpcoe, Col. See Simcoe, Col. J. G. 

Singing. See music. 

Sinnemahoning Creek, 399, 400, 404, 

Six Nations. See Iroquois Indians. 

"Sketch of the captivity of the late 
Captain James Parrish," ms., ac- 
count of, 527, note. 

Skoi-vase, 471. 

Slaton's (?), N. Y., 226. 

Slocum, Prances, 470, 489, 491. 

Slocum, George, 489, 491. 

Smith, George. 379. 

Smith, }frs. Georcrc, 379. 

Smith, Rev. Hiram. 153, 134. 

Smith, Jacob, 172. 

Smith, Hon. Tames Murdock, 617, 
623, 624. 

Smith, Jeremiah, 172. 

Smith, Cnpt. John, sees Iroquois on 
the Chesapeake, 97. 

Smith, Joseph, first meets Horatio 
Tones, 422-423; moves to Seneca 
Lake, 474; daughter and grand- 
daughter, 475, note; interpreter in 
Indian land sales, 475-4S3; moves 
to Canandaigua, 480: visited by 
Horatio Jones and family, 485; with 

Horatio Jones conducts Iroquois 
chiefs to Philadelphia, 507. 

Smith, Mary (Mrs. button), 47s, note. 

Smith, Ransom, 478. 

Snipe Clan of the Senecas, totem in 
Caneadea council house, 103; 464. 

Snow, John, Seneca chief, 290, 294, 

Snow, Mrs. John, 379. 

"Snow," a vessel, described, 49. 

Society for Propagating Christian 
Knowledge, missionary from rejected 
by the Senecas, 127; work among 
Indians of western N. Y., 166. 

Society for Propagating the Gospel, 
missionary licensed by, 129. 

Society for the Propagation of the 
Gospel in Foreign Parts, first mis- 
sionary in Niagara district, 214, 

Society in Scotland for Propagating 
Christian Knowledge, 250, 269, note. 

Society of Friends. See Friends, So- 
ciety of. 

Sogweewautan. See Red Jacket. 

Southard, Samuel Lewis, visits Seneca 
mission, Buffalo Creek, 151, 364 and 

Spain, diplomatic controversy with the 
U. S. concerning schooner "Repub- 
lican," 1-14. 

"Spelling book in the Seneca lan- 
guage," published, 1842, 159. 

Sprague, F. C, 635. 

Spracrue. J. W„ and Co., Huron, O., 

Spring, Retsy, 225. 

Spring. Mrs. James, 380. 

Squ-agh-kie, or Squakie, Indians, cap- 
tured bv the Iroquois, 431. 

Squakie Hill, N. Y., 101, 113, 431, 



Squaw Island, schooner "Huron" 
anchored near, 1761. 23. 

Squier. Rev. M. P., cited, 3 79- 

Stamford, Ont., 210. 211. 213, 215. 

Stanford. See Stamford. Ont. 

Stanwix. Fort. See Fort Stanwix. 

Starr, Elijah. 525. 

Starr, Flizabeth. See Jones, Mrs. 
Elizabeth Starr. 

Starr, Eunice, 170. 

Starr, John, t 70. 

Starr, Mrs. Rehecca (Hewitt), '2-. 

Steadman (Stedman), John and Philip, 
tradition concerning house at Ni- 
agara, 30-40. 

Stedman. John, house and riehts on 
Niagara portage, 44: his farm at 
Fort Schlosser the end of the Mile 
Strip. 536. 

Stedman. Philip. S6. 94. 

Steele, Oliver G., 607. 

Steinway & Co., 620. 

Stephen, A., 63. 

Stephenson, Alexander Semple, 340. 

Stephenson. James. 148, 379. 

Sterling, James, Niagara representa- 
tive of Livingston. Rutherford & 
Syme, 27; trading-post at Niagara 
portage, 36-45 ; partnership with 



Duncan and Porteous, 47, note 47- I 
48, 84. 

Sterling, \Vm. Alexander, Lord, 38, 
note, 39, note. 

Steuben Co., N. Y., 493. 

Stevens, Joseph and Anna, 174. 

Stevenson, Mrs. Jabez, 380. 

Stevenson, Mrs. James, 379. 

Stiles, Mrs. Philinda, 380. 

Stillson, Mr., 385. 

Stirling, Tames. See Sterling, Tames. 

Stone, Wm. L., "Life and times of 
Sa-go-ye-wat-ha, or Red Jacket" 
cited, 499, note; quoted; 508-509: 
"Life of Joseph Brant," cited, 86, 
379, 44°> note, 443. note; quoted, 

Stony Creek, 176. 

Storer, Charles, 497, note. 

Street, John, 488. 

Street, Samuel, 486. 

Street & Butler, 86. 

Strickland, Agnes, 384. 

Strickland, Edward D., 625. 

Strickland, Gen. Silas A., 384. 

Stringer, George A., address at dedi- 
cation of Buffalo Historical Society 
building, 607-609; reelected to 
board, 1903, 616. 

Strong, Indian chief, 540. 

Strong, Rev. Henry P., 137 and note. 

Strong, Rev. Paschal H., 137, note, 
279, 280, note. 

Stuart, Rev. John, 83. 

Stump foot, 489. 

Suicide among the Senecas, 245. 

Sullivan, Gen. John, destruction of 
Indian villages on the Genesee, 100, 
102, in, 125, 483; expedition men- 
tioned, 422, 441, 471; battle near 
Newtown, N. Y., 530-531. 

Summerville, James, 393, 395. 

Sumner, Charles, 628. 

Sundown, Mrs. Nancy, 380. 

Superior, Lake, first ship built, 18-19. 

"Surprize," privateer, 59. 

Sweeney, James, 616. 

Sweet Briar farm, home of Horatio 
Jones, near Geneseo, N. Y., 499, 
500, note, 504-505. 512, 513, 520. 

Sweezy, Mr., 211, 213. 

Swift, John, 502. 

Sword-carrier. See Sacarese. 

Table Rock, in 1804, 220. 

Tall Chief. See Tallchief. 

Tall Peter, 136, 148, 279, 379. 

Tall Peter, Mrs., 379. 

Tallchief, 103; his grandsons at last 

council on the Genesee, 114, 507; 

dines with President Washington, 

507; mentioned, 509. 
Tallchief, Jesse, 114. 
Tallchief, Lucy, 380. 
Tallchief, Nancy, 370. 
Tallchief, William; 114. 
Tanawantae Creek. See Tonawanda 

Tangier, quarantine regulations, 5-12. 
Tantawanta. See Tonnewanda. 

Ta-ya-da-o-woh-koh. See Jones, Hora 

Taylor, John, 174. 

"Teacher among the Senecas, A," 239 

Te-ka-re-ho-ge-a. See Kerr, Col. W. J 

Temple Hill Cemetery, Geneseo, N. Y. 

Temperance and intemperance among 
Indians, 168, 176-177, 216, 245, 479 

Tetuan, Leopold O'Donnell, duke of 
7, note. 

Thacksburgh, Rd. Letter to Sir Wm 
Johnson, 1762, quoted, 41. 

Thames, River, Canada, 186. 

Thay-en-da-na-ge-a (Thay-en-dan-ega 
ga-onh). See Brant, Joseph. 

Thayer, Mr., school at Cattaraugus 
34o, 363. 372. 

Thirty-Mile Creek, Ont., 212. 

Thomas, Abenego, 522. 

Thomas, John, 380. 

Thomas, Mrs. Mary Jones (Mrs. Abe- 
nego Thomas), 521, 522. 

Thomas Asylum, copy of Seneca hymn 
book found in cornerstone, 147. 

Thompson, Archibald, 210, 213. 

Thompson, John, 86. 

Thwaites, Reuben Gold, delivers ad- 
dress at dedication of Buffalo His- 
torical Society building, 609. 

Tilden, Dr. Jared Hyde, 622. 

Tioga Point, 442, 489; treaty at, 534- 

Tioga River, 171, 179, 404, 529 and 

Titus, John, 541. 

To-an-clo-qua, 391, 392, 4^7- 

Tobacco, at Detroit, 1779. 7&- 

Todd & McGill, 90. 

Tomahawk owned by Chief Mohawk, 
Maj. Van Campen, and Horatio 
Jones, 457-459 and note. 

Tommy Jemmy, 112. 

Tompkins, Gov. Daniel D., signs treaty 
with Senecas, 537. 

Tonawanda Creek, migration of Sen- 
eca Indians to, 101; cro??ed by Ja- 
cob Lindley, 1797- 177-178: by G. 
T. Hopkins, 1804, 222; by Horatio 
Jones, 1782, 438: Horatio 
braves the witches, 461-462: Hora- 
tio Jones' adventure near, 4Sr-.i Q ^. 

Tonawanda Reservation, school-master 
wanted, 141; land sold to Ogden 
Land Co., and afterward repur- 
chased, 160. 

Tonnewanda, Indian relisrious coun- 
cils. 257-259; first converts to Chris- 
tianity, 261, note, 269: opposition, 
267; request for a teacher, 285-200, 
296-207; Baptist school teacher 
driven out, 311-312; passed by Hor- 
atio Jones, 461. 

Tonnewanto Creek. See Tonawanda 

Tonnewanda (Tonewanto, Tonnewan- 
ta, etc., old Indian village), preach- 
ing by Mr. Hyde, 135; temperance 
movement, 16S; Jacob Lindley at, 
177-178, 190. 



Toronto, Rev. Robert Addison at, 214, 

Toronto Constellation, quoted, 80. 

To-ti-ac-ton, Seneca village, 9X. 

Townsend, George \\ ., 022, 623. 

To-yah-daoh-wok-go. See Jones, Hora- 

Treat, Mrs. Mary Thomas, 522. 

Treat. Rev. Richard, 52-'. 

Tromley, Lucy (Mrs. John Jones), 

Trout Run, 180. 

"Tryon," brig, 64-67. 

Tunno, John, 51, 53, 54, 70. 

Turkey, Aaron, 3S0. 

Turkey, Kelsey VV., 380. 

Turkey, George, 380. 

Turkey, Mrs. George, 380. 

Turkey, James, 3S0. 

Turkey, Mrs. James, 380. 

Turkey, John, 380. 

Turkey, Mrs. John, 380. 

Turkey, Joseph, 380. 

Turkey, Laura, 380. 

Turkevtown, Indian village near Sen- 
eca,' N. Y., 128. 

Turner, Orsamus, "Pioneer history of 
the Holland Purchase" cited, 488, 
note, 504, note. 

Turtle clan, 464. 

Tuscarora Indians, admitted to Iro- 
quois confederacy, 98, note, 114; in 
part neutral during Am. Revohition, 
100; missionaries and teachers sent 
to, 125-126; Tuscaroras visit Seneca 
mission, Buffalo Creek, 1818, 132, 
260; James Young and party at 
Tuscarora village, near Buffalo, 133- 
134; mission put in charge of Rev. 
T. S. Harris, 150. under control of 
A. B. C. F. M., 151; Quakers asked 
to send teachers to, 166-167; early 
missions to, 181-182; missionary 
work of Rev. Elkanah Holmes, 1S7- 
204; condition in 1800, 189-100; 
address of chiefs to X. Y. Mis- 
sionary Society, asking for a school, 
1800, 191-193; message to Senecas, 
1800, 195, 108; visited by Mr. 
Holmes and Rev. Lemuel Coved, 
1803, 211-213; visited by Rev. Jo- 
seph Avery, 1805. 22^-227; religion 
and civilization, 24S-250; "Narra- 
tive of Esther R. Low, 18 19-20," 
275-280; children sent to Buffalo 
mission school. 320. 330-331 ; Jour- 
nals of Rev. T. S. Harris: his mis- 
sionary labors. 1821-28, 281-378; 
clans, 415; friendly disposition, 
535; claim lands on the Roanoke, 


Tuscarora language, translation of the 
Lord's Prayer, in verse, 159. 

Twelve-Mile Creek. 177. 

Twenty Canoes, hears Mr. Alden 
preach at Buffalo Creek. 1818, 131. 

Twenty Canoes, Mrs. Eliza, 3S0. 

Twoguns, Daniel. 370. 

Twoguns, Henry, 148, 270, 379- 

Twoguns, Mrs. Henry, 380. 

Twoguns, Lewis, 312, 379. 

Twoguns, Mrs. Sally, 380. 
Two-guns, Young, 327-328. 
Tybee Island, Ga., 57-58. 
Tyson, Mrs. Martha E., 217, note. 

"Unicorn," ship, 52, 57. 

"L'nion," privateer, 59. 

United Foreign Missionary Society, 
organized, 137, 378, note; Seneca 
mission transferred to, 138; men- 
tioned, 143; merged in the Ameri- 
can Board of Commissioners for 
Foreign Missions, 151; dismissal ot 
J. B. Hyde, 273-274, note; J. C. 
Crane, general agent of Board of 
Managers, 330, note. 

United Foreign Missionary Society, 
commissioners sent to Buffalo and 
Cattaraugus, 339-340. 

United States, Consuls. Diplomatic 
controversy concerning schooner 
"Republican," 1-14. 

United States, Indian commissioners, 
conference with Indians at Buf- 
falo Creek, 18 19, 266-268; nego- 
tiations with the Six Nations, 17S4, 
468-470; conference of 1793 with 
western tribes, 494-497; councils 
and treaties, 1794-1797, 497-499; 
payment of annuities at Buffalo, 

United States, Navy, Secretary of CS. 
L. Southard), visit to Seneca Mis- 
sion, Buffalo Creek, 151. 

United States, War department, letter 
to Senecas commending mission at 
Buffalo Creek, 140; report of Sen- 
eca mission at Buffalo Creek, by T. 
S. Harris and Jas. Young, 1821, 
143-145; appropriation to support 
teachers among Indians, 1821, 285- 
286; Col. Proctor's mission to west- 
ern tribes, 1791, 488-492; aid in 
behalf of Ebenezer Allan's heir in- 
voked in vain, 493. 

"Universal Friend, The." See Wil- 
kinson, Jemima. 

Upper Canada, divided into four dis- 
tricts, 1788, 82; government organ- 
ized, 1792, 83. 

Upper Canada Gazette cited, 81. 

Upson, Asa, killed, 443. 

Valentine, George, 169. 

"Valeria," vessel, 14, note. 

"Yaliente." See Blanco del Yalle, 
Don Juan. 

Van Buren. Martin, proclaims the 
treaty of Buffalo, 160. 

Van Campen. Moses, adventures, 103- 
104; mentioned, 393; "Life" by J. 
N. Hubbard cited, 44°- note; cap- 
ture and escape from Indians. 440- 
445, 447; second capture and ex- 
change, 451-459; friendship with 
Horatio Jones. 505 and note. 

Wan Deventet , Mr., 20S. 

Van Duzce, Benj. C, information 
credited to. vote; printer at Seneca 
mission, Buffalo Creek, 158; re- 




moves with the press to Cattarau- 
gus Reservation, 160. 

Vaudreuil, Marquis de, 38. 

Vaughan patent, 47, note. 

Venango, Pa., 490. 

"Vengeance," British privateer, 47-71; 
formerly the "Elegante," 48-49; 
sails from New York, Jan., 1779, 
50; adventures and prizes, 50-63; 
attacked by the "Renown" ("Har- 
court"), 64-67; repaired, 67; last 
cruise, 68-71. 

Verona, N, Y., 224. 

Victor, N. Y., Indian village site, 99; 
Boughton's purchase, 480. 

"Victory," schooner, built, 30; fate, 

Vigo, Spain, schooner "Republican" 
sent to, 12-13. 

Vinton, Rev. Francis A., ms. record 
cited, 137 and note. 

Vroom, Catalina, 332. 

Wabash Indians, Big Tree goes to, 
1791, 487; Col. Proctor's mission 
to, 1791, 487-492. 

Wadsworth, James, 499, 505, 506. 

Wadsworth, Col. James of Durham, 
Conn., 505. 

Walker, Wm., 477-480. 

Wallace, Samuel, 180. 

Wallack, Michael, 393. 395- 

Walters, Mai. Wm., 22; ship-build- 
ing on Lake Erie; warned of In- 
dian plot to surprise Fort Niagara, 
1761, 35; complaint of Stirling's 
trading post at Little Niagara, 37-38. 

War of 1812, loyalty of Senecas to 
Americans, 108-109; invasion of 
Dec, 1813, and death of James and 
George Jones near Lewiston, 304. 

Warren, Elder Obed, visit to western 
N. Y. and Canada, 1803, 207-216. 

Warren, Joseph, 634. 

Washington, Gen. Geo., receives dele- 
gation of Seneca Indians, 1 790-1, 
486-487; Gen. Sullivan sent against 
the Iroquois, 100: Tall Chief en- 
tertained, 114; Blacksnake called 
"Governor," 114; the Senecas al- 
lowed to repossess their old terri- 
tory, 116; Friends' delegation to 
Sandusky. 1793, approved, 168; ad- 
vice to Tuscaroras as to investment, 
221; mentioned, 489; Col. Proctor 
sent with messages to the Six Na- 
tions, 491-492; commission to the 
Indians northwest of the Ohio, 179.V 
494-495; probable entertainment of 
Horatio Jones and Iroquois chiefs, 
507; appointment of Jasper Parrish 
interpreter for Six Nations. 534; 
bust by Pugi presented to Buffalo 
Historical Society, 619 and note, 
620, 621; the Washington room, 
same society, 620. 

Washington, Mrs, Mary, 620. 

Washington, Fort. See Fort Wash- 

"Washington." ship. See "George 

Watertown Historical Society "Col- 
lections" cited, 420, note; 434, note. 

Watson, James, 180. 

Watts, Rev. Isaac, "Go preach my 
gospel," translated into Seneca, 159". 

Wayne, Gen. Anthony, 91-92. 

Wayne, Anthony, 5^3. 

Wayne Co., N. Y., 493. 

Webster, Abram, 174. 

Wei land Canal, passage of schooner 
"Republican," 1; its part in trans- 
Atlantic trade of the Great Lakes, 
14, note. 

Welliner, Daniel, 441, 447. 

Wells, William H., 340. 

Wemp, interpreter, 479, 482. 

West Greece, Monroe county, 385. 

West Niagara. See Newark. 

Western Federation of Women's Clubs, 

Western Recorder cited, 379. 

Western Reserve, early missionaries 
at, 181. 

Wheelbarrow, John, 279. 

Wheeler, Catharine. See Bradley, 
Mrs. Catharine Wheeler. 

Wheeler, Joseph, 440. 

Wheeler, Fort. See Fort Wheeler. 

"Where the Heavens rest upon the 
earth." See Caneadea. 

Whitby, Ont., grant to Capt. Bernard 
Frey, 86. 

White, Hannah, 380. 

White, Henry G, 622. 

White, Dr. James P., 607. 

White, Seneca. See Seneca White. 

White, Susan, 380. 

White Chief ("Father White"), 136. 
148-149; his story and death. 156- 
157; mentioned, 279; his Christian 
faith, 360; in mission church regis- 
ter, 379. 

White Seneca, 136, 148, 156, 279, 379. 

White Seneca, Mrs., 380. 

"White woman of the Genesee." See 
Jemison, Mary. 

Whitford, O. IL, 622. 

Whitmore, Sarah. See Jones, Mrs. 
Sarah Whitmore. 

Whitmoyer, Ann. 447-448, 516. 

Whitmoyer, Catharine, 447-448, 5:6. 

Whitmoyer, George, 441; killed. 447. 

Whitmoyer, George, Jr., captured by 
Indians, 448-449, 516-517; released 

Whitmoyer, John, captured by In 
dians, 44S-449, 516-517; released 

Whitmoyer. Mary, captured by In 
dians, 448-449, 516-517; released 

Whitmoyer, Peter, captured by In 
dians, 44S-449, 516-517; released 

Whitmoyer, Philip, killed, 447. 

Whitmoyer, Sarah. See Jones, Mrs 
Sarah Whitmore. 

Whitney, Gen. Parkhurst, Eagle Tav 
ern, Niagara Falls, 277 and k^.'c*. 

"Who would have thought it," priva 
teer, 59. 




Wick, Rev. Wm., 181. 

Wicker, Fannie (Mrs. Homer Jones), 

Widener, Leonard, 477. 
Wilkeson, Miss Louise, 635. 
Wilkinson, J. P.., "Annals of Bing- 

hamton" cited, 443, note. 
Wilkinson, Jemima, "the Universal 

Friend," 171, 494. 
Williams, Mrs. Nancy (Levi), 380. 
Williamsburg, N. Y., 465, 499, 500, 

note, 510. 
Williamson, Judge, 171. 
Williamson, Hon. Joseph, 622. 
Willink, Wilhelm, 503-504. 
Wilmerding, Julia (Mrs. Floratio 

Jones), 525. 
Wilson, C. Townsend, 613. 
Wilson, James, "religious visit" to 

Friends in Canada, 169-180. 
Wilson, Mrs. Jenette, 379. 
Wilson, Nancy, 3S0. 
Wilson, Samuel, 379. 
Wilson, Mrs. Samuel, 379. 
Wilson, Wm., 496, note. 
Winne, Dr. Charles, 607. 
Witchcraft, an execution for among 

the Senecas in 1821, 112; belief in, 

Witches of the Tonawanda, 461-462. 
Witmer (W'hitmore), Peter, 515. 
Wolf, The, Indian, 409. 
Wolf clan, 386, 464. 
Wood, Joel, 182. 
Woods, George, 393. 
Woods, Lt. Harry, 393, 395. 
Woodward, Hannah (Mrs. William 

Hunter), 523. 
Wright, Rev. Asher, missionary to the 

Senecas at Buffalo Creek, 1 54-161; 

his character and life-work, 154: 

publishes extracts from the Revised 

Statutes of N. Y., 159; removes to 
j Cattaraugus Reservation, 161. 
I Wright, Mrs. Laura M. Sheldon, 128, 

note, 154-161. 
I Wright, Mrs. Martha Egerton, 154. 
j Wyandot Indians, conquered by the 
i Senecas, 264, note; at conference 

with L T . S. commissioners, 1793, 

496-497. 496, note. 
1 Wyllie. Hugh, 69. 
. Wyoming massacre, 100, 103, 113. 

I Yates Co., N. Y., 493. 

I Yeck-ah-Wak, 137, 280, note. 

! York. See Toronto. 

York Gazette quoted, 84. 
Yorke, Caht. Ldward, 68. 

■ apt 

Young, James, teacher at Seneca mis- 
sion, Buffalo Creek, 133-150; rept. 
to War dept. by T. S. Harris and 
James Young, 1821, 143-145; Sen- 
eca translation of hymns, 146-147, 
153. 159-160; mission broken up, 
150; Miss Low's account of mis- 
sion, 275-2S0; on register of Seneca 
mission church, 379. 

Young, James (Indian), 155. 

Young, Mrs. (James), 133-150, 275, 

Young King, 103; known by Orlando 
Allen, 118; sanctions Mr. Alden's 
preaching to Senecas, 130-131; at- 
tends service at mission, 136; pleased 
with work of the mission, 141, 290; 
joins the church, 155; first burial- 
place, 161; death of child, 306; 
aids missionaries to secure chil- 
dren's obedience, 347; in mission 
church register, 380; signs treaty 
at Buffalo, 537; annuity, 540. 
I Young King, Mrs, Lydia. 379. 
i Young Two-guns, ^27-2-8. 

Youn^stown, O., 181. 


F ' -US 

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